TM 5-818-8 Engineering Use of Geotextiles - WBDG .ENGINEERING USE OF GEOTEXTILES ... Geotextile Types

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  • ARMY TM 5-818-8AIR FORCE AFJMAN 32-1030

    TECHNICAL MANUAL

    ENGINEERING USE OF GEOTEXTILES

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED

    DEPARTMENTS OF THE ARMY AND THE AIR FORCE20 July 1995

  • TM 5-818-8/AFJMAN 32-l030

    REPRODUCTION AUTHORIZATION/RESTRICTIONS

    This manual has been prepared by or for the Government and,except to the extent indicated below, is public property and notsubject to copyright.

    Reprints or republications of this manual should include a creditsubstantially as follows: Joint Departments of the Army and AirForce, TM 5-818-8/AFJMAN 32-1030, Engineering Use of Geotex-tiles, 20 July 1995.

  • TM 5-818-8/AFJMAN 32-l030

    TECHNICAL MANUAL HEADQUARTERSNo. 5-818-8 DEPARTMENTS OF THE ARMYAIR FORCE MANUAL AND THE AIR FORCENo. 32-1030 WASHINGTON, DC, 20 July 1995

    ENGINEERING USE OF GEOTEXTILES

    CHAPTER 1 .

    2.

    3.

    4.

    INTRODUCTIONPurpose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geotextile Types and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geotextile Durability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Seam Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geotextile Functions and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GEOTEXTILES IN PAVEMENT APPLICATIONSApplications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paved Surface Rehabilitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Reflective Crack Treatment for Pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Separation and Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design for Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geotextile Survivability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design for Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FILTRATION AND DRAINAGEWater Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Granular Drain Performance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geotextile Characteristics Influencing Filter FunctionsPiping Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Other Filter Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Strength Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design and Construction Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED EMBANKMENT ON SOFT FOUNDATIONGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Potential Embankment Failure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Recommended Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Example Geotextile-Reinforced Embankment Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bearing-Capacity Consideration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RAILROAD TRACK CONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATIONGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Material Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Depth of Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Protective Sand Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Typical Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Special Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROLErosion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bank Erosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Precipitation Runoff Collection and Diversion Ditches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Miscellaneous Erosion Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sediment Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .REINFORCED SOIL WALLSGeotextile-Reinforced Soil Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Advantages of Geotextile-Reinforced Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Disadvantages of Geotextile- Reinforced Walls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design Procedure......................................................................

    Paragraph

    1-11-21-31-41-51-61-7

    2-12-22-32-42-52-62-7

    3-13-23-33 43-53-63-73-8

    4-14-24-34 44-5

    5.5-15-25-35 45-55-65-75-8

    6.6-16-26-36 46-5

    7 .7-17-27-37 47-57-67-77-8

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED

    Page

    1-11-11-11-11-21-21-3

    2-12-12-12-22 42 42-4

    3-13-13-13-13-23-33-43-4

    4-14-14-34-74-8

    5-15-15-15-15-25-35-35-3

    6-16-16-36-36-4

    7-17-17-17-17-17-27-37-3

    i

  • TM 5-818-8/AFJMAN 32-l030

    Paragraph Page

    APPENDIX A. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-l

    BIBLIOGRAPHY.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BIBLIOGRAPHY-l

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1-1 Dimensions and Directions for Woven Geotextiles. 1-21-2. Woven Monofilament Geotextiles Having Low Percent Open Area (Top), and High Percent Open 1-3

    1-3.1-4.1-5.1-6.1-7.1-8.2-1.2-2.2-3.2-4.2-5.2-6.3-1.4-1.4-2.4-3.4-4.5-1.6-1.6-2.6-3.6-4.6-5.6-6.6-7.7-1.7-2.

    Area (Bottom).Woven Multifilament Geotextile.Woven Slit-Film Geotextile.Needle-Punched Nonwoven Geotextile.Heat-Bonded Nonwoven Geotextile.Seam Types Used in Field Seaming of Geotextiles.Stitch Types Used in Field Seaming of Geotextiles.Geotextile in AC Overlay.Guidance for Geotextile Use in Minimizing Reflective Cracking.Relationship Between Shear Strength, CBR, and Cone Index.Thickness Design Curve for Single-Wheel Load on Gravel-Surfaced Roads.Thickness Design Curve for Dual-Wheel Load on Gravel- Surfaced Roads.Thickness Design Curve for Tandem-Wheel Load on Gravel-Surfaced Roads.Trench Drain Construction.Potential Geotextile-Reinforced Embankment Failure Modes.Concept Used for Determining Geotextile Tensile Strength Necessary to Prevent Slope Failure.Assumed Stresses and Strains Related to Lateral Earth Pressures.Embankment Section and Foundation Conditions of Embankment Design Example Problem.Typical Sections of Railroad Track with Geotextile.Relationship between Atterberg Limits and Expected Erosion Potential.Pin Spacing Requirements in Erosion Control Applications.Geotextile Placement for Currents Acting Parallel to Bank or for Wave Attack on the Bank.Ditch Liners.

    1-41-41-51-61-71-82-22-32-62-72-82-93-54-24-44-7

    Use of Geotextiles near Small Hydraulic Structures.Use of Geotextiles around Piers and Abutments.Sedimentation behind Silt Fence.General Configuration of a Geotextile Retained Soil Wall and Typical Pressure Diagrams.Procedures for Computing Live Load Stresses on Geotextile Reinforced Retaining Walls.

    5-46-26-36-46-56-66-66-77-27-4

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 2-1. Property Requirements of Nonwoven Geotextiles. 2-32-2. Construction Survivability Ratings (FHWA 1989). 2-42-3. Relationship of Construction Elements to Severity of Loading Imposed