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Fuel and Energy Abstracts is an international bimonthly journal published on behalf of the Energy Institute, London in January, March, May, July, September and November by Elsevier Ltd. Full text available on ScienceDirect 1 . Publication information: Fuel and Energy Abstracts (ISSN 0140-6701). For 2013, volume 54 (6 issues) is scheduled for publication. Subscription prices are available upon request from the Publisher or from the Elsevier Customer Service Department nearest you or from this journal’s website (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/fueleneab). Further information is available on this journal and other Elsevier products through Elsevier’s website (http:// www.elsevier.com). Subscriptions are accepted on a prepaid basis only and are entered on a calendar year basis. Issues are sent by standard mail (surface within Europe, air delivery outside Europe). Priority rates are available upon request. Claims for missing issues should be made within six months of the date of dispatch. Orders, claims, and journal inquiries: please contact the Elsevier Customer Service Department nearest you: St. Louis: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043, USA; phone: (877) 8397126 [toll free within the USA]; (+1) (314) 4478878 [outside the USA]; fax: (+1) (314) 4478077; e-mail: [email protected] Oxford: Elsevier Customer Service Department, The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK; phone: (+44) (1865) 843434; fax: (+44) (1865) 843970; e-mail: [email protected] Tokyo: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 4F Higashi- Azabu, 1-Chome Bldg, 1-9-15 Higashi-Azabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-0044, Japan; phone: (+81) (3) 5561 5037; fax: (+81) (3) 5561 5047; e-mail: JournalsCustomer [email protected] Singapore: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3 Killiney Road, #08-01 Winsland House I, Singapore 239519; phone: (+65) 63490222; fax: (+65) 67331510; e-mail: [email protected] Advertising information: If you are interested in advertising or other commercial opportunities please e-mail [email protected] and your inquiry will be passed to the correct person who will respond to you within 48 hours. Copyright: # The Energy Institute, London, 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of The Secretary, The Energy Institute, 61 New Cavendish Street, London, W1G 7AR, UK. ISSN 0140-6701 1 The paper used in this publication meets the require- ments of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). Printed in The Netherlands Volume 54 Issue 6 November 2013 (Formerly Fuel Abstracts and Current Titles); A bimonthly summary of world literature on all technical, scientific, commercial and environmental aspects of fuel and energy. Classified sections: 01 SOLID FUELS: Sources, winning, properties 526 Preparation 526 Transport, storage 527 Economics, business, marketing, policy 528 Derived solid fuels 528 02 LIQUID FUELS: Sources, properties, recovery 529 Transport, refining, quality, storage 531 Economics, business, marketing, policy 533 Derived liquid fuels 534 03 GASEOUS FUELS: Sources, properties, recovery, treatment 535 Transport, storage 536 Economics, business, marketing, policy 537 Derived gaseous fuels 539 LNG 540 Hydrogen generation and storage 540 04 BY-PRODUCTS RELATED TO FUELS 542 05 NUCLEAR FUELS: Scientific, technical 543 Economics, policy, supplies, forecasts 546 06 ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND UTILIZATION: Scientific, technical 548 Economics, policy, supplies, forecasts 552 07 STEAM RAISING: Boiler operation/design 556 08 COMBUSTION: Burners, combustion systems 557 Fire safety 559 09 PROCESS HEATING, POWER AND INCINERATION: Energy applications in industry 560 10 SPACE HEATING AND COOLING/HEAT PUMPS 563 11 ENGINES: Power generation and propulsion, electrical vehicles 570 Hybrid engine systems 572 Transport battery development 573 12 REFRACTORIES/CERAMICS: Properties, production, applications 575 13 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SUPPLIES: Biofuels and bioconversion energy 578 Geothermal energy 583 Solar energy 586 Wind energy 591 Others, including economics 594 14 FUEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Fundamental science, analysis, instrumentation 597 Fuel cell technology 603 15 ENVIRONMENT: Pollution, health protection, applications 607 CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 and particulate emissions 610 Hydrocarbon emissions 613 Life cycle analysis 613 16 ENERGY: Supplies, policy, economics, forecasts 615 Energy conservation 617 17 ENERGY CONVERSION AND RECYCLING 620 SUBJECT INDEX 623 AUTHOR INDEX 634

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Fuel and Energy Abstracts is an international bimonthlyjournal published on behalf of the Energy Institute, Londonin January, March, May, July, September and November byElsevier Ltd. Full text available on ScienceDirect1.

Publication information: Fuel and Energy Abstracts(ISSN 0140-6701). For 2013, volume 54 (6 issues) isscheduled for publication. Subscription prices are availableupon request from the Publisher or from the ElsevierCustomer Service Department nearest you or from thisjournal’s website (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/fueleneab).Further information is available on this journal and otherElsevier products through Elsevier’s website (http://www.elsevier.com). Subscriptions are accepted on aprepaid basis only and are entered on a calendar yearbasis. Issues are sent by standard mail (surface withinEurope, air delivery outside Europe). Priority rates areavailable upon request. Claims for missing issues should bemade within six months of the date of dispatch.

Orders, claims, and journal inquiries: please contact theElsevier Customer Service Department nearest you:St. Louis: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3251Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043, USA; phone:(877) 8397126 [toll free within the USA]; (+1) (314) 4478878[outside the USA]; fax: (+1) (314) 4478077; e-mail:[email protected]: Elsevier Customer Service Department, TheBoulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB,UK; phone: (+44) (1865) 843434; fax: (+44) (1865) 843970;e-mail: [email protected]: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 4F Higashi-Azabu, 1-Chome Bldg, 1-9-15 Higashi-Azabu, Minato-ku,Tokyo 106-0044, Japan; phone: (+81) (3) 5561 5037; fax:(+81) (3) 5561 5047; e-mail: [email protected]: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3Killiney Road, #08-01 Winsland House I, Singapore239519; phone: (+65) 63490222; fax: (+65) 67331510;e-mail: [email protected]

Advertising information: If you are interested inadvertising or other commercial opportunities please [email protected] and your inquiry will bepassed to the correct person who will respond to you within48 hours.

Copyright: # The Energy Institute, London, 2013 All rightsreserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form byany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording or otherwise, without the written permission ofThe Secretary, The Energy Institute, 61 New CavendishStreet, London, W1G 7AR, UK.

ISSN 0140-6701

�1 The paper used in this publication meets the require-ments of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).

Printed in The Netherlands

Volume 54 Issue 6 November 2013

(Formerly Fuel Abstracts and Current Titles);

A bimonthly summary of world literature on all technical, scientific, commercial andenvironmental aspects of fuel and energy.

Classified sections:01 SOLID FUELS:

Sources, winning, properties 526Preparation 526Transport, storage 527Economics, business, marketing, policy 528Derived solid fuels 528

02 LIQUID FUELS:Sources, properties, recovery 529Transport, refining, quality, storage 531Economics, business, marketing, policy 533Derived liquid fuels 534

03 GASEOUS FUELS:Sources, properties, recovery, treatment 535Transport, storage 536Economics, business, marketing, policy 537Derived gaseous fuels 539LNG 540Hydrogen generation and storage 540

04 BY-PRODUCTS RELATED TO FUELS 54205 NUCLEAR FUELS:

Scientific, technical 543Economics, policy, supplies, forecasts 546

06 ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND UTILIZATION:Scientific, technical 548Economics, policy, supplies, forecasts 552

07 STEAM RAISING:Boiler operation/design 556

08 COMBUSTION:Burners, combustion systems 557Fire safety 559

09 PROCESS HEATING, POWER AND INCINERATION:Energy applications in industry 560

10 SPACE HEATING AND COOLING/HEAT PUMPS 56311 ENGINES:

Power generation and propulsion, electrical vehicles 570Hybrid engine systems 572Transport battery development 573

12 REFRACTORIES/CERAMICS:Properties, production, applications 575

13 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SUPPLIES:Biofuels and bioconversion energy 578Geothermal energy 583Solar energy 586Wind energy 591Others, including economics 594

14 FUEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:Fundamental science, analysis, instrumentation 597Fuel cell technology 603

15 ENVIRONMENT:Pollution, health protection, applications 607CO2, NOx, SO2 and particulate emissions 610Hydrocarbon emissions 613Life cycle analysis 613

16 ENERGY:Supplies, policy, economics, forecasts 615Energy conservation 617

17 ENERGY CONVERSION AND RECYCLING 620SUBJECT INDEX 623AUTHOR INDEX 634