Charles I executed;
Henry VIII splits
What Was the Renaissance?
The Renaissance (French for rebirth) was a great
revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe.
It began in Italy in the fourteenth century and spread
across Europe to England over the next 100 years.
Interest in the classical learning of ancient Greece and
Rome was renewed.
The arts and sciences flowered.
The human spirit of curiosity and creativity seemed
Characteristics of the Renaissance
People read ancient Greek and Roman texts to
expand their understanding of the world.
A humanist philosophy spread, focusing on human life
in the present as well as on eternity.
Printing made books more widely available.
The wealthy, growing merchant class began to
challenge the power of the church and the nobility.
Scholarly Latin spread across Europe, aiding the
sharing of ideas across cultures.
The Renaissance and the Arts
Art flourished during the Renaissance. Church officials,
royalty, and wealthy families served as patrons to artists
Leonardo da Vinci (14521519)
A study for Leda and the Swan by
Leonardo da Vinci.
Humanism in the Renaissance
Humanists combined ideas from Latin and Greek
classics with traditional Christian thought to teach
people how to live and rule. They sought
to answer questions about lifeWhat is a good life?
and How do I lead a good life?
to use the classics to strengthen, not discredit,
Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More were two well-
known humanists who helped shape European
thought and history.
The Invention of the Printing Press
In the early 1450s Johannes Gutenberg, a German,
invented the printing press. His invention transformed
the way information and ideas were exchanged.
Books no longer had
to be copied by hand.
Books became more
The Protestant Reformation
began with Martin Luther in Wittenberg, Germany,
1517 and spread across Europe to England
Martin Luther believed that religion should be based on a
personal understanding of the Bible, not on the authority
of the Pope and his bishops.
gained momentum as the Catholic Church was
criticized for corruption
had a financial component in England, where the
English objected to the financial burdens placed on
them by the Vatican in Italy
Henry VIII (r. 15091547)
split the Church of England from the Roman Catholic
Church and declared himself head of the new church
had six wives
executed the humanist Thomas More
authorized creation of the Great Biblethe first official
English translation of the Bible to be used in the
Church of England
created the Royal Navy
The Reigns of Edward and Mary
Edward IV (r. 15471553)
son of Jane Seymour
crowned at age nine
smart but sickly
ruled only in name
died of tuberculosis at
Mary Tudor (r. 15531558)
daughter of Catherine of
restored power of Pope
and Catholic Church
called Bloody Mary
because she executed
hundreds of Protestants
Henry VIII was survived by three heirs; each ruled
England in turn.
Elizabeth I (r. 15581603)
daughter of Anne Boleyn
regarded as a brilliant and
reestablished Church of
never married; known as the
patron of the arts
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
In 1588 King Philip of Spain assembled the powerful
Spanish Armada and attacked England.
Englands Royal Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada.
The victory at sea was a
turning point in history. It
independence from the
powerful Catholic countries
of the Mediterranean.
Decline of the Renaissance
When Elizabeth died, she was succeeded by her
second cousin, James, the king of Scotland.
James I (r. 16031625) loved literature and drama. He
was a patron to Shakespeare and sponsored a new
translation of the Bible.
However, he was unable to resolve religious and
economic concerns, and his lavish dress and court life
offended pious and thrifty merchants.
Decline of the Renaissance
Charless troubles with the English Parliament
sparked the English Civil Wars (16421651), which
dissolution of the monarchy
flight of Charles II, his son and heir, to France
Charles I (r. 16251649) succeeded James I, his father.
Puritans in Power (16491660)
Puritans ruled England under the guidance of Oliver
Cromwell was a shrewd ruler who led England to
Puritans closed down theaters from 1642 to 1660.
Match the achievement to the Renaissance ruler.
_____________ established the Church of England,
separate from the Roman church
_____________ supported the arts but offended the
English with a lavish and costly lifestyle
_____________ united England so that it could achieve
military victory over Spain
Elizabeth I James I Henry VIII
What Have You Learned?