Throwing Phases

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  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases



  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases


    Flexion - Extension

    Abduction - Adduction

    Medial and lateral rotation

    (Internal and external rotation)

    Transverse abduction - adduction

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    6 main phases

    I. Wind upII. Early cocking

    III. Late cocking

    IV. Acceleration

    V. DecelerationVI. Follow-through

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    Begins at the start of movement and ends whenthe lead leg is maximally lifted

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    The coiling phase

    Potential energy is developed

    The center of gravity is raised

    No appreciable stress on the shoulder and elbow

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    front leg strides forward

    trunk rotation

    Center of gravity lowered

    shoulder abducted to 90,shoulder ext rotation,

    scapular retraction, andelbow flexion

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    The four rotator cuff musclesfire to hold the head of thehumerus within the glenoidfossa.

    Deltoid and supraspinatusproduce abduction

    Infraspinatus and teres minorinitiate external rotation andassist abduction

    trapezius and rhomboids retractthe scapula

    EMG : Early Deltoid, Late Cuff

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    This phase begins when the lead foot makes contact with the

    ground during the stride phase (early cocking ) and ends when thethrowing arm achieves its maximum external rotation

    Rotation of the hips and pelvis helps set up the rotation that willbe transferred to the torso and shoulders.

    Muscles acting at the shoulder and scapula position the glenoidfossa against the head of the humerus and stabilize the scapula.

    Specifically these include the levator scapula, serratus anterior,

    rhomboids, trapezius, and pectoralis minor.

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  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases


    The rotator cuff muscles maintain tension at this point

    to keep the head of the humerus stable

    inside the glenoid fossa.

    The internal rotators of the shoulder

    will develop tension to slow down

    and prevent excessive external rotation.

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    external rotation -EXTREME

    external rotationterminated by forces

    from anterior joint capsule

    & ligaments


    pectoralis major

    triceps brachii teres major

    latissimus dorsi

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    common injuriesresulting fromEXTREME externalrotation

    tendinitis ofsupraspinatustendon

    muscle strain ofpectoralis major,teres major, orlatissimus dorsi

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    This is the quickest phase of the throw.

    Starts just after the shoulder reaches maximumexternal rotation and ends when the ball is released.

    The internal rotators of the shoulder have beenstretched like a coiled spring during the previousphase. They shorten rapidly, assisted by this spring-like effect, and produce very rapid internal rotationof the shoulder.

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    characterized by

    initiation of elbowextension

    shoulder internal rotation

    maintenance of shoulder

    abduction at 90

    shoulder transverseabduction

    scapular protraction

    Humerus IR 100 deg / 0.5sec

    Eccentric to concentricconversion

    transverse abduction and

    internal rotation subscapularis,

    latissimus dorsi

    teres major

    pectoralis major

    scapular protraction serratus anterior

    elbow extension triceps brachii

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    Muscle contraction with movement

    muscle shortens or lengthen

    2 subtypes :

    Concentric : The muscle shortens during the contraction

    Tension Applied load

    Eccentric : The muscle lengthen during contraction

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    Starts when the ball is released and ends when

    maximum internal rotation of the shoulder isreached.

    The throwing arm is horizontally adducted andinternally rotated to the neutral or anatomical

    position and the scapula is protracted. Posterior muscles of the G-H Joint, especially

    the Teres Minor, slow down the movement atthe shoulder while the retractors of the scapula

    slow down the scapular protraction.

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    Begins when when the internal rotation of the

    shoulder ends and finishes when the throwerreturns to a balanced position.

    The arm deceleration process helps reduce theforce and therefore the stress on the joints andmuscles involved

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    This part of the movement is designed to extendthe time that it takes to come to a stop as well asdistribute the forces to the body and leg.

    The posterior muscles of the G-H Joint are very

    important to continue the deceleration processat the shoulder.

    The serratus anterior is very active in stabilizingscapular rotation while the rhomboids and the

    middle part of the trapezius continue to slowdown and reduce the force of scapularprotraction.

  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases


  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases


  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases


  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases


  • 7/29/2019 Throwing Phases