thinking language(1).ppt - MR. REYNOLDS LEARNING ... with thinking, ... Cognition can include reasoning, judgment, and ... Scientific practice: “If I’m

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  • PowerPointPresentationbyJimFoley

    2013 Worth Publishers

    Chapter9ThinkingandLanguage

  • Cognitionreferstomentalactivitiesandprocessesassociatedwiththinking,knowing,remembering,andcommunicatinginformation.

    Cognitioncanincludereasoning,judgment,andassemblingnewinformationintoknowledge.

    Cognitionalsosupportstheseotherpsychologicalprocesses:attention,emotion,consciousness,perception,learning,memory,language,mentalhealth,andsocialinteraction.

    Thinking,a.k.a.Cognition

  • PiecesofCognition:Concepts

    A conceptisamentalgroupingofsimilarobjects,

    events,states,ideas,and/orpeople,etc.

    Aconceptcanberepresented

    andcommunicatedbyanimage,orbyawordsuch

    aschair,party,or

    democracy.

  • TheUrgetoCategorize

    WhatwasthepercentageAsianinthisblendedCaucasian/Asianface?

    WhatwasthepercentageCaucasianinthesecondblendedface?

    Wetendtomoldour

    memoriesandperceptionstofitpreexistingcategories/concepts.

  • ProblemSolvingProblemsolvingreferstothethinkingwedoinordertoansweracomplex

    questionortofigureouthowtoresolveanunfavorablesituation.

    Strategiesfor

    arrivingatsolutionsinclude:

    trialanderror

    algorithms

    heuristics

    insight

    Trialanderrorinvolvestryingvariouspossiblesolutions,andifthatfails,tryingothers.Whenitsuseful:perfectinganinventionlikethelightbulbbytryingathousandfilamentsWhenitfails:whenthereisaclearsolutionbuttrialanderrormightmissitforever

    Analgorithmisastepbystepstrategyforsolvingaproblem,methodicallyleadingtoaspecificsolution.

    Aheuristicisashortcut,stepsavingthinkingstrategyorprinciplewhichgeneratesasolutionquickly(butpossiblyinerror).

    Insightreferstoasuddenrealization,aleapforwardinthinking,thatleadstoasolution.

  • ClarifyingProblemSolvingExamplesTofinda

    specificiteminasupermarket

    Trialanderror

    Algorithms

    Heuristics

    Wanderaroundasupermarketrandomlytofindit.

    Createamethodicalpathtomakesureyoucheckeverysingleaisle.

    Checkonlyrelatedaisles.

    Wherestheapplejuice?DoIlookoneveryshelfinthestore,ordoIsearchwherethereis

    similarstuff?

  • TrialandErrorvs.Algorithms

    TrialanderrorrandomlytryingdifferentcombinationsinnoparticularorderAnalgorithm(below)carefullycheckingeverysinglecombinationbeginningwiththeletterCbeforemovingontoadifferentstartingletter.

    Tosolveawordjumble,youcanuse:

    1.CLOOYSPHYG2.COLOYSPHYG3.COOLYSPHYG

  • Tosolveawordjumble,

    youcantryaheuristic.

    However,itwouldhelptouseshortcuts/heuristicstoreducetheoptionsweneedtotry,suchas:1. puttingaYattheend.2. thinkingaboutwheretheotherYcouldgo.3. tryingtheHprecededbyCandSandPbeforetryingothercombinations.4. speculatingthatwithsofewvowels,theOswillprobablynotbetogether.

    1.CLOOYSPHYGSPLOYOCHGYPSLOYOCHGYPSYCHOLOGY

    Theproblemwithusingtrialanderrortosolveawordjumbleisthatthereare782,200(10!/(2!*2!))differentwaystocombinethoseletters.Atleastwiththealgorithmmethod,youaresuretogetthroughthemallwithoutcountinganyofthemtwice.

  • Algorithms:NotJustThoroughnessAfatherandasonarecurrently40and10;whenwillthesonbehalfthefathersage?Itmightbetemptingtousetrialanderror,butalgebragivesusanalgorithm,asingle,certain,systematicpathtotheanswer:

    x=(x+30)2x=x+30x=30

    Answer:whenthesonis30,thefatherwillbeis60.

  • ThreeMethodsofProblemSolving

    Algorithmapproach:rectangleofunknownwidthArea=Widthtimeslength=Wtimeshalfofwhatsleftaftermakingthewidths,or(1002W).WecouldgraphallthedifferentWsandalltheareasproducedbydifferentvaluesforW,butinsteadoftrialandareawegraphedafunction,Area=Wx(1002W),orArea=50x x2,,whichmakesaparabola,shownattheleft.NoticethatatW=25,theareaisatamaximum,andlength =(1002(25))= 25also.

    Heuristic:asquareenclosesthemostarea

    Trialanderrorapproach:makealotofrectangles

    Problem:given100onefootlengthsoffence,constructarectanglethatenclosesthebiggestarea.

    DifferentvaluesforWidth

    Fore

    achwidth:TotalArea

    Maximumareaiswhenwidthis

    25,whichmeansallsidesare25

    (1002W)

    W W

  • InsightandtheBrainInonestudy,participantsmonitoredbyfMRIandEEGwereasked,whichwordwillformacompoundwordwiththewordspine,crab,andsauce?Whatthebrainsdidalongwiththeaha!ofgettingtheanswer:

    Insight:TheAhaMomentInsight referstoasuddenrealization,aleapforwardinthinking,thatleadstoasolution.Wesayahaandfeelasenseofsatisfactionwhenananswerseemstopopintoourminds.Wealsomaylaugh;jokepunchlinesrelyonsuddeninsight.

    1. extrafrontallobeactivity

    2. experiencingtheaha!momentandstatingtheanswer

    3. aburstofactivityinrighttemporallobe(shownhere)

  • ObstaclestoEffectiveProblemSolving

    Therearecertaintendenciesinhumancognitionwhichmakeitmoredifficulttofindcorrect

    solutionstoproblems.

    Fixation/mentalset

    Confirmationbias

    Heuristics(whichhelpsolveproblemsquicklybutcanleadtomistakenconclusions)

  • ConfirmationBias Confirmationbiasrefers

    toourtendencytosearchforinformationwhichconfirmsourcurrenttheory,disregardingcontradictoryevidence.

    Naturaltendency:IfImright,thenfactCwillconfirmmytheory.ImustlookforfactC.

    Scientificpractice:IfImright,thenfactDwilldisproveoratleastdisconfirmmytheory.ImustsearchforfactD.

    StudyingConfirmationBias:PeterWasonsSelectionTest

    1.Hegavethesequenceofnumbers2,4,6.2.Heaskedstudentstoguesshisrule,andaskhimwhetherothercertainnumbersfittherule.Theproblemwasnotthestudentstheory,buttheirstrategy.Ifyouthinktheruleisevennumbers,whatnumberswouldyouneedtoaskhimabouttoTESTratherthatCONFIRMyourtheory?

  • ConfirmationBiasTest

    Youaregiventhecardsbelow,thathavealetterononesideandanumeralontheotherside.Claim:ifacardhasavowelononeside,thenithasanoddnumberontheotherside.

    Whichtwocardswouldyouturnovertofindoutiftheclaimistrue?

  • MentalsetThetendencyto

    approachproblemsusingamindset(proceduresandmethods)thathasworkedpreviously.

    FixationThetendencytogetstuckinonewayofthinking;aninabilitytoseeaproblemfromanewperspective.

    OtherProblemSolvingHabits

  • MentalSet:Demonstration

    O,T,T,F,F,___,___,J,F,M,A,M,___,___,S,M,T,N,U,___,___,W,I,N,I,T,___?

    O,T,T,F,F,S,S(numbers)J,F,M,A,M,J,J(months)S,M,T,N,U,O,V,P,W,Q,X,RW,I,N,I,T,S?

    Ifyouareprimedtouseacertainproblemsolvingstrategy,youcanformamentalsetthatmakesithardertosolveanew,similarproblem.

    Whatisnextinthesesequences?

  • FixationProblem:howcanyouarrangesixmatchestoformfourequilateraltriangles?Whenpeoplestrugglewiththis,whatfixationisgoingon?Hint:whatassumptionmightbefixedintheirminds?

    Ourmentalset,perhapsfromourpastexperienceswithmatchsticks,assumeswearearrangingthemintwodimensions.

  • TheNinedotProblem

    Usefourstraightlinestoconnecttheninedots.Ifyoualreadyknowthesolution,letothersfigureitout.

  • TheNinedotProblem:Solution

    Solvingthisrequiresescapingfixationbythinkingoutsidethebox.Literally.

  • TheNinedotProblemCanyouuseonlyTHREEstraightlinestoconnecttheseninedots?

  • Intuition

    Thehumancognitivestyleofmakingjudgmentsanddecisionsismoreefficientthanlogical.

    Thequickacting,automaticsourceofideasweuseinsteadofcarefulreasoningisknownasintuition.

    Usingintuitiontomakeadecisionhassomedownsides,aswellsoonsee,butitalsohassomebenefits.

    MakingQuickJudgmentsandDecisions

    Aswithproblemsolving,therearementalhabitswhichmakeintuitionstylejudgmentssimplerandquicker,butmayleadtoerrors:1.theavailabilityheuristic2.overconfidence3.beliefperseverance4.framing

    Allofthesehabitsenableustoquicklymakehundredsofsmallgutdecisionseachday

    withoutbotheringwithsystematicreasoning.

  • TheAvailabilityHeuristic

    Weusetheavailabilityheuristicwhenweestimatethelikelihoodofaneventbasedonhowmuchit

    standsoutinourmind,thatis,howmuchitsavailableasamentalreference.

    Example: thinkingthatwinningataslotmachineislikelybecausewevividlyrecallthetimeswevewonbefore(thankstobells,lights,andflowingcoins)

  • WeightedAttention:WhyWeFeartheWrongThingsTheavailabilityheuristicmisleadsusaboutwhetheraplanerideoramotorcyclerideismoredangerous.Ofthemanyexperiencesavailable tousinformingourjudgments,wetendtogivemoreweighttosomeexperiencesthanothers.Weknowofbothplanecrashesandmotorcyclecrashes,buttheplanecrashesscareusmore,andstandoutmoreinthenewsandinmemory.Whydosomedangersstandoutmore?Perhapsbiologyornaturalselectionpredisposesustofearheights,lackofcontrol,andconfinementallofwhicharepartofourimageofaplaneride.

  • TheOverconfidenceError

    Examples:thinkingyoucanputoffworkandstillgetitdonewell

    thinkingyouhavetestmaterialmasteredwhenyouscanitanditfeelsfamiliar.

    Overconfidenceinjudgmentsreferstoourtendencytobemoreconfidentthancorrect.

    Weoverestimatetheaccuracyofour

    estimates,predictions,andknowledge.

  • BeliefPerseverance

    ErrorMymindismadeup;donotconfusemewiththefacts.Beliefperseveranceis thetendencytoholdontoourbeliefswhenfacingcontraryevidence.Weinterpretinformationinawaythatfitsourbeliefs.Wemightclaimthatthenewinformationiswrong,biased,orjustdoesntmakesense.Stereotypesaremaintainedbythiserror;peopleoftendisregardexamplescontradictingstereotypesbytreatingthenewinformationasmerelyanexception,andnotachallengetotherule.

    OvercomingBelief

    Perseverance Youcantcuresomeoneelseof

    beliefperseverance.Justtellingsomeonetherightinformationwontoverrideit;peoplefacingopposinginformationtendtobecomeMOREpolarizedintheirbeliefs.

    Instead,watchforthisinyourself.Takeopposingviewsandinformationseriously,alwaysassumingthatyoucouldbewrong.

  • IntuitionHowtouseit

    wellWhenitseffectiveHowitmay

    havebeenadaptive Wehaveseenthatincomplex

    situations,ithelpstousecarefulreasoningtoavoidmistakesmadebyintuitivejudgments.

    However,researchsupportstheideathatsometimesweneedtoletourunconsciousminddosomework.

    Incubationreferstothepoweroftakingabreakfromcarefulthinking,eventosleeponit,toallowleapsincognition.

    Judgingquicklywhattoeatandwhatmightkillusmighthavehelpedourancestorssurvivelongenoughtoreproduce.

    Thetimesthatourintuitionwasincorrectmaynothavebeenfatal;ifhumansavoidedallredplantsinsteadofpoisonousberries,theymighthavebeenhungry,butstillalive.

    Intuitioniseffectivewhenitisaproductofexpertise builtupfromtrialanderror;thishonesonesjudgmenttothepointofbeingmoreaccuratethanlogicalanalysis.

    Examples:knowingthesexofachick,makingadiagnosis,speedchess,quarterbackdecisions

    Themindsabilitytojudgeasituationfromexperienceismoreefficientthananystepbystepanalysis.

  • DoOtherSpeciesThink?

    Ifthinkingconsistsofunderstandingconcepts,includingwords,numbers,andqualities,then...manycreaturescanmemorizethenamesofmanyobjects.Parrotscanspeak thenames.birdscansort objectsbyshape,color,andtype.AlextheAfricanparrotcouldaddnumbers,andanswercomplexquestions suchaswhatcolorbigger?[Tellmethecoloroftheobjectthatisthebiggerofthesetwo.]

  • DoOtherSpeciesThink?

    Ifthinkingconsistsofsolvingproblemswithinsight,devisingbehaviorsthatwerenottrainedorrewarded,andputtingstrategiestogetherinnewcombinations,then...chimpanzeesdonotsay,Aha,butoneshowedsuddenleapsinproblemsolving.Afterputtingdownashortstickthatcouldnotreachafruit,hejumpedupsuddenlytousethatshortsticktoreachalongerstick.

  • UsesofLanguage

    Wecanhearaboutandunderstandphenomenawehaveneverexperienced.

    Wecanconnecttopeoplefaraway.

    Wecanmakeplansandhaveotherscarrythemout.

    Wecanknowwhatanotherpersonisthinkingmoredirectlythanjustbyobservingtheirbehavior.

    Wecanstoreinformation.

    Whatislanguagemadeof?Phonemes arethesmallestunitsofsound(vowelsandconsonants).Morphemesaretheunitsofmeaning,i.e.wordsandmeaningfulpartsofwordssuchassuffixes,prefixes).Grammarreferstotherulesforusingwords,includingsemantics,definitions,connotations,andsyntax(howtheorderofwordsmakesmeaning).

  • LanguageDevelopmentisanAmazingProcess Weacquiretheuseof10newwordsperday(onaverage)betweenages2and18.

    Childrenlearnthebasicgrammaroflanguagebeforetheycanadd2+2.

    Mostkidscanrecallwordsandmeanings,andassemblewordsintosentences,whilesimultaneouslyfollowingsocialrulesforspeakingandlistening.

    abbreviateabsorbentacceptaccessaccessibleaccessoryacousticsaccumulateadjustaerialaffectsalienallotmentallottedalreadyaltercationamassamendmentamorousancestoranecdoteangularanonymousantidoteantique

    Howdowelearnlanguage?LanguageDevelopment

  • Age(months) Talent/Behavior/Stage04monthsInfantis

    (notspeaking)

    Receptive language:associatingsoundswithfacialmovements,andrecognizingwhensoundsarebrokenintowords

    4months Productive language:babbling inmultilingualsoundsandgestures

    10months Babbling soundsmoreliketheparents/householdslanguage

    12months Onewordstage: understandingandbeginningtosaymanynouns

    1824months Twoword,telegraphic/tweetspeech:addingverbs,andmakingsentencesbutmissingwords(Seebird!Reebook?Gopark!)

    24+months,2+years

    Speakingfullsentencesand understandingcomplexsentences

    Howdowelearnlanguage?LanguageTalentsandStages

  • CriticalPeriods

    Accordingtoonestudywithimmigrants,beginningalanguagelatermadeithardertolearnthepronunciationandthegrammarofthesecondlanguage.

    Itisimportanttobeginappropriatelanguageexposure/educationearlysothatlanguagecentersofthebraincontinuetodevelop.

    Languagemightneverdevelopifnotbegunbyageseven.

  • Signlanguagehasthesyntax,grammar,andcomplexmeaningofanyspokenlanguage.

    DeafandBlindChildren

    Deafandblindchildrencanusecomplexadaptedlanguagesbyusingothersensesthatareheightened.

    Blindnesscutspeopleofffromthings;deafnesscutspeopleofffrompeople.HelenKeller

    Whathappensifadeafinfantsparentsdontusesignlanguage?Hint:criticalperiod

  • BrainDamageandLanguageExamplesofaphasia:havingtheabilitytospeakbutnotread,toproducewordsinsongbutnotinconversation,andtospeakbutnotrepeat;orproducingwordsinjumbledorder

    Aphasia: animpairmentintheabilitytoproduceorunderstandlanguage,usuallycausedbydamagetothebrain

    Brocasarea,inthelefttemporallobe

    Wernickesarea,lefttemporallobe

    DamagetoBrocasarealeadstodifficultyinputtingwordstogetherinsentencesorevenspeakingsinglewords,althoughapersoncansingasong.

    DamagetoWernickesarealeadstodifficultycomprehendingspeechandproducingcoherentspeech(noteasilymonitoringonesownspeechtomakesureitmakessense).

  • LanguageandtheBrainHowtoreadaword,steps1to5

    Remember:language

    functionsaredividedinthe

    brain.

  • Canotherspeciescommunicatewithusthroughlanguage?Washoethechimpanzeelearnedtouse245signstoexpresswhatshewantedornoticed.Fellowchimpanzeeslearnedsignsfromeachotherwithouttrainingandwithoutrewards.AdeafN.Y.TimesreportervisitedWashoeandsaid,IrealizedIwasconversingwithamemberofanotherspeciesinmynativetongue.

    DoOtherSpeciesUseLanguage? Receptive languagefor

    individualhumanwordsseemstoexistforafewspecies;dogscanfollowhundredsofcommands.

    Productive language:manyanimalshavewords:sounds,gestures,dances(bees)tocommunicateinformation,includingdifferentwordsfordifferentobjects,states,andplaces

  • Isthechimpsigningreallylanguage? Washoeseemedtocombinewordsinnewwaysto

    conveymeaning;Washoeusedthephraseapplewhichisorangeforanorange(fruit).

    Chimpsdonotpickupwordsaseasilyashumanchildren.

    Chimpwordproduction lackssyntax,butabonobocorrectlyunderstood makethedogbitethesnake.

    Signingbaby

  • Forexample,BenjaminWhorf(18971941)proposedthatbecausetheHopidonothavepasttenseformsforverbs,itishardforthemtothinkaboutthepast.

    Canyouthinkaboutsomethingthatyoudonothaveanamefor?Ifso,doesthatdisprovelinguisticdeterminism?

    Linguisticdeterminism:theideathatourspecificlanguagedetermineshowwethink

    LanguageInfluencingThought

  • LanguagesInfluenceonThoughtDoeslanguageshapeemotionsorreflectthem?

    SpeakinginJapaneseprovidesmanyextrawordsforinterpersonalemotionssuchassympathyandempathy,whichAmericansmighthavetroubledifferentiating.SpeakingEnglishgivesusmanywordsforselffocusedemotions,suchassadness.

    Dolanguagedifferencesshapepersonalitydifferences?Bilingualpeopleappeartohavedifferentpersonalityprofileswhend...

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