Thinking about Nigeria. Poverty Colonialism Oil curse Corruption Ethnic/religious cleavages Federalism Legitimacy. Ethnic/ Religious Cleavages. Ethnic groups : Hausa-Fulani (29%), Yoruba (21%), and Igbo(Ibo) (18%) Ijaw (10%) reside in the Niger delta area. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Thinking about NigeriaPovertyColonialismOil curseCorruptionEthnic/religious cleavagesFederalismLegitimacy
2Yr 2006Population, total (millions)144.7Population growth (annual %)2.4HDICPI.466 (151/177)1.6 (144/146)Life expectancy at birth, total (years)46.6Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)100.0Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)81.3GNI (current US$) (billions)103.3GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)640.0Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)3.93
Ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani (29%), Yoruba (21%), and Igbo(Ibo) (18%)Ijaw (10%) reside in the Niger delta area Ethnic/ Religious CleavagesReligious Cleavages: 50% Muslim (mainly in the north); 40% Christian (Anglicans, Baptists, Pentecostal), 10% other traditional. Importantly some tribes, such as Yoruba, while majority Christian, have sizeable non-Christian minoritiesRegional differences: North Muslim and underdeveloped; South Christian modern; Middle zone mixed religion4
Nigeria is a rentier state95% export revenues from oilSignificant foreign company Involvement (e.g., Shell, Chevron)Member of OPEC
The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) manages the state-owned oil industry.10Thinking about Nigeria - againKey questionsHow is the legacy of colonialism reflected in Nigerian politics?How has oil helped and hurt Nigeria?What role does ethnicity play in reinforcing the countrys difficulties?Why does Nigeria remain so poor?How have alternations between civilian and military regimes exacerbated Nigerias problems?
11Nigeria HistorySokoto Caliphate 1800 1900 north IslamicYoruba, Oyo, Ifo and Benin kingdoms in south1860 1945 British Colonial ruleIndirect rule/ warrant chiefs1945 1960 move to independenceIncreased inter-ethnic tensionsAnti-state sentiment
12History since Independence 1960First Republic parliament dominated by North1966 Military coup1967 1970 Biafran Civil War1975 another coup General Obasanjo sizes power1978-9 Second Republic new const. Federalism. Elections President Shagari1983 - 1993 Military Coup/1993 return to civilian rule Third Republic/ another coup!!1993 1998 General Abacha
Biafran War 1967 1970 1 million diedSecessionist attempt by southeastern tribes14Nigeria since Abacha1998 Abacha dies; General Adubakar brings back civilian rule; parties allowed to form again1999 Fourth Republic Obasanjo wins presidency; his party, Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) wins assembly as well2003 Pres. Obansanjo wins reelection2007 April President Umara YarAdua (Adua) elected. PDP.
15Political CultureMass political cultureElite cultureNon-electoral participationPolitical parties and electionsThe elections of 1999The elections of 2003The elections of 2007-The Elections of 2011 April16Political CultureUrban v. Rural; English v. non-EnglishEthnic/ religiousMilitary rule, corruption create apathyDemocratic value at odds with traditional views (esp. rural)Elite depend on government largessInterventionist statePrebendalism (ethnic-based clients)But more western democratic17Political ActivityLively press esp. in Fourth RepublicRadio, TV importantYouth movementsSome IGs Transition Monitoring Group monitored 2003 electionsCurrently press in anti-corruption modeAIDS a major challenge18Elections 4 since 1999Political Parties multi-party 2 majorPeoples Democratic Party (PDP) Obasanjo, Liberalization of economy, e.g., privatized telephone company; conservative on social valuesIn power since 1999All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP)Northern/ conservative associated with Abacha yearsAlliance for Democracy (AD)progressive19ExecutiveAmerican style president 4 y term2 term limitNational popular votePresident Umara YarAdua (PDP)April 2007 -2010 diedTradition of strong executive
YarAduaFulani, MuslimBusinessmanObasanjoYoruba, Christian,Former military20President Goodluck JonathanTakes over after Yar Aduas death, May 2010Wins presidential election April 2011
National Assembly of NigeriaHouse of Representatives360 members/ 4 y termsLast election April 2011First past the postSingle-member districtsPDP 223; ANPP 96
Senate109 members/ 4 y terms3 senators represent each of 36 states (plus one for capital Abuja)First past the postPDP 76; ANPP 2722
1996 37 States
1987 21 states
1963 - 4 regionsNigerian States - present23Public Policy - ChallengesDemocratizationHistory of strong executive: Obasanjos bid for 3rd term. Legislature challenging executiveCreation of INEC (Independent National Electoral Commission) 2002Since 1999 tradition of elections. How free??Relatively free press Active though restricted judiciaryEconomic development and structural adjustment policiesOil revenues Rentier stateDebt relief see Obasanjos 8/2000 letterPopulation growthPoverty and AIDS24Challenges cont.Legitimacy of governmentNorth v. SouthNational identity??Sharia law in the northNiger Delta violenceEvolving nature of federalismAddressing corruptionPrebendalism (client/patron networks/ ethnic based)
25Describe two features of the Nigerian political system that keep it from being considered fully democratic.