thinking about learning and memory

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thinking about learning and memory. Memory? Types of memory, CNS regions, memory impairments Learning? Models for learning. Memory Processing. if attended. Short-term Memory (STM) Limited capacity (7 items) can use chunking Brief duration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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thinking about learning and memoryMemory?Types of memory, CNS regions, memory impairments Learning?Models for learning

Memory Processingif attendedShort-term Memory (STM)Limited capacity (7 items)can use chunking

Brief durationCan be lost without rehearsal or with interference

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Memory Processingif attendedShort-term Memory (STM)Limited capacity (7 items)can use chunkingBrief durationcan be lost without rehearsal or with interference

Long-term Memory (LTM)more permanent storage

Consolidation - Process by which rehearsal of information in STM results in transfer to LTM

Memory Processingif attendedretrievalAmnesia refers to a failure to rememberAnterograde amnesia - difficulty in forming new memories for events that occur after a brain trauma

Retrograde amnesia - inability to recall events that occurred prior to a trauma

Amnesia can be temporary or permanent

Amnesia

Severe anterograde amnesia follows bilateral damage to the hippocampusHippocampal Damage and Amnesia

Surgery 1953 for debilitating epilepsybilateral removal of hippocampusconsequences: severe anterograde amnesiashort-term memory intactlong term memory prior to surgery intactmotor memories intactmedial temporal amnesia

H.M.

Declarative memory: memories available as facts, events, or specific stimuli

Nondeclarative memory: stimulus-response and motor memories that control behaviors at an unconscious level

Memory Processes

Hippocampal dependent

these can be true or falsePrefrontal Cortex-memory deficits planning, sequence of events

Cerebellummotor memories

Other CNS regions important for memory

amygdalapart of the limbic system; emotional memories

Alzheimers diseaseHippocampus has many cholinergic neuronsbasal forebrain area specifically affected by AD

Korsakoffs syndromesome other ways that memory can be affectedKorsakoffs syndromesevere anterograde amnesia with elements of confabulationconsequence of chronic alcohol abuselesions in a number of brain structures includingsome other ways that memory can be affected

ECS electroconvulsive shock

State dependent memories (and state dependent learning)some other ways that memory can be affected

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