THE ROLE OF SCHOOL-BASED EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN PROMOTING SCHOOL CONNECTEDNESS AMONG PUPILS OF SUNNY BROOKE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, GENERAL TRIAS, CAVITE
A Thesis Proposal presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the Eulogio Amang RodriguezInstitute of Science and Technology
In Partial Fulfillmentof the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Education
March 2015CHAPTER 1The Problem and Its Background
IntroductionStudents have been involved in student organizations for hundreds of years, beginning with the inception of secret societies and political groups. According to Guido-DiBrito and Bachelor as cited by Cameron and Randolph, (2008), student organizations and extracurricular activities play an especially critical role in leadership development where students learn, are tested, succeed, and sometimes fail. Although most students are primarily involved in study and classwork, involvement in student clubs and organizations are also common. Virtually all schools in the Philippines have offered a wide variety of campus activities and events that stimulate and encourage social, cultural, intellectual and recreational interactions by providing learning experiences outsider of the classroom. Involvement in extracurricular activities provides an important socialization experience for many students. These activities allows students to broaden their social networks and develop new peer relations; practice their social, physical, interpersonal, and intellectual skills; learn how to communicate effectively; and learn vital social norms (Barber et al. 2005).As the development of the well-rounded individual is a principal goal of extracurricular activities, the numerous experiences these activities afford positively impact students' emotional, intellectual, social, and inter-personal development. By working together with other individuals, students learn to negotiate, communicate, manage conflict, and lead others. Taking part in these out-of-the-classroom activities helps students to understand the importance of critical thinking skills, time management, and academic and intellectual competence. Involvement in activities helps students mature socially by providing a setting for student interaction, relationship formation, and discussion. Working outside of the classroom with diverse groups of individuals allows for students to gain more self-confidence, autonomy, and appreciation for others' differences and similarities.Students spent a significant amount of time in school, therefore school has a substantial impact on the social and academic development of young people. Students who feel like they are cared for and belong to their school have more success in school and have fewer problem behaviors in and out of school. This concept, best understood as school connectedness, is a powerful predictor in a variety of students health and academic outcomes. Although promoting school connectedness is important at every age, it is particularly vital during adolescence. As children develop, they rely less on their family for autonomy and more on extra-familial relationships such as those found with friends, at school, and through other experiences. Of major concern are statistics reporting that as children progress through school, they become increasingly disengaged. Furthermore, school connectedness is recognized by educators and school health professionals as an important factor in reducing the likelihood that adolescents will experience health-compromising behaviors (i.e., substance use, behavior problems, violence, and emotional distress) and increasing the likelihood of academic success. Therefore, schools and communities face the challenge of how to keep students connected and how to reconnect chronically disconnected students.Student involvement in extracurricular activities also positively impacts educational achievement. A considerable amount of research has examined the benefits of participation in campus activities. Researchers have found that youth who participate in extracurricular activities are more likely to: have better grades (Stephens & Schaben, 2002; Camp, 2001; Zaff, Moore, Papillo, and Williams, 2003); have higher standardized test scores (Holloway, 2000); have higher educational attainment (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005); and attend school more regularly. Students who are actively engaged are more likely to have higher educational ambitions than uninvolved students.Although involvement in campus activities is strongly encouraged by some parents and teachers, others pay little or no attention at all to campus activities. A number of people assume that regular involvement in student clubs and organizations may divert or distract students from serious academic work (Black, 2002 as cited by Yin & Lei, 2007). Thus, despite the call for integration of academic and extracurricular life and mounting evidence indicating the contributions of extracurricular activities to student psychosocial and cognitive development, extracurricular involvement is often considered unnecessary or secondary to academic involvement. Students who are frequently involved in campus events have relatively little time and energy for academic work because their psychic and physical time and energy are finite. Similarly, students who are intensely involved with academic work have relatively little time and energy to engage in various campus activities (Yin & Lei, 2007).The role of extracurricular activities in promoting student achievement and connectedness remains highly debatable through the present day. Research studies have shown that certain student organizations and extracurricular activities not only promote student achievement, but also increase general satisfaction with the academic experience (Clubs and Organizations, 2006; Campus Activities and Events, 2006). Such activities encourage social interaction and involve students in their campus community resulting in more positive relationship while in school.This research will be performed on the claim of fact that students campus involvement or participation in extracurricular activities are more connected and engaged in school than those not involved in these activities. This also aims to identify which type of extracurricular activities has the greatest influence on the school connectedness of the pupils. There is little current research examining the relationship between school-based extracurricular participation and school connectedness, and that lack of research is preventing a complete understanding of this complex relationship. Once this gap in the literature is addressed, schools may have the necessary evidence to demand an improvement or reintroduction of their extracurricular programs.
Theoretical FrameworkThe framework for the study was from two theoretical perspectives focusing on leading crowd hypothesis and social capital model.Brohs (2002) explanation for the effect of activity involvement on higher achievement involves the impact on their actions or frame of mind by those persons around an individual. In the leading-crowd hypothesis, sports participation offers students higher peer status that facilitates membership in the leading-crowd which comprised of the most popular students, the leading crowd disproportionately consists of high achievers. By this Broh (2002) asserted that the largest proportion of academically and future oriented students are drawn to and involved in activities, influencing students who may be less driven to high achievement. According to Broh, it is argued that by increasing social status, sports participation provides the student-athlete with membership in an academically oriented peer group that, in turn, facilitates higher academic performance. In extension, he noted that participation also benefits a students education by connecting them to parents, coaches, advisors, and teachers who are future oriented and promote high academic performance.Broh (2002) leans most heavily on the social capital model, to explain the benefits of extracurricular involvement as it operates through social networks. This theory on social capital explains the strong relationship between activity involvement and higher school engagement as an opportunity to accumulate sources of information and contacts through the formation of and membership in social networks. For this model, Beckett exemplified the family structure, which is a primary site of social capital followed by human capital which is further developed through activity involvement and plays vital roles in a childs educational success. The human capital refers to parents, teachers, coaches, and advisors while the social capital is the social interaction and networking created by being involved in extracurricular activities.Broh (2002) then argued that children who have well educated parents and are active in their childrens lives, have greater success in school. In effect, what participation in extracurricular activities does is to develop social capital through providing opportunities for greater social stimulation and interaction within the family among its members, thereby, strengthening the family unit. Beckett also noted another advantage as the creation of social networks that are extra-familial, acting as an extra and significant resource of social capital for the development of the student. Similarly, Fredricks et al. (2002), noted students identifying activity involvement as giving them an added opportunity to spend time with their family around a shared activity.Extracurricular activities are therefore described as being sources of social capital between the student, parent(s) and the school, which amplify the creation of intricate social ties between these three groups, resulting in the formation of social capital outside the family. Beckett goes on to explain the educational be