Thesis_the Role of School Based Extracurricular Activities in Promoting School Connectedness

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19THE ROLE OF SCHOOL-BASED EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN PROMOTING SCHOOL CONNECTEDNESS AMONG PUPILS OF SUNNY BROOKE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, GENERAL TRIAS, CAVITE A Thesis Proposal presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the Eulogio Amang RodriguezInstitute of Science and TechnologyIn Partial Fulfillmentof the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in EducationbyMarch 2015CHAPTER 1The Problem and Its BackgroundIntroductionStudents have been involved in student organizations for hundreds of years, beginning with the inception of secret societies and political groups. According to Guido-DiBrito and Bachelor as cited by Cameron and Randolph, (2008), student organizations and extracurricular activities play an especially critical role in leadership development where students learn, are tested, succeed, and sometimes fail. Although most students are primarily involved in study and classwork, involvement in student clubs and organizations are also common. Virtually all schools in the Philippines have offered a wide variety of campus activities and events that stimulate and encourage social, cultural, intellectual and recreational interactions by providing learning experiences outsider of the classroom. Involvement in extracurricular activities provides an important socialization experience for many students. These activities allows students to broaden their social networks and develop new peer relations; practice their social, physical, interpersonal, and intellectual skills; learn how to communicate effectively; and learn vital social norms (Barber et al. 2005).As the development of the well-rounded individual is a principal goal of extracurricular activities, the numerous experiences these activities afford positively impact students' emotional, intellectual, social, and inter-personal development. By working together with other individuals, students learn to negotiate, communicate, manage conflict, and lead others. Taking part in these out-of-the-classroom activities helps students to understand the importance of critical thinking skills, time management, and academic and intellectual competence. Involvement in activities helps students mature socially by providing a setting for student interaction, relationship formation, and discussion. Working outside of the classroom with diverse groups of individuals allows for students to gain more self-confidence, autonomy, and appreciation for others' differences and similarities.Students spent a significant amount of time in school, therefore school has a substantial impact on the social and academic development of young people. Students who feel like they are cared for and belong to their school have more success in school and have fewer problem behaviors in and out of school. This concept, best understood as school connectedness, is a powerful predictor in a variety of students health and academic outcomes. Although promoting school connectedness is important at every age, it is particularly vital during adolescence. As children develop, they rely less on their family for autonomy and more on extra-familial relationships such as those found with friends, at school, and through other experiences. Of major concern are statistics reporting that as children progress through school, they become increasingly disengaged. Furthermore, school connectedness is recognized by educators and school health professionals as an important factor in reducing the likelihood that adolescents will experience health-compromising behaviors (i.e., substance use, behavior problems, violence, and emotional distress) and increasing the likelihood of academic success. Therefore, schools and communities face the challenge of how to keep students connected and how to reconnect chronically disconnected students.Student involvement in extracurricular activities also positively impacts educational achievement. A considerable amount of research has examined the benefits of participation in campus activities. Researchers have found that youth who participate in extracurricular activities are more likely to: have better grades (Stephens & Schaben, 2002; Camp, 2001; Zaff, Moore, Papillo, and Williams, 2003); have higher standardized test scores (Holloway, 2000); have higher educational attainment (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005); and attend school more regularly. Students who are actively engaged are more likely to have higher educational ambitions than uninvolved students.Although involvement in campus activities is strongly encouraged by some parents and teachers, others pay little or no attention at all to campus activities. A number of people assume that regular involvement in student clubs and organizations may divert or distract students from serious academic work (Black, 2002 as cited by Yin & Lei, 2007). Thus, despite the call for integration of academic and extracurricular life and mounting evidence indicating the contributions of extracurricular activities to student psychosocial and cognitive development, extracurricular involvement is often considered unnecessary or secondary to academic involvement. Students who are frequently involved in campus events have relatively little time and energy for academic work because their psychic and physical time and energy are finite. Similarly, students who are intensely involved with academic work have relatively little time and energy to engage in various campus activities (Yin & Lei, 2007).The role of extracurricular activities in promoting student achievement and connectedness remains highly debatable through the present day. Research studies have shown that certain student organizations and extracurricular activities not only promote student achievement, but also increase general satisfaction with the academic experience (Clubs and Organizations, 2006; Campus Activities and Events, 2006). Such activities encourage social interaction and involve students in their campus community resulting in more positive relationship while in school.This research will be performed on the claim of fact that students campus involvement or participation in extracurricular activities are more connected and engaged in school than those not involved in these activities. This also aims to identify which type of extracurricular activities has the greatest influence on the school connectedness of the pupils. There is little current research examining the relationship between school-based extracurricular participation and school connectedness, and that lack of research is preventing a complete understanding of this complex relationship. Once this gap in the literature is addressed, schools may have the necessary evidence to demand an improvement or reintroduction of their extracurricular programs. Theoretical FrameworkThe framework for the study was from two theoretical perspectives focusing on leading crowd hypothesis and social capital model.Brohs (2002) explanation for the effect of activity involvement on higher achievement involves the impact on their actions or frame of mind by those persons around an individual. In the leading-crowd hypothesis, sports participation offers students higher peer status that facilitates membership in the leading-crowd which comprised of the most popular students, the leading crowd disproportionately consists of high achievers. By this Broh (2002) asserted that the largest proportion of academically and future oriented students are drawn to and involved in activities, influencing students who may be less driven to high achievement. According to Broh, it is argued that by increasing social status, sports participation provides the student-athlete with membership in an academically oriented peer group that, in turn, facilitates higher academic performance. In extension, he noted that participation also benefits a students education by connecting them to parents, coaches, advisors, and teachers who are future oriented and promote high academic performance.Broh (2002) leans most heavily on the social capital model, to explain the benefits of extracurricular involvement as it operates through social networks. This theory on social capital explains the strong relationship between activity involvement and higher school engagement as an opportunity to accumulate sources of information and contacts through the formation of and membership in social networks. For this model, Beckett exemplified the family structure, which is a primary site of social capital followed by human capital which is further developed through activity involvement and plays vital roles in a childs educational success. The human capital refers to parents, teachers, coaches, and advisors while the social capital is the social interaction and networking created by being involved in extracurricular activities.Broh (2002) then argued that children who have well educated parents and are active in their childrens lives, have greater success in school. In effect, what participation in extracurricular activities does is to develop social capital through providing opportunities for greater social stimulation and interaction within the family among its members, thereby, strengthening the family unit. Beckett also noted another advantage as the creation of social networks that are extra-familial, acting as an extra and significant resource of social capital for the development of the student. Similarly, Fredricks et al. (2002), noted students identifying activity involvement as giving them an added opportunity to spend time with their family around a shared activity.Extracurricular activities are therefore described as being sources of social capital between the student, parent(s) and the school, which amplify the creation of intricate social ties between these three groups, resulting in the formation of social capital outside the family. Beckett goes on to explain the educational benefits of the social capital that exist outside the family as distributing information and resources and serve as an extra source of social control for the development and guidance of the student. This framework of social relationships reinforces and develops compliance, trust, school norms, and values. Therefore, activity involvement is a support mechanism to assist parents in the raising of their children. This closely resembles the ancient African proverb that it takes a village to raise a child. Activities can make life easier for children and parents by creating a network of friends, family, and neighborhood.Conceptual FrameworkTo operationalize the leading-crowd hypothesis and social capital model, this study is designed to determine the relationship between extracurricular participation and school connectedness of intermediate pupils from Sunny Brooke Elementary School. To provide a clear conceptual understanding of the variables that will be used in this study, the framework is translated into input-process-output model shown in Figure 1.FEEDBACKINPUTSA. Demographic profile of selected intermediate pupils from Sunny Brooke Elementary School Age Gender Grade levelB. Extent of participation of intermediate pupils in school-based extracurricular activitiesC. Level of school connectedness of intermediate pupils in school-based extracurricular activitiesPROCESSA. Descriptive-correlational Research Design using a survey methodologyB. Statistical analysis of data Test of relationship between demographic profile and level of school connectedness Test of relationship between extent of extracurricular participation and level of school connectednessC. Interpretation and Analysis of resultsOUTPUTProposed Plan of Action to Enhance School Connectedness of Public Elementary School PupilsFigure 1. The Conceptual ParadigmThe conceptual framework that will be used in the study is the Input-Process-Output Model. In the IPO model, a process is viewed as a series of boxes (processing elements) connected by inputs and outputs. The IPO model will provide the general structure and guide for the direction of the study. Substituting the variables of this study on the IPO model, the researcher came up with the following:As shown in Figure 1, the INPUTS that will be considered for this study includes: 1) the demographic profile of selected intermediate pupils from Sunny Brooke Elementary School; 2) the extent of participation of intermediate pupils in school-based extracurricular activities; and 3) the level of school connectedness of intermediate pupils in school-based extracurricular activitiesThe PROCESS refers to the methods that will be used to answer the problems posed in this study which involves the application of descriptive-correlation research design using a survey methodology; the statistical analysis of data testing the relationships between demographic profile and level of school connectedness, and between extent of extracurricular participation and level of school connectedness; and finally, the interpretation and analysis of results.The OUTPUT of the study is the desired end-goal of the research work itself to propose a Plan of Action to enhance school connectedness of public elementary school pupils.Statement of the ProblemThe main research question of this study is whether pupils who participate in extracurricular activities during their elementary years are more connected than their peers who were not involved in such activities. In other words, schools invest in support of extracurricular activities in an effort to foster student engagement; therefore, it is also necessary to assess if such intervention actually enhances students connectedness. Specifically, this study will seek answers to the following research questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of intermediate pupils in Sunny Brooke Elementary School in General Trias, Cavite in terms of age, gender, grade level?2. What is the extent of participation of intermediate pupils in school-based extracurricular activities?3. What is the level of school connectedness of selected pupils from Sunny Brooke Elementary School?4. What is the significant relationship that exists between the pupils' demographics such as age, gender and grade level and their level of school connectedness? 5. What is the significant relationship that exists between the extent of participation of pupils in school-based extracurricular activities and their level of school connectedness?6. What plan of action can be proposed to enhance the school connectedness of selected pupils of Sunny Brooke Elementary School?HypothesesThe hypotheses that will be raised and tested are:Ho1. There is no significant relationship between the pupils' demographics such as age, gender and grade level and level of school connectedness of pupils.Ha1. There is a significant relationship between the pupils' demographics such as age, gender and grade level and level of school connectedness of pupils.Ho2. There is no significant relationship between the extent of participation of pupils in school-based extracurricular activities and their level of school connectedness.Ha2. There is a significant relationship between the extent of participation of pupils in school-based extracurricular activities and their level of school connectedness.Scope and Limitations of the StudyThe scope of this investigation will focus on the relationship between pupils involvement in extracurricular activities and their level of school connectedness as well as the relationship between pupils demographics and their level of school connectedness. The participants of this study will include 100 intermediate pupils from Sunny Brooke Elementary School in General Trias, Cavite comprising of 50 pupils who are involved in school-based extracurricular activities and 50 pupils who are not. The study will be conducted between March 2015 and October 2015. Data will be gathered with the use of self-report survey questionnaire.One of the limitations of this study is that the subjects may not represent a representative sample of pupils involved in extracurricular activities in public elementary schools in General Trias. The researcher expects the sample size to be large enough to be able to make generalizations among pupils at Sunny Brooke Elementary School. Moreover, uncontrolled circumstances, such as students intellectual capacity and effort, family background and school facilities also may have affect students level of school connectedness. The choice to use a single school also brings with it several limitations, including the possibility that the school is not representative of the public elementary schools in Cavite. Most importantly, the study will only show correlation evidence and not causal evidence linking extracurricular participation with school connectedness.Significance of the StudyThe results of this study will add to the body of literature regarding the value of extracurricular activities in promoting school connectedness among students. This study is significant to the following:The Students. Findings of the study will increase the awareness of students on the value of extracurricular activities in their academic life particularly in promoting their connectedness to school. This could motivate students to participate in extracurricular activities that bring increased benefits to their academic life. The Parents. The information that will be obtained from this study could be used by parents in understanding how their childs involvement in extracurricular activities affects his/her interest and performance in school. This will hopefully enable parents to support the extracurricular activity that are suitable for their children, those activities that promotes physical, emotional, social, and cognitive skills to the children that participate.The Teachers. This study hopefully will provide valuable information to the teachers to assess whether or not the extracurricular activities that students choose and their nature of involvement to these activities have an effect on their connectedness to school. This can be used as basis and guide in the provision of appropriate support to students in choosing the appropriate activities that will promote positive academic outcomes. The School Administrators. The school administrators may also gain from this study since they will have clear insights on what effects do extracurricular activities have on students. It is quite important that they are aware of the positive and negative effects of extracurricular activities to be able to assist the students as well as parents so that they can become more effective in their approach to their studies and extracurricular activities. Likewise, this will provide educators with information to assist their elementary students in making more informed choices in their school programs.The Department of Education. The findings can be used by the Department of Education as basis in the provision and development of appropriate guidelines and policies in the elementary level on the extracurricular or campus activities that will promote school connectedness. The Future Researchers. Finally, the future researchers could use the results of this study as reference material for related studies.Definition of TermsFor the purposes of readers to have a common understanding of terms that are used in the study, the following word or phrases are defined operationally based on how these terms are used in this study:Extracurricular activities refer to activities that are voluntary (i.e., not required for school) and involve some structure, that is, where students participation occurs within a system involving constraints, rules, and goals. They are high structured activities characterized by regular participation schedules, rule-guided engagement, direction by one or more adult activity leaders, an emphasis on skill development that is continually increasingly in complexity and challenge, activity performance that requires sustained active attention, and clear feedback on performance. For this study, extracurricular activities will be limited only to school based activities.Demographic profile refers to personal characteristics of the respondents which include age, gender, and grade level. Pupils / Students refer to elementary pupils of Sunny Brooke Elementary School in General Trias, Cavite enrolled for the school year (SY) 2015-2016. They will serve as the respondents for this study.School connectedness refers to the extent to which students feel personally accepted, respected, included and supported by others in the school social environment. It is a psychological state of belonging in which students perceive that they and other students are cared for, trusted, and respected by collections of adults that they believe hold the power to make institutional and policy decisions. Moreover, connectedness is conceptualized as something not merely received but reciprocated as well.CHAPTER 2Review of Related Literature and StudiesThe purpose of this study is to examine the association between students involvement in school-based extracurricular activities and school connectedness. A current gap in the research prevents a complete understanding of the relationship between these two variables; therefore, this study aims to bridge this gap. In this chapter, the concepts of extracurricular activity, extracurricular involvement and school connectedness are explored. Second, previous studies on the relationship between students extracurricular involvement and school connectedness are presented. In the final section of this chapter, the synthesis of the literature and studies is presented. Local Literature There are many schools in the Philippines today that provide a plethora of extracurricular activities. Some occur before school, some after school, and a few may even take place on the weekends. While some parents are a bit dubious about their children participating in extracurricular activities, these activities actually bring with them many benefits. Allowing the child to get involved in extracurricular activities at school is a wise choice, and it can be very important in helping them to develop many working skills, people skills, and more. While a few activities is a great idea, there is a point where one needs to draw a line. One great benefit of students being involved in extracurricular activities is that they will learn about time management and prioritizing things in their life. As adults, they will get very used to juggling a variety of different tasks and commitments. Students need to learn how to do this as well, and getting involved in these activities can give them some practice at it. Getting involved in extracurricular activities also allows students to get involved in diverse interests. It is important for the students to be very diverse in their interests. These activities allow them to explore various interests that they may have.Students learn about long term commitments when they are involved in extracurricular activities as well, which is another excellent benefit. When he joins one of the activities or clubs, they commit themselves to that activity for a period of time. If they do not hold up to their end of the deal, no doubt they will hear about it from their peers and perhaps even teachers. Learning to take on commitments is important, and these activities can teach the child this important lesson.Extracurricular activities allow the child to make a contribution in some way. It shows that they are getting away from just thinking about themselves and contributing to something else. This is important in their growth as a person.Many times, being involved in extracurricular activities helps to raise the self-esteem of students. There are many teens that feel worthless or that there is nothing they are good at. Students struggle with self-esteem, and these activities are a way that they can build self-esteem. Everyone wants to find something that they are really good at, and extracurricular activities provide them with a way that they can get involved in something and really shine, giving their self-esteem a boost.The student will have the benefit of building solid relationship skills as well when they get involved in extracurricular activities. Students need to get involved in social activities and learn how to appropriate act in social situations and these activities give them a chance outside of school to do this, while they are still being supervised by adults. While there are many excellent benefits to extracurricular activities for students, they also need to consider how much is too much. Getting involved in a few different activities can be a great choice, and is definitely beneficial, but too many activities can end up having negative effects. Students involved in too many activities often end up having academic problems, or they may not get the rest and recreation that they need. Some kids feel like they have to be involved in many activities to be a success, and this is not beneficial to them. It is important that kids do not try to "do it all," but that they have a passion and commitment to a few activities, which definitely builds character.Foreign LiteratureDuring childhood and adolescence, a significant amount of time is spent in school(Brown & Evans, 2002), therefore school has a substantial impact on the social and academic development of young people. Students who feel like they are cared for and belong at their school have more success in school and have fewer problem behaviors in and out of school (Brown & Evans, 2002). This concept, best understood as school connectedness, is a powerful predictor in a variety of health and academic outcomes (Whitlock, 2006).The activities that occur outside the regular classroom and within school campus are called extracurricular activities. These activities can encourage the development of skills and interests that are not fully nurtured during the school day. Involvement in campus activities provides students the opportunity to explore interests that can enrich their lives. It allows the student to explore possible career choices in sports, journalism, theatre, music or other activities. The activity might turn into a lifelong love or hobby. It might simply enhance ones enjoyment for some other aspects of life as one goes on to love concerts, watch ballgames, or read magazines with a deepened appreciation (Dentemaro & Kranz, 2003).School-based extracurricular activities involve regular participation, schedules, rules, direction from adults, sustained attention, feedback on performance, and opportunities for skill development (Darling et al., 2005). Sports teams, fine arts activities, and school organizations (e.g., student government), represent the prominent areas of school based extracurricular activities. Being involved in campus activities benefits the students in their social development. These social benefits point toward the social interaction between the students. Being involved in after school activities is fun. It is nice to find an activity that the kids like and enjoy and brings a smile to their faces. Its also a time to socialize and to meet new friends. During the activity the child learns cooperative behavior and also learns sportsmanship. A child needs to learn how to win as well as lose, and how to succeed as well as fail. One needs to know how to accept a situation where he or she has no control. A child also learns flexibility and adaptability through mastering skills and becoming a good sport. One of the most important social benefits of being involved in extracurricular activities is that it boosts a childs self-esteem and confidence. Having children involved in extracurricular activities can enhance their school experience. The number one principle is to have fun. It gives the child a positive and worthwhile experience in extracurricular involvement that will lead him on the path of a happy and fulfilled academic journey through school and beyond (Brooks, 2000).Extracurricular activities are a unique setting where adolescents engage in activities both emotionally and cognitively. These activities create an environment where adolescents are actively involved in constructing personal change (Dworkin et al., 2003). Furthermore, extracurricular activities are a way to create shared community within the school by giving academically gifted students and academically challenged students the opportunity to excel within a variety of school environments and settings (Darling et al., 2005).Participation in school activities provides an opportunity for youth and peers to form a positive connection with the school, its faculty, and values that may be otherwise unavailable (Mahoney, 2000). While participation in school-based activities can benefit all students, these activities can be particularly important for students who do not identify or are new to their school. Involving these students in campus activities may enhance their connectedness with school, which may lead to positive academic and psychosocial outcomes (Gilman et al., 2004). School engagement also takes time away from risky opportunities, provides learning in constructive activities, and increases the possibility to establish positive social networks. School connectedness has been defined in different ways, but common indicators include liking school, a sense of belonging at school, positive relations with teachers and friends at school, and an active engagement in school activities (Thompson, Iachan, Overpeck, Ross, & Gross, 2006, p. 379). School connectedness is the feeling of belonging and acceptance in your school environment (Bonny et al., 2000), and a students interest, emotional involvement, and motivation to learn in school (Klem & Connell, 2004). Having a strong sense of connection to school is related to positive outcomes including increased school success (Brown & Evans, 2002), and decreased risky behaviors (Bonny et al., 2000). Despite its widespread appeal, empirical evidence supporting the relationship between school connectedness and adolescent development is limited and there is little understanding of why some adolescents feel connected while others do not (McNeely, 2002, 2005). The construct of school connectedness is referred to by several terms including school engagement, school bonding, school involvement and school attachment (Libbey, 2004). Although each term shares similar components of sense of belonging, liking school, and teacher supportiveness, the lack of a consistent definition and method of measurement creates little theoretical consistency among the connectedness-related terms(Libbey, 2004). In addition, because research on school connectedness spans numerous fields including medicine, education, psychology, and sociology, there is no clearly defined empirical base from which to conduct research (Blum, 2005).School connectedness is recognized by educators and school health professionals as an important factor in reducing the likelihood that children will experience health-compromising behaviors (i.e., substance use, behavior problems, violence, emotional distress) and increasing the likelihood of academic success (Blum, 2005). Therefore, schools and communities face the challenge of how to keep students connected and how to reconnect chronically disconnected students (Blum, 2005).According to Gilman and colleagues (2004), the benefit of participation in extracurricular activities is twofold in that as students have more positive school experiences, participation in extracurricular activities increases, and as participation increases, so do feelings of school satisfaction. The impact of participating in school-based activities potentially can lead students to feel more connected to the social fabric of their school, thereby facilitating school identity and ultimately preventing dropout.Local StudiesVery limited studies have been conducted on the relationship between extracurricular participation and school connectedness of students. One study conducted by Paraiso (2011) revealed that sports/athletics is the most popular co-curricular activity among Grade IV pupils in Maragondon, Cavite while media and governance are the least participated by pupils. Grade IV pupils in Maragondon, Cavite are actively engaged in co-curricular activities. They usually spend an average of less than five hours a week when participating in co-curricular activities. Substantial evidence was found that the type of co-curricular activity engaged in by the pupils significantly influenced their academic performance. Pupils who did not participate and pupils involved in sports/athletics performed poorly as far as grades are concerned while pupils involved in academic clubs, governance and media organizations had better academic achievement. This shows that participation in academic clubs, governance and media organizations promotes academic achievement. Except for sports/athletics, pupils who participate in co-curricular activities benefit academically. (b)The length of time that pupils spend in co-curricular activities did not have any effect in their academic performance. This suggests that those who spend more time or less time in co-curricular activities have generally similar academic performance.Foreign StudiesParticipation in extracurricular activities has been shown to improve connectedness among students and is often identified as a primary way to encourage school connectedness (Brown & Evans, 2002). As extracurricular involvement is a malleable factor that can be encouraged and promoted in schools (Bonny et al., 2000), it is often targeted by prevention and intervention strategies aimed at promoting school connectedness (Bonny et al., 2000). Participation in extracurricular activities provides students with an opportunity to learn about themselves and their social environment (Dworkin, Larson, & Hansen, 2003).Creating a school environment that promotes school connectedness is the outcome of efforts by school officials, administrators, teachers, and health professionals (Blum, 2005). Recent researchers examining the relationship between school connectedness and four developmental supports (meaningful roles at school, safety, creative engagement, and academic engagement) suggest that students feelings of being cared for, trusted, and respected at school are influenced by a variety of experiences, pressures, and relationships in the school environment (Whitlock, 2006). These researchers identified two variables that affect school connectedness independent of the demographic and context variables gender, race, extracurricular participation, and grade level (Whitlock, 2006). The two variables are having an opportunity to provide meaningful input into school policies and practices, and the extent to which students are engaged in class material (Whitlock, 2006). In addition, finding ways to promote attachment to school versus simply enforcing zero-tolerance policies is more effective in reducing school violence (Shochet et al., 2006).Research of Akos (2006) demonstrates a host of negative student outcomes associated with the transition to middle school. The investigation reveals that participation in multiple extracurricular activities relates to academic achievement and school connectedness. The results of Akos study indicate that GPA, students feelings of connectedness, and to some degree, perception of positive aspects of the school transition are related to participation in extracurricular activities. In addition to achievement, psychosocial adjustment and in particular, students feelings of connectedness and perceptions of positive aspects following a transition into middle school were also moderately related to participation in extracurricular activities. According to research done by Connell, Halpern-Felsher, Clifford, Crichlow, and Usinger (2005), engaged students reported more positive perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness in the school setting than did students who were less engaged. Furthermore, students (especially high-risk students) involved in school extracurricular programs were less likely to drop out of school and be involved in delinquent activity (Mahoney, 2000).In their research, Bonny, Britto, Klostermann, Hornung, & Slap (2000) identified gender, race, cigarette and alcohol use, and extracurricular involvement as factors associated with school connectedness. Among these factors are some that are fixed and unchanging while others have the potential to be influenced in ways that will improve a students connection to school. It is for this reason that researchers in the field of school connectedness began by differentiating between malleable and fixed factors.However, some research has indicated that playing team sports results in greater involvement with drinking alcohol and getting drunk through the high school years (Eccles & Barber, 2003). This same research goes further to explain that students who participate in team sports liked school better, were more likely to attend and graduate from college, and was predictive of having a productive job at age 24 (Eccles & Barber, 2003). Overall, extracurricular activities are known to encourage prosocial behaviors, increase engagement with school, promote interaction with non-parental adults, and develop personal strengths (Gilman et al., 2004). Furthermore, they help build resilience in adolescents who are at higher risk for adjustment problems (Darling et al., 2005).Synthesis of Related Literature and StudiesThe literatures contained in this chapter focus on research findings on the role of extracurricular involvement of students in promoting school connectedness. Extracurricular activities are discretionary activities that are physically or mentally stimulating to the individual and contain some structured parameters that occur outside the regular classroom such as: sports/athletics, governance, academic clubs, performing arts, media and volunteering/service-related activities. Evidence from the literatures has examined the benefits of children and youth participation in extracurricular activities. Researchers have found that children who participate in extracurricular activities provide them with opportunities to develop social and practical skills, a sense of competence, of worth, perform better on cognitive and verbal tests, have higher self-esteem, and have a stronger connectedness to school than children who do not take part in these activities. Moreover, various scholars concluded that for students involved in extracurricular activities, participation is positively linked to academic performance or achievement.The researcher will examine the findings of these scholars to lend empirical support to the findings of the current study.CHAPTER 3MethodologyResearch DesignA descriptive correlational research design utilizing a quantitative method shall be used in this study. According to Creswell (2008), a descriptive study is consists of a set of gathered data or information, which were analyzed, summarized and interpreted along certain lines of thought for the pursuit of a specific purpose or study. The purpose of correlational research is to determine the relations among two or more variables. Data are gathered from multiple variables and correlational statistical techniques are then applied to the data. In this study, this design is chosen as it would provide the relationship between respondents extracurricular participation and school connectedness as well as the relationship between respondents demographics and school connectedness shall be used in this study. Population and SamplingThe population from which the respondents will be selected is comprised of intermediate pupils from Banaba Central Elementary School from Grades IV to VI enrolled as of SY 2015-2016. The participating pupils will comprise of three grade levels: Grade IV, Grade V, and Grade VI. These grade levels have been chosen in this study because retrospective research has shown that extracurricular involvement is most frequently remembered from approximately 1013 years of age, which indicates the significance of extracurricular experiences and their influence on people in this age group. Purposive sampling technique will be used in the recruitment of participants. The purposive sampling technique, also called judgment sampling, is the deliberate choice of respondents due to the qualities the informant possesses. It is a nonrandom technique that does not need underlying theories or a set number of respondents. Simply put, the researcher decides what needs to be known and sets out to find people who can and are willing to provide the information by virtue of knowledge or experience (Creswell, 2002). For this study, purposive sampling will be applied in the selection of 100 respondents. Fifty of the intermediate pupils will be purposively selected based on their involvement in different extracurricular activities within school campus while the other 50 pupils will be purposively selected based on their non-participation in extracurricular activities during the SY 2015-2016.Respondents of the StudyThe study respondents will consist of intermediate pupils from Sunny Brooke Elementary School in General Trias, Cavite enrolled as of SY 2015-2016. A total of 100 pupils will be purposively selected as the study participants comprising of 50 pupils who are involved in extracurricular activities and 50 pupils who are not involved in extracurricular activities. Table 1 shows the distribution of respondents for this study. Table 1Distribution of respondents by Grade levelExtracurricular participationPercentageInvolvedNot involvedTotal Grade IV16163232Grade V17173434Grade VI17173434Total5050100100Research InstrumentA survey instrument prepared by the researcher will be used to gather the necessary data. The instrument is intended for the intermediate pupils of Sunny Brooke Elementary School in General Trias, Cavite.The survey instrument contains three parts which include the following: Part 1- Demographic Background; Part 2 School Connectedness Scale and; Part 3- School-based Extracurricular Participation.Demographic Information Demographic information will be gathered from self-reported information. Respondents will be asked to indicate their age, gender and grade level. School Connectedness Scale. School Connectedness will be assessed by the modified version of Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM). The PSSM is an 18-item scale developed for use students (Goodenow, 1993). The PSSM includes items that address both perceived liking (e.g., I feel like a real part of this school) and respect and encouragement for participation (e.g., Other students in this school take my opinion seriously). Items on the PSSM are responded to using a 5-point Likert-type format, with choices ranging from not at all true (0) to completely true (4). School-based Extracurricular Participation. The modified version of The instrument involved a list of possible extracurricular activities where participants indicated if they participated in each activity and reported the number of hours per week they participated in each school-based extracurricular activityValidation of the Instrument A pilot testing of the survey instrument will be conducted among ten pupils who are not included in the sample to check the reliability of the questionnaire. The main purpose of pilot testing is to identify potential problems with the methods and to identify and amend problematic questions and refine the questionnaire. This is to ensure that the questions are understood by the respondents and there are no problems with the wording or measurement. Face and content validity will be secured via a panel of experts who will judge the survey instruments appearance, relevance and representativeness of its elements based on the problems posed in the study. The panel of experts will be composed of the thesis panel members from EARIST with expertise in the area in which the instrument will be used for measurement.Data Gathering Procedure Prior to gathering of data, permission to conduct the study will be secured from the principal of Sunny Brooke Elementary School in General Trias, Cavite. Thereafter, the researcher will secure permission to conduct the study from the Schools Division Superintendent. Once permission is granted, the teachers of the respondents will be notified of the study.The questionnaires will be administered to the respondents from August to October 2015. Respondents will complete the questionnaire in approximately 20 minutes. The researcher will administer the paper and pencil questionnaire in groups of 10 participants. Prior to completing the questionnaire, participating pupils will be given a brief summary of the purpose of the study and will then be asked to complete the questionnaire. The pupils will be informed that by completing the questionnaire, they are providing their consent to participate.Statistical Treatment of DataData that will be collected from the demographic portion of the survey, the School Connected Scale and School-based Extracurricular Participation questionnaire will be scored and categorized. Descriptive statistical analysis will be used to gain a better understanding of the data gathered. Firstly, descriptive statistics in the analysis of research questions 1, 2 and 3, such as: demographics of the respondents, the extent of participation of the respondents in school-based extracurricular activities and the level of school connectedness of the respondents.Secondly, chi-square tests will be performed to verify the research hypotheses as per research questions 4 and 5. The chi-square test will assess whether significant relationship exists between the respondents demographics and their level of school connectedness. The same test will be applied to examine if significant relationship exists between the extent of participation of respondents in school-based extracurricular activities and their level of school connectedness. The significance level will be set at 5 percent. Finally, interpretation and discussion will be conducted based on the results of the analysis which will highlight the critical relationships concerning this study.REFERENCESAkos, P. (2006). Extracurricular participation and the transition to middle school. Research in Middle Level Education, 29(9), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC.Blum, R.W. (2005). A case for school connectedness. Educational Leadership, 62, 16-20.Bonny, A. E., Britto, M. T., Klostermann, B. K., Hornung, R. W., & Slap, G. V. (2000). School disconnectedness: Identifying adolescents at risk. Pediatrics, 106, 1017-1021.Broh, B. A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of Education 75(1): 69-91.Brooks, A. L. (2000). A study of the relationship between the increased growth and development of elementary students when participating in extracurricular activities and the adaptations that parents, schools, and communities make to meet these after school needs. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Master of Science Degree with a Major in Education, The Graduate School, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI.Brown, R., & Evans, W. P. (2002). Extracurricular activity and ethnicity: Creating greater school connection among diverse student populations. Urban Education, 37, 41-58.Canover, K. (2006). Want to do better in school? Try listening to Mozart or studying Monet. Christian Science Monitor, Vol. 88, Issue 227, p. 10.Connell, J., Halpern-Felsher, B., Clifford, E., Crichlow, W., & Usinger (2005). Hanging in there: Behavioral, psychological, and contextual factors affecting whether African-American adolescents stay in high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 41-63.Creswell, J. W. (2002).Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches.Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Creswell, J. W. (2008). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? The ANNALS, 591, 13-24.Darling, N., Caldwell, L. L., & Smith, R. (2005). Participation in school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37, 51-76Dentemaro, C & Kranz, R. (2003). Straight talk about student life. New York: Facts on File, Inc.Dworkin, J.B., Larson, R., & Hansen, D. (2003). Adolescents accounts of growth experiences in youth activities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 17-26.Eccles, J. S., Barber, B. L., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 865-889.Gilman, R., Meyers, J., & Perez, L. (2004). Structured extracurricular activities among adolescents: Findings and implications for school psychologists. Psychology in the Schools, 41(1), 31-41.Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79-90.Haug, N. S. & N. D. Wright. (2001). Erasing the guilt. Hawthorne, New Jersey: Career Press.Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74, 262-273.Libbey, H.P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: Attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. Journal of School Health, 74, 274-283.Mahoney, J.L., & Stattin, H. (2000). Leisure activities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of structure and social context. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 113-127.McNeely, C. (2005). Connection to school. In K. A. Moore, & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish?: Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development. New York: Springer.McNeely, C. A., Nonnemaker, J. M., & Blum, R. W. (2002). Promoting school connectedness: Evidence from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Journal of School Health, 72, 138-146.National Clearinghouse on Families & Youth (2006). Positive youth development. Retrieved from, A.A. (2011). Types of co-curricular activities and extent of involvement as related to the academic performance of grade IV Pupils in selected private and public elementary Schools in Maragondon, Cavite. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Philippine Christian University, Dasmarias, Cavite.Prince, C. J. (2000). Getting kids to tune in early to musical instruments. Christian Science Monitor, 92(146), 20.Schochet, I. M, Dadds, M. R., Ham, D., & Montague, R. (2006). School connectedness is an underemphasized parameter in adolescent mental health: Results of a community prediction study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 170-179.Thompson, D. R., Iachan, R., Overpeck, M., Ross, J. G., & Gross, L. A. (2006). School connectedness in the health behavior in school-aged children study: The role of student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics. Journal of School Health, 76, 379-386. Whitlock, J. L. (2006). Youth perceptions of life at school: Contextual correlates of school connectedness in adolescence. Applied Developmental Science, 10, 13-29.Appendix 1 QUESTIONNAIREA SURVEY OF PARTICIPATION IN SCHOOL-BASED EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES AND SCHOOL CONNECTEDNESSInstructions1. You have the option not to write your name or any identifying information on this survey.2. Please remember that your participation is completely voluntary.3. Please completely fill-in each of the questions you choose to answer.Part I DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE 1. Name: (optional)__________________________________________________2. Age: ___________3. Gender:( ) Male( ) Female4. Grade level:( ) Grade IV( ) Grade V( ) Grade VIPart II SCHOOL CONNECTEDNESS SCALEInstruction: The following are some statements about your school. Please answer how true you feel each statement is in your school by checking the corresponding column that most describes your honest answer using the rating scale below:5 = Completely True of me4 = True of me3 = Sometimes True of me2 = Untrue of me1 = Completely Untrue of meSchool Connectedness Statement543211. I feel like a real part of this school. 2. People here notice me when I am good at something.3. It is hard for people like me to be accepted here. 4. Other pupils in this school take my opinion seriously.5. Most teachers at this school are interested in me. 6. Sometimes I feel as though I dont belong here. 7. Theres at least one teacher or other adult at this school that I can talk to if I have a problem.8. People at this school are friendly to me. 9. Teachers here are not interested in people like me. 10. I am included in lots of activities at this school. 11. I am treated with as much respect as other pupils.12. I feel very different from most other pupils here.13. I can really be myself at this school. 14. The teachers here respect me. 15. People here know I can do good work. 16. I wish I were in a different school. 17. I feel proud of belonging to this school. 18. Other students here like me the way I am. Part III SCHOOL-BASED EXTRACURRICULAR PARTICIPATIONInstruction: Think about this school year. Which of the following extracurricular activities, which are offered at your school, did you or are you participating in? On average, how many hours per week were you involved in each activity. Please check the column corresponding to the answer that most describes your response. ACTIVITYInvolvementExtent of ParticipationYesNo1-2 hrs3-4 hrs5-6 hrs7 hrsor moreNotAvailableStudent government / Student council (leadership)SportsBaseball/SoftballBasketballSoccer/FootballSwimming TennisTrackVolleyballGymnastics Other sports, specify belowAcademic ClubsBook clubComputer clubDebate teamFuture Farmers of the PhilippinesHistory ClubMath ClubScience ClubOther academic clubsPerforming ArtsTheatre / DramaPhotographyBand/ Music/Play musical InstrumentPainting/Pottery/ Sculpture/ Mosaic classesDanceChorus or choirOther creative endeavors, specify belowMediaSchool newspaper writingYearbook preparationLiterary journalOther media organizations, specify belowThank you for your support and participation.


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