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    The Waste Land(1922)

    T. S. Eliot

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    Purpose of The Waste Land

    To convey the souls and civilizations

    sense of emptiness, confusion, and

    aimlessness after WWI

    To provide a means of regeneration for the

    soul and civilization

    To revitalize poetry

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    Objective Correlative

    The only way of expressing emotion in the

    form of art is by finding the objective

    correlative, in other words, a set of objects,

    a situation, a chain of events which shall be

    the formula of that particular emotion; such

    that when the external facts, which must

    terminate in sensory experience, are given,the emotion is immediately evoked.

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    The Objective Correlative

    The waste land is the situation that

    signifies human despair and fear of

    death

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    Premise of The Waste Land

    We need to accept that all wars are one war,

    all battles are one battle, all journeys one

    journey, all rivers one river, all rooms oneroom, all loves one love, and ultimately, all

    people one person.

    All of the specific examples of these thingsin the poem are in every case representative

    of their kind.

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    The Meaning of The Waste Land

    convey the state of post-war civilization and

    the soul through the heap of broken

    images

    transcend the ego by identifying with the

    continuity of significant tradition, of the

    inherited wisdom of the human race

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    External Sources

    Biographical and historical background

    The collective vision

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    The Waste Land: Biographical and Historical

    ContextsModern Aimlessness

    T. S. Eliot Post-war society

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    Biographical Context

    met Ezra Pound, who introduced him to

    several modernist poets

    married Vivien Haigh-Wood

    worked at Lloyds Bank

    had a nervous breakdown; recuperated in

    Margate and Lausanne, Switzerland

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    Historical Context: WWI

    had laid the battlefields to waste

    had spiritually scarred soldiers and the

    population at large

    had physically weakened populations,

    enabling the Spanish flu to kill over 50

    million people

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    The Waste Land: Regeneration

    Carl Jung

    The Golden Bough

    From Ritual to RomanceThe Tarot

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    Carl Jungs Collective Unconscious

    the unconscious inherited wisdom of therace

    contains all of the images, archetypes, thathave ever given rise to myths

    archetypes, to be of value, must be recreated

    in collaboration with the consciousintelligence into a process of orderedgrowth, of transformation

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    Jungs Archetypes of

    Transformation refers to the integration of the personality

    occurs with the detachment from the world

    of objective reality as the center of

    experience and the finding of a new

    dimension in which to live

    involves the death of an old pattern of lifeand the birth of a new

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    Jungs Archetypes of

    Transformation During the process of transformation, certain

    archetypical images occur, forming a continuity

    and an interaction of symbols expressing thedisintegration and death of the old pattern and the

    gradual emergence of the new.

    After the transformation, the center of the

    personality shifts from the ego to a point ofequilibrium between the individual consciousness

    and the collective psyche.

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    Jessie L. Weston:From Ritual to

    Romance (1920) an attempt to explain the roots of the legend of the

    Holy Grail

    enumerates the seemingly inexplicable elements ofthe quest--The Fisher King, The Wasteland, theChapel Perilous, and the Grail Cup itself

    ties them to the symbols and initiatory rites of the

    ancient mystery religions whose common sourcewere the vegetation rituals and fertility rites

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    The Legend: The Curse

    concerns a land which has been blighted by

    a curse so that it is arid and waterless,

    rendering it infertile linked with the plight of a ruler, the Fisher

    King, who as a result of an illness or a

    wound has become sexually impotent

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    The Legend: The Curse

    removed when a Knight appears who must

    ask the question as to the meaning of the

    Lance and the Grail the lance which pierced Christs side at the

    Crucifixion

    The cup from which Christ and the disciplesdrank at the Last Supper

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    The Legend: Other Versions of the

    Curse removed when Knight asks why this curse

    has taken place

    removed when the Knight undertakesvarious ordeals, culminating in that of the

    Chapel or Cemetery Perilous

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    James Frazer: The Golden Bough:

    A Study of Magic and Religion

    (1890-1915) reads a bit like a novel that touches on

    almost anything

    explores the roots of mythology, folklore,magic, and religion from the far East, thenear East, Africa, Europe, America andmore

    shows the parallels between these andChristianity

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    Significance of The Golden Bough

    Its thesis is that ancient religions were fertility

    cults that centered around the worship of, and

    periodic sacrifice of, a sacred king, the incarnationof a dying and reviving god, a solar deity who

    underwent a mystic marriage to a goddess of the

    earth, and who died at the harvest and who was

    reincarnated in the spring. It claimed that this legend was central to almost all

    of the world's mythologies.

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    Significance

    The golden bough is a reference to a mystical tree in aGreco-Roman myth.

    In the ancient tale the hero Aeneas consults the prophetess who is

    one of the Sybil at Cumae. The Sybil tells Aeneas to break a branch from a certain tree that is

    sacred to Juno Inferno.

    Then Aeneas is led to the entrance of the Underworld that hedescends.

    Aeneas approaches the Stygian lake that Charon will not ferry himacross because he is not dead.

    The Sybil who accompanies Aeneas then produces a golden boughthat allows Aeneas entrance into the Underworld.

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    The Tarot

    Based on similarities of the imagery and

    numbering, some associate the Tarot with

    ancient Egypt. The pack of cards was used to forecast the

    rising and falling of the waters of the Nile.

    Cards were used to control the sources oflife.

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    The Form of The Waste Land

    fragments of human experience of the

    present moment

    allusions to the significant tradition of thepast

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    The Form

    The Mythical Method

    The Labyrinth

    FilmCollage

    The Kaleidoscope

    Alchemy

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    The Mythical Method

    The presentation of experience in symbolic

    form

    The creation of a pattern that brings humanbeings into significant relationship with

    mysterious forces outside the actualities of

    daily life

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    Alchemy

    an early protoscientific practice combining elements ofchemistry, physics, astrology, art, semiotics, metallurgy,medicine, and mysticism

    most well-known goal was the transmutation of any metalinto either gold or silver

    the mythical substance, the Philosophers Stone,believed to be an essential ingredient in this goal

    goal of alchemy was really a metaphor for a spiritualtransformation of the self

    when reading a book on alchemy, the reader must read"over" the words to figure out the way to followdecoding the secret text to discover its true meaning

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    Labyrinths

    still being used throughout the world as

    meditative and healing tools

    suggest going on a pilgrimage to discoversomething about ourselves and God

    implies losing ones way and having to start

    from the beginning all over again

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    Labyrinths

    Release of distracting cares as you move toward

    the center and let your mind gradually quiet

    Receptivity to whatever illumination you receiveas you pause in the center for prayer or meditation

    Rejoining the world with your renewed vision or

    refreshed spirit as you follow the path outward

    again.

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    Kaleidoscope

    The kaleidoscopeis a tub