The status of Russian German in Siberia. A Case Study of Three Women Living in the Region of Krasnoyarsk (East Siberia, Russia) Christiane Andersen Department

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The status of Russian German in Siberia. A Case Study of Three Women Living in the Region of Krasnoyarsk (East Siberia, Russia) Christiane Andersen Department of Languages and Literatures University of Gothenburg, Sweden Slide 2 Map of Russia Saratov at the river Volga and Krasnoyarsk in Siberia http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Russia 2 Slide 3 Language map of the Volga German Mother colonies by Georg Dinges, ca. 1922 3 Slide 4 Map of the Volga Republic Basic map from 1925 4 Slide 5 The study of German dialects in Russia German dialects in Siberia Nordbairisch Altai Oberhessisch Siberia Schwbisch Kazakhstan, Tadshikistan Niederdeutsch Ural, West Siberia Wolhynisch West Siberia, Kazakhstan 5 Slide 6 Word map of Volga Republic: Bretterzaun (timber fence)(1927) 16 lexeme variants incl. the Russian loan word Sabor, Saborwand 6 Slide 7 The study of language islands A language island is an exclave of a language that is completely surrounded by another language. (Auer, Hinskens, Kerschwill 1996: 221) Sprachinseln sind rumlich abgrenzbare und intern strukturierte Siedlungsrume einer sprachlichen Minderheit inmitten einer anderssprachlichen Mehrheit. (Hutterer 1982: 178) The term 'Sprachinsel' was used for the first time in 1847 to designate a Slavonic community surrounded by a German-speaking population close to Konigsberg, East Prussia. (Mattheier 1996: 812) Village in the region of Krasnoyarsk, East Siberia, June 2010 7 Slide 8 Syntax in contact. The Siberian case study How language proficiency figures in * RGV as L1 in their birth village, Volga Republic (first years in a German speaking Elementary school) * since 1941, Russian gets L2 during deportation to Siberia (at the age of 4 to 14) * after 1941, Russian becomes the dominant language in everyday life; German village community is dissolved; RGV only in private discourse; their children do not speak RGV * today, living isolated in Russian villages (rarely use of RGV) The status of the Russian German variety (RGV) in our case study * L1 as spoken language, none or very little written language proficiency * Russian (L2) as spoken language, hardly no written communication in Russian * limited spoken language proficiency in L1: childhood, cooking, household, biography, private communication * none or few dialect awareness: daitsch 8 Slide 9 Analysis of contact phenomena in the Spoken Language Corpus of the Russian German varieties in Siberia Language proficiency and codeswitching Our analysis approach is based on the notion that production procedures begin at the conceptual level, well before procedures set in motion the projection of surface structures. [] Bilingual speakers have even more to consider at this level. [] If they do engage in codeswitching or other forms of contact language, they will have to select again generally unconsciously a Matrix Language to provide morphosyntactic structure for bilingual speech. (Myers-Scotton 2002: 23) Carol Myers-Scotton (2002) Contact Linguistics. Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes. Oxford University press. NY. 9 Slide 10 The codeswitching case of Emma German and Maria Kadotchnikova two women living in the village Krasnyj Paxar, East Siberia (Russia) day of documentation: 2010-06-06 10 Slide 11 Russian discourse markers The entire discourse structure is running in Russian. hier haben se eine zeit lang alle deutsche zusammengenomme. da? Here have they a time long all Germans together take. Da? (yes, conversation particle) nu, war ich auch dort. Un da waren kein, die was singen auf deutsch nu (well, conversation particle) was I too there. And there were nobody, who something sing in German konnten. wie sichs gehrt. ja ? nu vot could. as is right and proper`(idiom) Yes? Nu vot ( there you are!) verwechse worden ( ) bei der deutsche, wie die deutsch so sind. das bei changed been ( ) at the (det, fem. - dat.)Germans, how the German (adj.? noun?) like are. That at dene, wo wir jetzt sind. nu, wie ich hin bin ko ( ) h, h, pervy. un da them, where we now are. Nu (well, conversational particle), how I up to am ca( ) (came, discontinued) ah yes, ah yes (conversational particle), pervy (first). And like habe se gleich, hier war eine, die hat deutsch ( ) war i ( ) njet lidja ivanovna. ona ( ) ona ranshe have they at once, here was one, who has German ( ) was - i (and) ( ) njet (no, conversation particle) lidija ivanovna (Sg. nom- -fem., first name, fathers name). Ona ranshe (she before) 11 Discourse markers assign discourse- level thematic roles in the sense that they restrict the interpretation of the CP of which they are a part. We are careful to distinguish discourse markers as content morphemes from content morphemes that participate in the thematic grid of the CP. (M-S 241) Discourse markers Syntax in contact. The Siberian case study Slide 12 Compromise strategies Syntax in contact. The Siberian case study njet (-) in vinotsinsk, in vinotsinske (-) in (-) am sever. Njet (no, adv.) in vinotsinsk (Sg.- Nom., geogr. name), in vinotsinske (Sg.- prepositive, geogr. name) in (-) at (+ det.) sever (the north, sg.- nom. masc.). njet a ja gavaryu von dort, wie wir dort waren in dem ( ) i vinotsinsk, nje njet a ja gavaryu (no but I say) from there, how we there in this ( ) i (and) vinotsinsk (sg.-nom.-mask., geogr. name), nje (no) vinotsinsk in dem (-) kakzhe e (-) na wo die gromutter war auch (-) nigolina ( ) vinotsinsk (sg.-nom. masc., geogr. name) in this kakzhe e (how is this?) well where the grandma was too nigolina (sg.- nom. - fem., name) dort sein dashe eto in dem dorf in dem stadt, in der bamberg, amerikanske tsone, there be (infinitive) dashe eto (even that) in the ( dem, det masc. dat.) village in the city, in the (der, det.-masc.) Bamberg, amerikanske tsone (mixed adjective, mixed noun) in vinotsinsk in vinotsinske i vinotsinsk nje vinotsinsk in dem kakzhe e (how is this?) [Russian - vo vinotsinske (in + prepositive)] in sever am sever in dem dorf in dem stadt, in der bamberg, amerikanske tsone German standard - amerikanische Zone (fem., nom., sing.) Russian - amerikanskaya zona (fem., nom., sing.) 12 sufficient congruence Slide 13 Word order Syntax in contact. The Siberian case study V2 Ungrammatical ? V2, V1 Spoken language standard ? 13 Slide 14 The Case Study of three Women Living in the Region of Krasnoyarsk (East Siberia, Russia) The status of Russian German in Siberia? Russian German in East Siberia (case study) Split ethnic and L1-identity None or few reading and writing skills in German German standard unknown No language transmission to next generation Codeswitching to Russian - dominant on the conversational level Typical compromise strategies on grammar level Matrix Language structures in word order 14