THE STAKES ARE HIGH The Stakes are High: Reinventing the 2021. 1. 8.¢  THE STAKES ARE HIGH ii Acknowledgments

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  • THE STAKES ARE HIGH

    The Stakes are High: Reinventing the Private Sport Sector as a Catalyst for Good in

    Communities

    Marianna Locke

    A dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctorate in Philosophy

    degree in Human Kinetics

    School of Human Kinetics

    Faculty of Health Sciences

    University of Ottawa

    © Marianna Locke, Ottawa, Canada, 2021

  • THE STAKES ARE HIGH ii

    Acknowledgments

    Throughout the writing of this dissertation, I have received a great deal of support and

    assistance. I would first like to thank my supervisor, Dr. George Karlis, whose knowledge was

    invaluable throughout the research process. I am sincerely grateful for the time and energy you

    dedicated to my holistic development over the last six years. I would also like to acknowledge

    my committee members, Dr. Benoît Séguin, Dr. François Gravelle, and Dr. Diane Culver for

    generously offering your time and expertise.

    In addition, I would like to thank Barat and Patrice. I can’t fully express my deep

    appreciation for your unyielding support and wise counsel. You were remarkable mentors and

    friends throughout my dissertation journey. Lastly, thank you to my parents, Mand, and Sinead.

    You inspire me every day to love, learn, and live with purpose. I am tremendously grateful for

    you and the many privileges I have been afforded. Now, time to go to work! It’s time to employ

    the praxis that is so fundamental to this dissertation.

  • THE STAKES ARE HIGH iii

    Abstract

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the relationship between community

    wellbeing and the private sport sector. Specifically, the objectives of this dissertation are to:

    (1) evaluate community resident perceptions of the private sport sector’s impact upon

    community wellbeing; and (2) examine the relationship between the private sport sector and

    stakeholder accountability. Stakeholder theory and locality development provided the most

    relevant theoretical frameworks to assess the relationship between community wellbeing and the

    private sport sector. Stakeholder theory enabled the consideration of an alternative vehicle for

    community development through the private sport sector. The methodology used in the study

    was Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Participants took part in semi-structured

    interviews to explore their perceptions and lived experiences associated with Lansdowne Park.

    The results revealed that: (1) individual and community wellbeing is reciprocal and shaped by

    sport, leisure, and recreation, (2) the private sport sector should be serving as community

    stewards, and (3) community voices must be heard and reflected in both private and public

    agendas. The findings of the study suggest that private sport enterprises can positively contribute

    to community wellbeing by intentionally designing shared spaces that support spontaneous play

    and showcase natural beauty.

    Keywords: sport, leisure, and recreation, private sport sector, stakeholder,

    community wellbeing

  • THE STAKES ARE HIGH iv

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Introduction ...................................................................................................................1

    Purpose of Study ...........................................................................................................................8

    Definitions .....................................................................................................................................8

    Importance of Research ..............................................................................................................11

    Chapter 2: Literature Review .......................................................................................................13

    Community Wellbeing ................................................................................................................13

    Canadian Index of Wellbeing .....................................................................................................15

    Reassessing Progress ................................................................................................................18

    Community Development ...........................................................................................................21

    Theoretical Perspectives and Community Development ............................................................22

    Locality Development ...............................................................................................................24

    Social Planning .........................................................................................................................26

    Social Action .............................................................................................................................28

    Sport, Leisure, and Recreation .....................................................................................................30

    Psychophysiological Health ......................................................................................................33

    Psychological and Psychosocial Benefits .................................................................................35

    Social Capital Opportunities through Sport, Leisure, and Recreation ......................................38

    Private Sport Sector .....................................................................................................................41

    Stakeholder Theory Perspective .................................................................................................42

    Rebuilding, Redefining, and Respiriting the Role of the Firm .................................................46

    Critiques of Stakeholder Theory ...............................................................................................48

    Research Context – Glebe Community and Lansdowne Park .....................................................49

    Theoretical Framework………………………………….............................................................51

    Stakeholder Theory.....................................................................................................................52

    Locality Development .................................................................................................................54

    Chapter 3: Methodology ...............................................................................................................57

    Qualitative Methodology .............................................................................................................57

  • THE STAKES ARE HIGH v

    Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis .....................................................................................58

    Participants ..................................................................................................................................61

    Data Collection ...........................................................................................................................63

    Construction of Interview Guide ................................................................................................64

    Data Analysis ..............................................................................................................................65

    Evaluative Criteria and Ethical Considerations ..........................................................................67

    Chapter 4: Results .........................................................................................................................70

    Reciprocal Relationships: Individual and Community Wellbeing .............................................71

    Sense of Belonging ...................................................................................................................72

    Connection ..............................................................................................................................72

    Shared Spaces .........................................................................................................................73

    Sport, Leisure, and Recreation ..................................................................................................75

    Health Benefits .......................................................................................................................75

    Exclusivity .............................................................................................................................76

    Accessibility ..........................................................................................................................77

    Experiences at Lansdowne ..........................................................................................................78

    Perceptions of Redevelopment ..................................................................................