THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS AND THEIR USES

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  • THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVESOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS AND THEIR USES

  • Copyright 2010 by Nelson Education Limited*How Research Filters Perception

  • THE FIVE SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS

    STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISMSYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISMCONFLICT THEORYFEMINISMPOST MODERNISM

  • THE POLITICAL SPECTRUMEXTREMES=TOTALITARIANISM OR TRUE COMMUNISM

    CONSERVATIVE-RIGHT WING

    LIBERAL MIDDLE

    RADICAL-LEFT WING

  • Copyright 2010 Nelson Education Limited*Durkheims Theory of Suicide

  • SOCIAL CAUSES OF SUICIDESOCIAL INTEGRATION or notRELIGION or notMILITARY INVOLVEMENT or notMARRIAGE or not

  • DURKHEIMs METHODExisting social statisticsQuantitative measurement-percentage

  • OTHER FUNCTIONALIST APPROACHESSURVEYSQUANTITATIVE ANALYSISEXPERIMENTSQUALITATIVE PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

  • FUNCTIONALISM: AN `IS ORIENTATIONCONCEPTS=order, stability, equilibrium adaptation, social solidarity

  • CONFLICT THEORY: AN OUGHT ORIENTATIONCONCEPTS=ALIENATIONOPPRESSIONCLASS CONFLICTFALSE CONSCIOUSNESSIDEOLOGY

  • Marxs Modes of Production

    TRIBALANCIENT COMMUNALFEUDALCAPITALISTIC SOCIALISTIC

  • CONFLICT THEORIST METHODsCRITICAL THEORYDIALECTICALMACRO or MICRO APPROACHUSE STATISTIC TO DISCLOSE CLASS INEQUALITYCASE STUDIES OF OPPRESSION

  • Copyright 2010 Nelson Education Limited*SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM

    Focuses on interpersonal communication in microlevel social settings

    Emphasizes social life is possible only because people attach meanings to things

    Stresses people help to create their social circumstances, not merely react to them

    Erving Goffman (1922-82) Famous Canadian Symbolic Interactionist.Studied sociology & anthropology at University of Toronto. Renowned for dramaturgical approach.

  • WEBERs VIEW OF CAPITALISMCAPITALISM WILL NOT BE DESTROYED without the Charismatic Rebirth of new GODsCAPITALISM is a value orientation originally the product of the `Protestant EthicSOCIAL CLASS less important than status groups

  • WEBERS SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST CONCEPTSVerstehen VALUE ORIENTATIONFORMAL RATIONALITYBUREACRACY

  • SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST CONCEPTSSYMBOLSCUES AND GESTUREINTERPRETATIVE UNDERSTANDSOCIAL SELFLOOKING GLASS SELF

  • SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISTMETHODSQUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    OPEN ENDED ETHNOGRAPY

    PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

    FIELD METHODS

  • Copyright 2010 Nelson Education Limited*FEMINIST THEORYFocuses on various aspects of patriarchy (system of male domination in society)Suggests male domination is determined by structures of powerExamines operation of patriarchy in both microlevel and macrolevel social settingsRecommends eliminating patterns of gender inequality

    Margrit Eichler (1942- ) Chair, Sociology, OISE. Head of Womens Studies, University of Toronto.Internationally known for work on feminist methodology.

  • FEMINIST METHODSSTATISTICS THAT POINT TO GENDER INEQUALITYCASE STUDIESQUANTITIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

  • Copyright 2010 Nelson Education Limited*FEMINIST THEORYFocuses on various aspects of patriarchy (system of male domination in society)Suggests male domination is determined by structures of powerExamines operation of patriarchy in both microlevel and macrolevel social settingsRecommends eliminating patterns of gender inequality

    Margrit Eichler (1942- ) Chair, Sociology, OISE. Head of Womens Studies, University of Toronto.Internationally known for work on feminist methodology.

  • Postmodernism Postmodernism was originally a reaction to modernism.

    Influenced by the Western European disillusionment induced by World War II,

    Postmodernism tends to refer to a cultural, intellectual, or artistic state lacking a clear central hierarchy or organizing principle.

  • PostmodernismPostmodernism Sees social reality as embodying extreme complexity, contradiction, ambiguity, diversity, or inter-referentiality

  • POST MODERNIST METHODSDECONSTRUCT GRAND NARRATIVESCASE STUDIESCRITICAL ANALYSIS OF EMPTY CONCEPTS

  • CONCLUSIONTHE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE-social forces influence individual behaviourPARADIGMS-SF, CONFLICT, SI, FEMINISM..Paradigms differ on the impact of society on the individual.Paradigms are key to unlocking parochial and provincial tunnel vision

  • Copyright 2010 by Nelson Education Limited*FIGURE 2.1 on p. 34 - How Research Filters Perception*Copyright 2010 by Nelson Education Limited*FIGURE 1.2 on p. 6 - Durkheims Theory of Suicide

    Durkheim called suicide in high solidarity settings altruistic: Soldiers who knowingly giving up their lives to protect comrades commit altruistic suicide.

    Suicide in low-solidarity settings is egoistic or anomic: Egoistic suicide results from the poor integration of people into society because of weak social ties to others. Someone who is unemployed is more likely to commit suicide than someone who is employed because the unemployed person has weaker social ties.

    Anomic suicide occurs when vague norms govern behaviour: The rate of anomic suicide is likely to be high among people living in a society lacking a widely shared code of morality.*Sometimes validates unpopular and unofficial viewpoints thereby increasing our understanding and tolerance of people who may be different from us

    Copyright 2010 by Nelson Education Limited**Copyright 2010 by Nelson Education Limited*Are various strands of feminist theory, but all share the features above. and social convention rather than biological necessity

    Patriarchy, feminists contend, is as important as class inequality, if not more so, in determining a persons opportunities in life.The main sources of gender inequality include differences in the way boys and girls are reared; barriers to equal opportunity in education, paid work, and politics; and the unequal division of domestic responsibilities between women and men.*Copyright 2010 by Nelson Education Limited*Are various strands of feminist theory, but all share the features above. and social convention rather than biological necessity

    Patriarchy, feminists contend, is as important as class inequality, if not more so, in determining a persons opportunities in life.The main sources of gender inequality include differences in the way boys and girls are reared; barriers to equal opportunity in education, paid work, and politics; and the unequal division of domestic responsibilities between women and men.