The Road to Kidney Transplant: A Patients Perspective May 23, 2011 Rhonda Duggan, BSN, RN, CCTC Kidney Transplant Coordinator

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Road to Kidney Transplant: A Patients Perspective May 23, 2011 Rhonda Duggan, BSN, RN, CCTC Kidney Transplant Coordinator </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Objectives: Learner will be able to name treatment modalities for ESRD and associated mortality Learner will be able to name advantages &amp; disadvantages of kidney transplant. Learner will be able to list required testing involved in kidney transplant evaluation </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Living with CKD and Lifestyle Choices For people with chronic kidney disease, there are lifestyle choices regarding diet, exercise and smoking that may help prevent kidney disease from advancing to kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease usually occurs gradually over time, therefore, finding out you have kidney disease in the early stages provides an opportunity to slow the progression of CKD. However, once a patient has lost nearly 90% of their kidney function, the only treatment options are dialysis or a kidney transplant. While dialysis replaces failed renal function, a transplant replaces a diseased kidney </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> When do you to decide? Stage 1 with normal or high GFR (GFR &gt; 90 ml/min) Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 ml/min) Stage 3 Moderate CKD (GFR = 30- 59 ml/min) Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 ml/min) Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> How do you decide which modality is right for you? Hemodialysis (Home vs. In Center) Peritoneal Transplant No treatment </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Why Kidney Transplant? Its expensive Theres not enough donors ?Quality of life issues </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Freedom from dialysis Increased strength &amp; ability to engage in a more physically active lifestyle Fewer dietary restrictions Improved blood counts &amp; improvement of uremia symptoms Less progression of nerve damage Improved life satisfaction, physical &amp; emotional well being Potential to return to work or school without disability Advantages of successful transplant </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Disadvantages of kidney transplant Unfortunately, there are no guarantees in transplantation. Need to take anti-rejection medications as long as transplanted kidney is functioning. These medications have potential for significant adverse effects. Anti-rejection medications are very expensive. If disability is dependent upon end stage organ disease, it will be discontinued after a successful transplant. Frequent &amp; chronic follow-up with Transplant Physician, as often as 2-3 times a week following discharge from hospital. Worsening of current medical problems Organ may not work </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Inhibiting Factors to Transplantation Over 90,000 people are on transplant lists Lack of supportive care for patients Lack of knowledge of the transplant process Religious beliefs Cost of healthcare continues to rise and more patients have limited financial resources </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Who can be evaluated for kidney transplant? </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Contraindications to Kidney Transplantation Active malignancy Cirrhosis (Unless simultaneous liver transplant is planned) Severe myocardial dysfunction Active mental illness/Dementia Severe Pulmonary Hypertension Active substance abuse Extreme obesity Non-adherence No support/ financial or social </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Conditions Requiring Treatment Prior to Transplantation Active infection Peptic ulcer disease /Diverticulitis Malignancy Cardiovascular disease Cerebrovascular disease/Peripheral vascular disease Substance abuse </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> The Road to Transplant Begins </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 6 Referral from Nephrologist Dialysis units are regulated/mandated by CMS to address transplant as a treatment option for every patient Initial Insurance Approval for evaluation CMC has contracts with most major insurance companies Referral reviewed by Intake Nurse/Patient contacted Patient scheduled for Group Teaching Session If a high risk candidate, appt scheduled with nephrologist How the Kidney Transplant Evaluation Begins </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> The Transplant Team Once a patient attends the Group Teaching Session, They are assigned a team which consist of each of the following: Transplant Coordinator Medical Social Worker Financial Coordinator Transplant Nephrologist Transplant Surgeon Dietician And now the evaluation can begin </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Evaluation Appointments RN Transplant Coordinator Social Worker Financial Coordinator Dietician if needed Nephrologist Surgeon Consults as indicated </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Evaluation Tests Labs EKG Chest X-Ray Other tests as indicated Patient responsible to complete Yearly Dental Yearly Pap (Females) Yearly Mammogram (Females) Colonoscopy (&gt; age 50) Yearly TB skin test (PPD) </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> APPROVAL/LISTING Present to Selection Committee Final Insurance Approval UNOS Wait Listing Phone notification Letter to you and your Dialysis Unit or Nephrologist Monthly red top tube of blood to Immunology Lab Proceed with Living Donor Evaluation And now the waiting begins </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Types of Transplant Deceased Donor o Standard Criteria Donor (SCD) o Expanded Criteria Donor (ECD) o Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) Living Donor o Living Related (LRD) o Living Unrelated (LUR) o Good Samaritan/Altruistic Donor o Paired Exchange </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> How successful are transplants and does donor type really make a difference? http://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/ar2008/113_surv-new_dh.htm Deceased Donor Graft Survival @ 1 year 90.4% Deceased Donor Patient Survival @ 1 yr. 95% Living DonorGraft Survival @ 1 year 95.6% Living DonorPatient Survival @ 1yr 98.2 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> One Year Unadjusted Graft Survival by Year, Living and Deceased Donor Kidney Transplants Center Activity (07/01/2008- 06/30/2009) Center Regi o n United Stat es Tables for More Information Deceased donor transplants (n=number) 861,165 10,5 8 9 07C,08C,0 9C Living donor transplants (n)33436 6,23 2 07L,08L,09 L On waitlist at start (n)3776,530 78,4 1 7 01,02,03 On waitlist at end (n)6497,092 83,0 5 3 01,02 Number of new patient registrations (n) 4223,066 32,9 8 7 01,02 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> WHERE AM I ON THE LIST? Im ready to go! </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) Non-profit and charitable organization National transplant data base Monitors transplant centers compliance Maintains transplant policies Multiple listing Wait time transfer Organ distribution </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> UNOS Waiting List Point System For every donor there is a specific list of candidates based on points. Each recipient receives points based on the following: Matching (Antigens) Waiting Time Antibody Level (PRA) Age less than 18 </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> How are Kidneys Matched? Blood type HLA (tissue typing) Time Waiting Medical Urgency Antibody Level Geographic areas/Availability </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Blood Groups Percentage of blood groups in the population O = 46 % A = 39% B = 11% AB = 4% Average waiting times on the list vary according to blood type. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> The Waiting List at Carolinas Medical Center (as of 5/16/11) ABABOTotal Patients Active: 1268712224 Active: 449 Inactive: 1035413141 Inactive: 311 Total Patients Listed: 760 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> You wait, and wait, and wait! Update routine health maintenance test Re-evaluation Annually or as Indicated And then wait a little more.. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Getting the Call!!! And the What ifs?? The crossmatch is positive Back-up will be called You are not medically cleared Back-up will be called The kidneys are not usable You will go home </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Surgical Work-up Admission to Room Labs Chest x-ray EKG Evaluation by Nurse &amp; Physicians Dialysis (if needed) Other tests (if needed) If medically cleared, then its off to the operating room!!! </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Kidney Transplant Surgery </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> The Wait is Finally Over!! The patient has crossed the bridge from waiting for a kidney to life after a kidney transplant. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Special thanks to Bruce Wrenn for sharing his story and his familys road to kidney transplant. Stay tuned for Part 2: Life After a Kidney Transplant </li> </ul>