The Present Perfect in World Englishes - OPUS 4 Present Perfect in World Englishes Charting Unity and

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  • Bamberger Beitrge zur Linguistik5

    The Present Perfect in World EnglishesCharting Unity and Diversity

    von Valentin Werner

  • Bamberger Beitrge zur Linguistik5

  • Bamberger Beitrge zur Linguistik

    hrsg. von Manfred Krug, Thomas Becker, Martin Haase, Sebastian Kempgen und Patrizia Noel Aziz Hanna

    Band 5

    2014

  • The Present Perfect in World Englishes

    Charting Unity and Diversity

    von Valentin Werner

    2014

  • Bibliographische Information der Deutschen NationalbibliothekDie Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deut-schen Nationalbibliographie; detaillierte bibliographische Informationen sind im Internet ber http://dnb.ddb.de/ abrufbar

    Dieses Werk ist als freie Onlineversion ber den Hochschulschriften-Server (OPUS; http://www.opus-bayern.de/uni-bamberg/) der Universittsbiblio-thek Bamberg erreichbar. Kopien und Ausdrucke drfen nur zum privaten und sonstigen eigenen Gebrauch angefertigt werden.

    Herstellung und Druck: Druckerei docupoint, Magdeburg Umschlaggestaltung: University of Bamberg Press, Andra Brandhofer

    University of Bamberg Press Bamberg 2014http://www.uni-bamberg.de/ubp/

    ISSN: 2190-3298ISBN: 978-3-86309-225-2 (Druckausgabe)eISBN: 978-3-86309-226-9 (Online-Ausgabe)URN: urn:nbn:de:bvb:473-opus-68834

    Diese Arbeit hat der Fakultt Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften der Otto-Friedrich-Universitt Bamberg als Dissertation vorgelegen.1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Manfred G. Krug2. Gutachter: PD Dr. Julia SchlterTag der mndlichen Prfung: 13. November 2013

  • v

    Acknowledgements

    This book grew out of a dissertation project at the Chair for English and Historical Linguistics at the University of Bamberg, while parts of the research were carried out at the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics of the University of Cambridge. I would like to thank my supervisor, Manfred G. Krug, for having made all this possible in the first place, for inciting my interest in the intricacies of empirical lan-guage study, and for providing detailed feedback while leaving me time and room to develop my ideas. I would also like to extend my gratitude to many people and institutions for contributing in various ways.

    Above all, the thesis profited from input from the co-supervisors, Julia Schlter and Geoffrey Haig. Both supported the project from its early stages and provided constructive criticism throughout. The same counts for Mari C. Jones, who acted as advisor during my research stay in Cambridge.

    Michaela Hilbert and Ole Schtzler ventured to comment on ear-lier written chapters of the draft and special mention needs to be made of Alison Edwards, who did a marvelous proofreading job.

    Subsections of the thesis were presented and discussed at various conferences. Thanks are due to the audiences and in particular to Thomas Brunner, Bernd Kortmann, Raj Mesthrie, Joybrato Mukherjee, Devyani Sharma, Cristina Surez-Gmez, Peter Uhrig, and Jim Walker for valuable comments and suggestions.

    Travel to these meetings was made possible by generous financial support from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the International Society for the Linguistics of English (ISLE), St. Cath-arines College Cambridge, the University of Bamberg, and the Volkswagen Foundation.

    As regards the more technical, but no less important side, I would like to thank all ICE teams for their efforts in corpus compilation and the staff of the university libraries in Bamberg and Cambridge for always being ready to help with a smile. Advice on statistics, data processing, and visualization, given at different stages by Robert Fuchs, Martin Hilpert, Ghada Mohamed, and Lukas Snning, was also highly appreci-ated.

  • vi

    In addition, I would like to thank my colleagues at the Chair for English and Historical Linguistics and the people of the Bamberg Grad-uate School of Linguistics (BaGL) for providing a friendly and stimulat-ing working environment, and for being uncomplicated and knowledge-able people with whom to share thoughts and ideas.

    My parents and friends, and particularly Carolin provided exten-sive non-academic support throughout my studies. It is to them that this work is dedicated.

  • vii

    Acknowledgements ....................................................................................... i List of abbreviations .................................................................................. xiii List of figures ............................................................................................. xiv List of tables ............................................................................................ xxvii

    1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 1

    2 Theoretical and historical foundations ............................................ 5

    2.1 Time, temporality and typological aspects ............................... 5

    2.2 Tense and aspect in English ................................................... 16

    2.3 Perfect and perfective ............................................................ 18

    2.4 On the history of the English Present Perfect ......................... 19

    2.5 The study of World Englishes ................................................. 23 2.5.1 Models ...................................................................... 24 2.5.2 Globalization of culture and language .................... 38 2.5.3 World Englishes and versals .................................... 42

    3 Previous research ........................................................................... 45

    3.1 The Present Perfect in descriptive grammars ......................... 45

    3.2 Tense or aspect or something else? ........................................ 50 3.2.1 Perfect as aspect ...................................................... 50 3.2.2 Perfect as tense ........................................................ 52 3.2.3 Perfect as a grammatical category of its own.......... 56 3.2.4 Alternative views ...................................................... 58

  • viii

    3.3 Theoretical studies on the semantics and pragmatics of the Present Perfect ....................................................................... 59 3.3.1 Monosemous accounts ............................................ 60 3.3.2 Polysemous accounts ............................................... 67 3.3.3 Pragmatic approaches .............................................. 72 3.3.4 Compositionality ...................................................... 75

    3.4 The Present Perfect in non-standard varieties of English ........ 79

    3.5 Corpus-based (cross-)variational studies ................................ 84 3.5.1 Elsness 1997 ............................................................. 85 3.5.2 Wynne 2000 .............................................................. 86 3.5.3 Schlter 2002a .......................................................... 89 3.5.4 Hundt & Biewer 2007 ............................................... 93 3.5.5 van Rooy 2009 ........................................................... 95 3.5.6 Hundt & Smith 2009 ................................................ 98 3.5.7 Davydova 2011 ........................................................ 100

    3.6 Summary and discussion of implications for the present study ............................................................................................ 104

    4 Methodology and data .................................................................. 111

    4.1 The ICE project .................................................................... 111

    4.2 Tagging, identification of Present Perfect occurrences and sampling .............................................................................. 114

    4.3 Coding of factors .................................................................. 118 4.3.1 Temporal adverbials ............................................... 118 4.3.2 Aktionsart ................................................................ 122 4.3.3 Sentence type .......................................................... 126 4.3.4 Semantics ............................................................... 127 4.3.5 Preceding time reference ........................................ 128

    4.4 Multidimensional aggregational analysis ............................. 130

    4.5 Caveats ................................................................................ 132

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    5 The Present Perfect in worldwide varieties of English ................ 135

    5.1 British English ..................................................................... 136 5.1.1 Temporal adverbials............................................... 136 5.1.2 Aktionsart ............................................................... 141 5.1.3 Sentence type ......................................................... 143 5.1.4 Semantics ............................................................... 146 5.1.5 Preceding time reference ....................................... 149 5.1.6 Perfect-friendliness and text type effects ............... 151

    5.2 Irish English (phase 5) ......................................................... 154 5.2.1 Temporal adverbials............................................... 155 5.2.2 Aktionsart ............................................................... 158 5.2.3 Sentence type ......................................................... 162 5.2.4 Semantics ............................................................... 164 5.2.5 Preceding time reference ....................................... 166 5.2.6 Perfect-friendliness and text type