of 47 /47

The Persian Empire

  • Upload
    evers

  • View
    63

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

The Persian Empire. The Fall of the Second Babylonian Empire. The second Babylonian empire came under attack and was defeated by the Persians , who were led by Cyrus the Great, in 539 BC. The Persians built the largest empire the Fertile Crescent has ever known. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Citation preview

Page 1: The Persian  Empire
Page 2: The Persian  Empire

The Fall of the Second Babylonian Empire

•The second Babylonian empire came under attack and was defeated by the Persians, who were led by Cyrus the Great, in 539 BC.

•The Persians built the largest empire the Fertile Crescent has ever known.

Page 3: The Persian  Empire
Page 4: The Persian  Empire

Aim: How did the Persians build and Aim: How did the Persians build and maintain a tremendous empire?maintain a tremendous empire?

Who were the important leaders?Who were the important leaders?

What were their contributions to history?What were their contributions to history?

Page 5: The Persian  Empire

Aim: How did the Persians build and maintain a tremendous

empire?Do Now: Matching Review

The Rise of PersiaThe Rise of Persia

• The Persians based their empire on The Persians based their empire on tolerance and diplomacy. They relied tolerance and diplomacy. They relied on a strong military to back up their on a strong military to back up their policies. Ancient Persia is where policies. Ancient Persia is where Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, India and Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, India and many other countries are todaymany other countries are today..

Page 7: The Persian  Empire

Cyrus Cyrus the the

GreatGreat

Page 8: The Persian  Empire

CyrusCyrus’’s Empires Empire• 550 BC – Conquered several neighboring 550 BC – Conquered several neighboring

kingdomskingdoms• Military geniusMilitary genius• Controlled an empire spanning 2000 milesControlled an empire spanning 2000 miles• Kindness toward conquered peopleKindness toward conquered people• Honored local customs and religionsHonored local customs and religions• 538 BC - Allowed the Jews to return to their 538 BC - Allowed the Jews to return to their

homeland, Jerusalem homeland, Jerusalem • Considered by the Jews to be one of GodConsidered by the Jews to be one of God’’s s

anointed onesanointed ones

Page 9: The Persian  Empire

Tolerance !!!Tolerance !!!

• Cyrus use the idea of tolerance to keep the peace Cyrus use the idea of tolerance to keep the peace and to seem like a liberator.and to seem like a liberator.

• He allowed people to keep their local customs He allowed people to keep their local customs and religions.and religions.

• He showed kindness toward conquered peoplesHe showed kindness toward conquered peoples

Page 10: The Persian  Empire

Aim: How did the Persians build and maintain a tremendous

empire?Do Now: Matching Review

Primary SourcePrimary Source• ““This is the word of Cyrus king of Persia: The This is the word of Cyrus king of Persia: The

Lord, God of heaven has given me all the Lord, God of heaven has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and he himself has charged kingdoms of the earth, and he himself has charged me to build him a house at Jerusalem in Judah. To me to build him a house at Jerusalem in Judah. To every man of his people now among you I say, every man of his people now among you I say, God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem in Judah, and rebuild the house of the Lord God of in Judah, and rebuild the house of the Lord God of Israel, the God whose city is Jerusalem.Israel, the God whose city is Jerusalem.””

• What type of ruler was Cyrus based on this quote?What type of ruler was Cyrus based on this quote?

Page 11: The Persian  Empire

Darius the Great (526 – 485 B. C. E.) Built Persepolis.

He extended the

Persian Empire to the Indus River in northern India. (2 mil. s.q. mi.) Built a canal in Egypt.

Page 12: The Persian  Empire

Darius the Great (526 – 485 B. C. E.) Established a tax-

collecting system. Divided the empire into districts called SATRAPIES. Built the great Royal Road system. Established a complex postal system. Created a network of spies called “the King’s eyes and ears.”

Page 13: The Persian  Empire

PERSEPOLISPERSEPOLIS

• 518 BCE 518 BCE • King Darius utilized King Darius utilized

influences and influences and materials from all over materials from all over his empire, which his empire, which included Babylon, included Babylon, Egypt, Mesopotamian Egypt, Mesopotamian and Greeceand Greece

Page 14: The Persian  Empire

PERSEPOLISPERSEPOLIS

• At the height of the At the height of the Persian Empire it Persian Empire it stretched from India to stretched from India to AfricaAfrica

• Persia today is known Persia today is known as Iranas Iran

• The city included The city included extensive use of extensive use of columnscolumns

Page 15: The Persian  Empire

The People of Persepolis

Page 16: The Persian  Empire

Ancient Persepolis

Page 17: The Persian  Empire

Persepolis

Page 18: The Persian  Empire

ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism

• Persian Persian ReligionReligion

• MonotheismMonotheism• Good went to Good went to

HeavenHeaven• Bad went to Bad went to

HellHell

Page 19: The Persian  Empire

Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 6c BCE:

Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words

“Tree of Life”

Page 20: The Persian  Empire

Extent of Zoroastrianism

Page 21: The Persian  Empire

Aim: How did the Persians build and maintain a tremendous

empire?Do Now: Matching Review

The Royal RoadThe Royal Road• 1,677 miles long1,677 miles long• 111 relay stations111 relay stations• Other smaller roads branched off the Other smaller roads branched off the

royal roadroyal road• The entire royal road could be traveled The entire royal road could be traveled

in a week by a horsemenin a week by a horsemen• Caravans took about a monthCaravans took about a month

Page 22: The Persian  Empire

Persian “Royal Road”

Page 23: The Persian  Empire

Aim: How did the Persians build and maintain a tremendous

empire?Do Now: Matching Review

How would the royal road enable a ruler How would the royal road enable a ruler to maintain power in the empire?to maintain power in the empire?

Page 24: The Persian  Empire

DariusDarius

Page 25: The Persian  Empire

Darius the GreatDarius the Great

• Member of the kingMember of the king’’s body guards body guard• Overthrew the king in 522 BCOverthrew the king in 522 BC• Took power and created a well-organized Took power and created a well-organized

efficient governmentefficient government• Brought peace and stabilityBrought peace and stability• Expanded the empire by 500 milesExpanded the empire by 500 miles• But could not conquer GreeceBut could not conquer Greece

Page 26: The Persian  Empire

TheThePersianPersian WarsWars

Page 27: The Persian  Empire

Persian Archers & Soldiers

Page 28: The Persian  Empire

Battle of MarathonBattle of MarathonThe Athenians had won at Marathon but they certainly had not destroyed the Persian army. They had made plans before the battle that if they won, they would get word back to Athens as soon as possible because they knew that the Persian fleet was sure to sail around Attica and attempt to take the city while it was undefended. The citizens were to man the walls and make it appear that Athens was strongly defended.

Page 29: The Persian  Empire

Marathon part 1Marathon part 1

Page 30: The Persian  Empire

Marathon part 2Marathon part 2

Page 31: The Persian  Empire

MarathonMarathon

Phaedippas

Miltiades sent a young soldier (probably Phaedippas) to take word back to Athens. He ran the entire distance, 42.192 kms, shouted "We have won!" and fell dead of exhaustion. In memory of this event the Marathon Run was included among the contests since the first contemporary Olympic Games.

Page 32: The Persian  Empire

Result of the 1Result of the 1stst Persian War Persian War

Darius Lost!Darius Lost!Persia Continued to Persia Continued to

lose its power to lose its power to expandexpand

Page 33: The Persian  Empire

XerxesXerxes• Became a DictatorBecame a Dictator

• Did not follow Darius or Cyrus and Did not follow Darius or Cyrus and was not tolerantwas not tolerant

• Wanted to conquer Greece at all costWanted to conquer Greece at all cost

Page 34: The Persian  Empire

Second Second Persian Persian

WarWar

Page 35: The Persian  Empire

Battle of ThermopylaeBattle of Thermopylae• It means the It means the ““HOT GATESHOT GATES””

• 300 Spartans held off 1 million troops of the Persian 300 Spartans held off 1 million troops of the Persian EmpireEmpire

• Was really a delaying action to stall the Persians so that Was really a delaying action to stall the Persians so that Athens could be evacuated.Athens could be evacuated.

• Tactical advantage because of choke point in the terrain.Tactical advantage because of choke point in the terrain.

Page 36: The Persian  Empire

ThermopylaeThermopylae

Page 37: The Persian  Empire
Page 38: The Persian  Empire
Page 39: The Persian  Empire

The ImmortalsThe Immortals• XerxesXerxes’’s best troops s best troops

in the Persian army.in the Persian army.

• Supposed to be Supposed to be invincible.invincible.

• Spartans proved Spartans proved otherwise.otherwise.

Page 40: The Persian  Empire

The Persians eventually Broke The Persians eventually Broke ThroughThrough

• After killing the 300 Spartans the Persians Marched on After killing the 300 Spartans the Persians Marched on AthensAthens

• Athens was deserted; evacuated to the Island of SalamisAthens was deserted; evacuated to the Island of Salamis

• The Athenians forced a naval battle in the Bay of The Athenians forced a naval battle in the Bay of SalamisSalamis

Page 41: The Persian  Empire

Greek TriremeGreek Trireme

Page 42: The Persian  Empire

Battle of SalamisBattle of Salamis

Page 43: The Persian  Empire

Battle of SalamisBattle of Salamis• Persians were bottlenecked in the small Persians were bottlenecked in the small

bay of Salamisbay of Salamis

• They could not maneuverThey could not maneuver

• The smaller Greek Ships destroyed the The smaller Greek Ships destroyed the Persian fleet.Persian fleet.

Page 44: The Persian  Empire

Result of the 2nd Persian WarResult of the 2nd Persian War

Xerxes Lost!Xerxes Lost!

Persia had to retreat home Persia had to retreat home in failure. Never again did in failure. Never again did

Persia expand.Persia expand.

Page 45: The Persian  Empire

Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great• Macedonian (Greek) King that laid the Macedonian (Greek) King that laid the

final death blow to the Persian Empire final death blow to the Persian Empire and conquered it.and conquered it.

Page 46: The Persian  Empire

In November 333, Alexander the Great and his trusted general Parmenion defeatedthe Persian king Darius III

Codomannus on the uneven coastal plain south of Issus.

Page 47: The Persian  Empire

Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 6c BCE:

Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words

“Tree of Life”