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CONTENTS, Volume I
List of illustrations in Volume I xxvii Preface and acknowledgements xxix
Introduction 1
(a) The physical environment 2 (b) The political situation preceding the Persian empire 4
1 The sources 6
(a) Classical writers 6 (b) Old Testament books 10 (c) Royal inscriptions 10 (d) Administrative documents 11 (e) Archaeological sites 13 (f) Implications 14
PART I
2 The Medes 19
Introduction 19 2.A. The official Assyrian presentation of the Medes 22
1. Tiglath-pileser III (745-727) 22 (i) Year 2 (744) (Tadmor 1994, Iran Stele IB, 5'-14') 22 (ii) Year 9 (737) (Tadmor 1994, Iran Stele IIB, 25'-24') 22
2. Sargon II (722-705) 24 (i) Year 6(716) (Levine 1972, Najafehebad Stela, 46-71) 24 (ii) Year 7 (715) (Lie 1929, Sargon Annals, 114-16) 25 (iii) Year 8 (714) (TCL 3, Sargon's 8th Campaign, 38-51) 25 (iv) Year 9 (713) (Lie 1929, Sargon Annals, 191-4) 25
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3. Sennacherib (705-681), Year 2 (703) (Luckenbill 1924, Bellino Cylinder, p.60,1.33) 26
4. Esarhaddon (681-669), Year 5? (676?) (Borger 1956, Nineveh A-F, Ep.15-16) 26
5. Ashurbanipal (669-C.630), c.658 (Piepkorn 1933, Prism B, iv 3-8) 27
2.B. Assyro-Median relations in the central Zagros as revealed by Assyrian queries to the Sun God (reign of Esarhaddon 681-669) 27
6. Kashtaritu of Karkashshi forms an alliance against Assyria (SAA4,no.43) 27
7. Kashtaritu makes peace overtures to the Assyrians (SAA 4, nos.56—7) 28 8. The Assyrians plan an attack on Kashtaritu (SAA 4, no.62) 28 9. Assyrian tribute-gadiering in Media (SAA 4, no. 64) 29
2. C. The Medes and the fall of Assyria 3 0 10. Babylonians and Medes victorious over Assyria (ABC, no. 3) 30 11. Median destruction of sanctuaries during die war against Assyria
(VAB4, Nbn.8) 33
2.D. The Scythians in the Zagros 33 12. Peace negotiations between Assyria and the Scythians (SAA 4, no.20) 33
2.E. Later writers on the Medes 34 13. Herodotus' view of the development of Median kingship (Hdt. I,
96-101) 34 14. The successors of Deiokes and the Median struggle against Assyria
(Hdt. I, 102-7) 35 15. The Lydo-Median conflict (Hdt. I, 73-4) 38 16. Ctesias' story of the fall of Assyria to the Medes (FGrH 688 Fib) 39 17. The Median dynasty according to Ctesias (FGrH 688 F5) 43 18. Relations between the Babylonian and Median king according to a
Late Babylonian writer 44 (i) Nabopolassar and Astyages (FGrH 680 F8b) 44 (ii) Nebuchadnezzar and the Median princess (FGrH 680 F9a) 44
19. Life at the Median court according to Xenophon 45 (i) Court dress (Xen. Cyiop. I, 3.2-3) 45 (ii) Eating, drinking and audience at court (Xen. Cyrop. I, 3.4) 45
3 Cyrus the Great 47
Introduction 47 3. A. The expansion of Persia under Cyrus II 50
1. Cyrus' defeat of the Medes and his conquest of Babylonia (ABC, no. 7) 50
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3.B. Persia before Cyrus II 53 2. A 'Persian' hostage at the Assyrian court? (Weidner 1931-2,
Nassouhi Prism, 11.7-13) 53 3. Inscription on cylinder seal of Cyrus I (PFS 93*) 54 4. Transactions in the Palace of Susa (MDP 9, no.34) 55 5. The Persian tribes (Hdt. I, 125) 55
3.C. Cyrus defeats Astyages, king of the Medes 56 6. Nabonidus' vision of Cyrus' war against the Medes (VAB 4, Nbn.l) 56 7. Herodotus' story of Cyrus' defeat of Astyages (Hdt. I, 127-8; 130) 57 8. Ctesias' story of Cyrus' defeat of Astyages and its consequences
(FGrH 688 F9 (1-3)) 58 9. The further fate of Astyages (Justin I, 6.16) 59
10. The death of Astyages (FGrH 688 F9 (6)) 59 11. Cyrus' take-over of Median power according to Xenophon
(Xen. Cyrop. VIII, 5.17-20) 60
3.D. Cyrus'conquest of Lydia and western Asia Minor 60 (a) Herodotus'version of the fall of Lydia 60
12. Croesus plans to make war on Cyrus (Hdt. I, 53-4) 60 13. Croesus attacks Cyrus (Hdt. I, 73; 75-7) 61 14. Croesus defeated and Sardis besieged (Hdt. I, 79-81) 62 15. The fall of Sardis (Hdt. 1,84) 63 16. The Persians in Sardis and the fate of Croesus (Hdt. I, 85-8) 64
(b) Greek images of Croesus' fate preceding Herodotus 65 17. The fate of Croesus recalled by the poet Bacchylides (Maehler
1982/1997,F3) 65
(c) Ctesias'version of the Lydian conquest 67 18. The capture of Sardis (FGrH 6 8 8 F9 (4)) 67 19. Croesus' miraculous delivery (FGrH 688 F9(5)) 68
(d) Aftermath 68 20. The consolidation of the Lydian conquest (Hdt. I, 141; 153.3-154;
156.2-157; 160.1-4; 161-3.1; 168-9; 171.1 68
3.E. The Persian conquest of Babylonia 70 (a) The Babylonian evidence 70
21. Marduk leads Cyrus into Babylon (Weissbach 1911+ BIN 2, no.32) 70 22. Cyrus' activities in Babylonian cities 74
(i) Uruk (Weissbach 1911:8-9; Walker 1981, no. 115) 74 (ii) Ur (UET 1, no. 194) 75
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(iii) Cyrus acknowledges the help of Sin of Ur in his conquest(?) (UET l,no.307) 75
23. A poetic condemnation of Nabonidus and paean in praise of Cyrus (BHT, 83-91) 75
24. Cyrus' rule in Babylonia in 'prophetic' perspective (BHLT, 28; 32-3) 80 25. Berossus' account of Cyrus' Babylonian conquest (FGrH 680 FlOa) 81
(b) Old Testament writers and the Persian conquest of Babylon 82 26. Yahweh chooses Cyrus as ruler of the world (Isaiah 41; 42; 44-45) 82 27. Cyrus' decree sanctioning restoration of the Jerusalem temple
(Ezra 6.2-5) 84
(c) A Greek version 8 5 28. Herodotus' account (Hdt. I, 177-8; 188-92) 85
3 .F. Pasargadae, the city of Cyrus 8 7 29. The tomb of Cyrus at Pasargadae (Arr. Anab. VI, 29.4-7) 87
3.G. Legends of Cyrus 92 (a) Family, birth, childhood and rise to power 92
30. Herodotus' story of Cyrus' origins and birth (Hdt. I, 95; 107-13) 92 31. Cyrus restored to his parents (Hdt. I, 114-23) 94 32. Cyrus' family and youth according to Ctesias (FGrH 90 F66(l-7)) 97 33. Cyrus' family according to Xenophon (Xen. Cyrop. I, 2.1-3.2) 98
(b) The death of Cyrus 99 34. Herodotus' moralising tale of Cyrus' death among the nomads
(Hdt. I, 201; 205-6; 208; 211-14) 99 35. Cyrus' death in the east according to Ctesias (FGrH 688 F9(7-8)) 101 36. Xenophon's picture: Cyrus dies at home surrounded by his family
and officials (Xen. Cyrop. VIII, 7) 102 37. Cyrus' reputation (Hdt. Ill, 160) 103
4 The reign of Cambyses 104
Introduction 104 4.A. The accession of Cambyses 106
1. Cambyses' parentage (Hdt. II, 1) 106 2. Cambyses' accession and his courtiers (FGrH 688 F13(9)) 107
4.B. Explanations for Cambyses'Egyptian campaign 107 3. A Persian story (Hdt. Ill, 1) . 107 4. The Egyptian version (Hdt. Ill, 2) 108
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5. A variant of the Persian story (Hdt. Ill, 3) 109 6. Further variants on the story (FGrH 688F13a) 109
4.C. The conquest of Egypt: the Greek accounts 110 7. The Persian preparations 110
(i) Obtaining inside information (Hdt. Ill, 4) 110 (ii) Planning the crossing of the Sinai desert (Hdt. Ill, 9) 110 (iii) Gathering individual ships (Hdt. Ill, 44) 110 (iv) Manning the fleet (Hdt. Ill, 19) 112
8. The fall of Egypt (Hdt. Ill, 10-11; 13) 112 9. The fate of the Egyptian king 113
(i) Herodotus' story (Hdt. Ill, 14-15) 113 (ii) Ctesias' version (FGrH 688 F13(10)) 114
10. Campaigns to consolidate frontiers 115 (i) Nubia and the western desert (Hdt. Ill, 17; 20-1; 25-6) 115 (ii) Cambyses reaches Meroe (Strabo XVII, 1.5) 116 (iii) Cambyses introduces Nubian fruit-trees to Egypt (D.S. I, 34.7) 116
4.D. Cambyses' conquest of Egypt: the Egyptian evidence 117 11. The autobiography of Udjahorfesne(t) (Posener 1936, no. 1) 117 12. Epitaph of Apis bull from Cambyses' sixth year (Posener 1936, no.3) 122 13. Cambyses' inscription on the Apis sarcophagus (Posener 1936, no.4) 124 14. Regulations on the verso of the Demotic Chronicle
(BN215,rev.C-D) 124 15. Seal from die Egyptian administration under Cambyses
(Coll. Golenischeff, no. 9 9 2) 127
4.E. The north-western frontier in Cambyses' reign 127 16. The Persians curtail the power of Samos (Hdt. Ill, 120-5) 127
4.F. Cambyses'reputation 129 (a) Offences against Egyptian traditions and cults 129
17. The maltreatment of Amasis' mummy (Hdt. Ill, 16) 129 18. The affair of the Apis bull (Hdt. Ill, 2 7-9) 130 19. More sacrileges against Egyptian cults (Hdt. Ill, 37) 131
(b) Cambyses'cruel treatment of his wife, courtiers and officials 131 20. Cambyses kills his sister (Hdt. Ill, 32) 131 21. Cambyses' murder of a Persian courtier's son (Hdt. Ill, 34-5) 132 22. Cambyses abuses Persian nobles and turns against Croesus
(Hdt. Ill, 35-6) • 133
CONTENTS
(c) A harsh but just ruler 133 23. Cambyses' punishment of a corrupt judge (Hdt. V, 25) 133
5 From Cambyses to Darius I 135
Introduction (with Appendix on the chronology of Darius I's accession) 135 5.A. The official Persian perspective 141
1. Darius' account of his seizure of the throne (DB) 141
5.B. Cambyses and Bardiya according to Graeco-Roman writers 158 2. Bardiya: the blot on the Achaemenid escutcheon (Aeschylus,
Persians, 765-79) 158 3. The murder of Bardiya (Smerdis): Herodotus' version (Hdt. Ill, 30) 159 4. Bardiya's revolt and Cambyses' deadi according to Herodotus
(Hdt. Ill, 61-8) 160 5. Ctesias' story of how Cambyses murdered his brother, died and a
magus acceded to the throne (FGrH 688 F13(l 1-15)) 163 6. Cambyses and Bardiya according to Justin (Justin I, 9.4-13) 165
5.C. The unmasking and killing of the pretender 165 7. The imposture discovered and the magus denounced (Hdt. Ill,
68-9; 74-5) 165 8. The magus publicly exposed (FGrH 688 F13(15)) 167 9. The seven noble conspirators and the killing of the impostor
(Hdt. Ill, 70-3; 76-9) 167 10. Anodier version of the magus' assassination (FGrH 688 F13(16)) 170 11. The seven conspirators agree privileges among themselves (Hdt. Ill,
83-4) 170
5.D. Darius becomes king 171 12. Cyrus the Great dreams of Darius' future kingship (Hdt. I, 209-10) 171 13. Darius wins the kingship (Hdt. Ill, 84-8) 17 2
5.E. Consolidating Darius'kingship 173 14. Darius' marriages (Hdt. Ill, 88) 173 15. The elimination of Oroites (Hdt. Ill, 126-8) 173 16. The Intaphernes incident (Hdt. Ill, 118-19) 175 17. The removal of Aryandes (Hdt. IV, 166) 175 18. A new foundation legend? (Ael., NA 12.21) 176 19. Cyrus the Great inscribed into Darius' lineage (CMa; CMb; CMc) 177
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6 The empire under Darius I: expansion, revolt, consolidation 181
Introduction 181 6.A. Darius renews and develops die imperial strategy 185
1. Persian reconnaissance in Greece (Hdt. Ill, 135-6; 138) 185 2. Samos becomes a Persian client principality (Hdt. Ill, 139-47; 149) 186 3. The conquest of north-western India (Hdt. IV, 44) 188 4. Reassertion of Persian control along the south-western front
(Hdt. IV, 165; 167; 200-4) 189
6.B. The Scythian expedition 193 (a) Reasons for the Scythian campaign 193
5. Revenge for earlier invasion (Hdt. IV, 1) 193 6. Punishment for an insult (Justin II, 5.9) 194 7. Follow-up to preliminary reconnaissance (FGrH 688 F13(20)) 194
(b) Darius'preparations 195 8. Gathering the forces (Hdt. IV, 83; 85; 87) 195
(c) Persian and Scythian strategies 196 9. The Persian advance by land and sea (Hdt. IV, 8 9; 91 - 3 ; 9 7-8) 196
10. The Scythian response (Hdt. IV, 102; 120-8) 197 11. A Scythian challenge to the Persians (Hdt. IV, 131-3) 199
(d) The outcome of the expedition 200 12. Darius' withdrawal (Hdt. IV, 133-8; 140-3) 200 13. An abbreviated story of Darius' expedition (FGrH 688 F13(21)) 202 14. Punitive measures for non-cooperation (Hdt. V, 27) 203 15. Repercussions of the Scythian campaign (Hdt. VI, 40) 203 16. The Danube as Persia's frontier (Plut. Alex. 36.4) 203
6.C. The Persians establish themselves in Thrace 205 (a) Establishing Persian power 205
17. Megab'azus enforces Persian control over the Hellespont and Thrace (Hdt. IV, 144; V, 1-2) 205
18. The Paeonians deported (Hdt. V, 14-15; 17; 98) 205 19. Macedon accepts Persian overlordship (Hdt. V, 17-18; 21-2) 206 20. Otanes replaces Megabazus (Hdt. V, 25-6) 206 21. Reassertion of the Persian grip after the Ionian Revolt (Hdt. VI, 43-5) 207
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(b) The strategic importance and resources of Thrace 207 22. Raw materials and manpower (Hdt. V, 11; 23) 207 23. Precious metal deposits in Thrace 208
(i) The gold of Thasos (Hdt. VI, 46-7) 208 (ii) The mines of Mount Pangaeus (Hdt. VII, 112) 208
(c) The nature of Achaemenid power in Thrace and its wider impact 209 24. The client kingdom of Macedon (Justin VII, 4.1-2) 209 25. Persian depots and forts in Thrace (Hdt. VII, 25; 59; 105) 209 2 6. Thracian tribute (Hdt. VII, 10 8) 210 2 7. The limits of Megabazus' conquest (Hdt. V, 16) 210 28. The Satrae escape Persian control (Hdt. VII, 110-11) 210 29. Local links with the Persian court (Thuc. VI, 59) 210 30. Athens seeks an alliance with Persia (Hdt. V, 73) 211
6.D. The Ionian Revolt (499/8-493) 211 (a) The beginnings of the revolt (499-7) 211
31. The Naxos debacle (Hdt. V, 2 8; 3 0-4) 211 3 2. The decision to revolt (Hdt. V, 3 5-8) 213 3 3. The Ionian rebels appeal for help in Sparta (Hdt. V, 49-51) 215 34. Aristagoras is promised help by Athens and Eretria (Hdt. V, 55;
96-7;99) 216 35. The burning of Sardis (Hdt. V, 100-2) 217 36. Extension of the revolt (498/7) (Hdt. V, 103-5) 218
(b) The Persian response (498/7-494/3) 219 3 7. Persian action in Cyprus (Hdt. V, 10 8-16) 219 38. Persian action in Ionia (Hdt. V, 117-23) 220 39. The flight of Aristagoras (Hdt. V, 124) 222
(c) The Persian victory 223 40. Histiaeus' arrival in Sardis (496?) (Hdt. VI, 1-6) 223 41. High-level reconnaissance preceding the final Persian offensive?
(PF-NN1809) 224 42. The Persian fleet delayed at Lindos? (FGrH 532,1) 224 43. The Battle of Lade (494) (Hdt. VI, 6-11) 225 44. The fall of Miletus (494) (Hdt. VI, 18-22) 226
(d) The aftermath of the revolt 227 45. Reinstatement of the ruler of Samos (Hdt. VI, 2 5) 227 46. Capture and execution of Histiaeus (Hdt. VI, 26; 28-30) 227 47. Reconquest and reprisals (493) (Hdt. VI, 31-3) 228 48. Miltiades, tyrant in the Chersonese, is forced to flee (493) (Hdt. VI,
41.1-2) 229 49. The Persians reorganise affairs in Ionia (493-2) (Hdt. VI, 42-3) 230
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6.E. The extension of Persian power in the Aegean 231 50. Persian control extended westwards (491) (Hdt. VI, 48-9) 231 51. Preparations for a campaign in the Aegean (Hdt. VI, 94-5) 231 5 2. The capture of Naxos (Hdt. VI, 9 6) 232 53. Persia establishes control over the islands (Hdt. VI, 98-101) 232 54. Persian patronage of Greek shrines 233
(i) The Persian commander makes offerings on Delos (Hdt. VI, 97) 233 (ii) The Persians restore a looted statue of Apollo (Hdt. VI, 118) 233
55. The Persians receive expert advice for their campaign against Athens (Hdt. VI, 102; 107) 234
56. Datis' army defeated at Marathon (490) (Hdt. VI, 112-13; 115-16) 234 57. The Eretrian captives resetded (Hdt. VI, 119) 235 5 8. A summary of the Aegean campaign (FGrH 688F13(22)) 236
6.F. The end of Darius'reign 236 59. Darius' last years (Hdt. VII, 1; 4) 236 60. Darius' mortal illness (FGrH 688 F13(23)) 237
7 The reign of Xerxes 238
Introduction ' 238 7.A. The succession to Darius 244
1. Darius' choice of successor (XPf) 244 2. Darius' sons compete for the succession (Hdt. VII, 2-3) 245 3. Darius' sons dispute the succession after his death (Justin II, 10.1-10) 246 4. Xerxes' court and family (FGrH 688 F13(24)) 246 5. Xerxes' suitability to rule (Hdt. VII, 187) 247
7.B. Revolts in Egypt and Babylonia 248 6. The Egyptian revolt suppressed (Hdt. VII, 5; 7) 248 7. Revolt in Babylonia (FGrH 688 Fl 3(26)) 248 8. A possible reprisal for Babylon's revolt? (Hdt. I, 183) 249
7.C. The Greek campaign 250 (a) The planning of the campaign 250
9. The decision to invade (Hdt. VII, 5-6) 250 10. Gathering the Persian forces (Hdt. VII, 8; 19; 21) 251 11. Securing the route for the army and the fleet (Hdt. VII, 22; 24) 251 12. Bridging the Hellespont (Hdt. VII, 33-5) 252 13. Xerxes requests the Greeks to surrender (Hdt. VII, 32) 253 14. The Greek response to Xerxes' request (Hdt. VII, 131-3) 253 15. All of Thessaly joins the Persians (Hdt. VII, 172; 174) 253 16. Many Greeks are tempted to surrender (Hdt. VII, 138) 254
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(b) The march to Greece 254 17. The contingents gather to set forth (Hdt. VII, 26) 254 18. Xerxes reaches Sardis (Hdt. VII, 31) 256 19. Xerxes honours the gods and heroes of Troy (Hdt. VII, 43) 256 20. The crossing of the Hellespont (Hdt. VII, 55) 256 21. The fleet arrives at Doriscus (Hdt. VII, 58-9) 257 2 2. The march through Thrace (Hdt. VII, 115) 257 23. Xerxes honours Acanthus for its support (Hdt. VII, 116-17) 258 24. The order of marching and the fleet sent ahead (Hdt. VII, 121-2;
124; 127) 258
(c) The Persians advance into central Greece 259 25. Persian and Greek forces move into position (Hdt. VII, 177; 179; 183) 259 26. Part of the Persian fleet destroyed in a storm (Hdt. VII, 188; 190-2) 259 2 7. Persian ships captured by Greeks (Hdt. VII, 19 2-5) '" 260 28. Xerxes moves through Thessaly and Achaea (Hdt. VII, 196-7) 261 29. Persian and Greek forces confront each other at Thermopylae
(Hdt. VII, 201; 207; 210-12) 261 30. The Persians circumvent the Pass of Thermopylae (Hdt. VII, 213;
215; 217-18) 262 31. The final Persian assault and victory (Hdt. VII, 223-5; 233) 263 32. The Greek and Persian fleet face and engage each other (Hdt.
VIII, 4; 6-7; 10). 264 33. The Persian fleet victorious against the Greeks (Hdt. VIII, 15-16;
18;21) 265
(d) Persian successes and setbacks 266 34. The Persians conquer north Euboea (Hdt. VIII, 23) 266 35. Xerxes displays the corpses of the defeated (Hdt. VIII, 24—5) 266 36. Greek deserters supply information to the Persian army (Hdt. VIII, 26) 267 37. The Persian advance through Doris and Phocis (Hdt. VIII, 31-2) 267 38. Boeotia joins the Persians (Hdt. VIII, 34) 268 39. The Greeks withdraw to the Peloponnese and Attica is evacuated
(Hdt. VIII, 40-1) 268 40. Athens falls to the Persians (Hdt. VIII, 51-3) 268 41. News of the Persian victory relayed to the royal centre (Hdt. VIII, 54) 269 42. Xerxes' fleet and more troops arrive in Attica (Hdt. VIII, 66-7) 270 43. A later account of the Battle of Salamis (D.S. XI, 17-19) 270
(e) Xerxes returns to Sardis 272 44. Xerxes' directions (Hdt. VIII, 107) 272 45. Mardonius prepares for another offensive in spring (Hdt. VIII, 113) 272 46. The march to the Hellespont (Hdt. VIII, 115) 273
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47. Xerxes sails to Ionia (Hdt. VIII, 118) 273 48. Abdera rewarded for its loyalty (Hdt. VIII, 120) 274 49. Persians encounter setbacks in Mygdonia and Thrace 274
(i) The sacred chariot lost (Hdt. VIII, 115) 274 (ii) Revolts in Chalcidice (Hdt. VIII, 126-7) 274
(f) The Greek campaign continued on two fronts 275 50. Greek attempts to compel islanders to join them (Hdt. VIII, 111-12) 275 51. Persian overtures to Athens (Hdt. VIII, 136; 140) 276 52. Stalemate in the Aegean (Hdt. VIII, 130-2) 277 53. The Athenians divided among themselves (Hdt. IX, 4—5) 278 54. Argos in league with the Persians (Hdt. IX, 12) 278 55. Mardonius withdraws to more advantageous terrain (Hdt. IX, 13) 279 56. Building the Persian camp at Plataea (Hdt. IX, 15) 279 57. The Persian cavalry charge (Hdt. IX, 20; 22-5) 279 58. The Persian commanders disagree on strategy (Hdt. IX, 41) 281 59. Mardonius' death (Hdt. IX,…