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    THE NOBEL PRIZE WINNERSSource: Advocate of Peace through Justice, Vol. 90, No. 2 (February, 1928), pp. 90-91Published by: World Affairs InstituteStable URL: .Accessed: 15/06/2014 20:49

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  • 90 ADVOCATE OF PEACE February that these latter were sincere in their sym

    pathy for the Chinese Nationalists move

    ment, but recent events fully showed that

    the Soviet had attempted to denationalize the Nationalist movement with the object of converting China into a mere appan

    age of the Soviet Union. Elementary con

    siderations of self-defense required a re

    moval of centers of hostile activity. Dr. Wu mentions that he gave warning

    last June, but the warning had no effect. He concludes: "In taking this purely de

    fensive measure, it is immaterial to us

    whom such action happens to please or


    Chicherin Blames Great Britain

    On December 23 Chicherin issued a

    statement, in which he said:

    The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs has repeatedly had to point out that

    whenever a revolutionary movement occurs

    in any country the enemies of the Soviet

    Union invariably declare it has been pro

    voked by agents of the Soviet Government.

    Thus, the counter-revolutionary generals in

    that country who have drowned in torrents

    of blood the great revolt of the workers in

    Canton, heaping the corpses of tortured

    workers in the streets, have manifested

    especial hatred toward the Soviet citizens

    who were in Canton and who were among

    the first of innumerable victims.

    But although the crimes of the Canton

    generals against the Soviet Union are unpre

    cedentedly serious, the heavy responsibility for these cannot be confined to Canton. The

    political responsibility for these atrocities

    rests on all persons in the region of so-called

    "Nationalist" governments. Not only Gen

    erals Chang Fat-kwei and Li Fu-ling, who

    acted at Canton, but also others, such as Li

    Chi-sheng, Chiang Kai-shek, and Pei Chung

    shi, are guilty of these crimes.

    Responsibility also falls on other forces of

    world reaction which are hostile to the Soviet

    Union. It may be said that a decisive factor

    in causing these events was the instigation by all the Imperialist and "White Guardist" groups in Shanghai, Hongkong, and other

    centers of colonial policy in China, and by inspiration from London. This fact was per

    fectly clear, and has now been confirmed by the jubilations of the English press.

    British Imperialist reaction must be recog nized as the chief motive force of the Canton

    slaughter and the acts of violence perpe trated on Soviet citizens. The toilers of the

    Soviet Union are deeply afflicted at the death

    of their comrades, tortured by henchmen of

    the South Chinese counter-revolutionaries, but their martyr blood has not been shed in


    The Soviet Government sees in the bar

    barous acts of the Chinese counter-revolu

    tionaries and of the forces standing behind

    them an open attack on the Soviet Union.

    While immutably pursuing its policy of peace, a new expression of which was the proposal for general disarmament made recently at

    Geneva, the Soviet Union is at the same time

    ready for the worst and will not be taken unawares. On behalf of the Soviet Govern

    ment, the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs protests before the whole world

    against the outrages of the Chinese counter

    revolutionaries. The Soviet Government re

    serves the right to undertake all measures

    which it may deem necessary in view of the

    bloody crimes committed in South China

    against the Union. These savage acts can

    not remain unpunished.



    HE Nobel Peace Prize this year was

    awarded, as was last year's prize, to

    two persons. They were Prof. Ludwig Quidde, of Germany, and M. Ferdinand

    Buisson, of France. Following are the

    biographies of these two workers for world peace:

    Professor Quidde

    Dr. Ludwig Quidde was born in Bre

    men in 1858. He studied history at the

    Universities of Strasburg and Gdttingen. After taking his doctor's degree in 1881, he spent some years in Frankfurt, Kdnigs

    berg, and Munich working on old Ger man parliamentary records. In 1890 he founded and published for six years a his

    torical review, the Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft.

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  • 1928 WORLD PROBLEMS IN REVIEW 91 From 1893 onward Dr. Quidde took an

    increasingly prominent part in the demo

    cratic and pacifist movements. In 1894

    he caused considerable excitement by pub lishing a study entitled "Caligula," which contained some sharp criticism of the

    young Kaiser Wilhelm II and his methods of government. The book went through 30 editions. Dr. Quidde continued to write along the same lines and in 1896 he was sentenced to three months' imprison ment for lbse-majesti. Later he became a town councilor in Munich, and in 1907 he was elected to the Bavarian Second Chamber. After the revolution in 1918 he was vice-president of the Bavarian Provisional Council and he also attended the Weimar Assembly.

    The international peace movement has,

    however, absorbed even more of Dr.

    Quidde's attention than home politics. He founded the Munich Peace Society in

    1894 and has been a member of the Inter

    national Peace Committee since 1901.

    Dr. Quidde is now the leader of the Ger man pacifist movement, being president of the German Peace Society. His pen has

    always been active in the cause of peace and it got him into trouble for the second time in 1924.

    Although a convinced pacifist, Dr.

    Quidde has never shared the view of some of the more fanatical German pacifists, that the best way to serve the cause of

    peace is to work against their own coun

    try. He is gifted with a certain dry hu mor which has generally preserved him from exaggerations. His feelings with

    regard to the treaty of Versailles and the Ruhr occupation were hardly distinguish able from those of the Nationalists. Early in 1924 he came to the conclusion that the activities of the illegal semi-military

    Nationalist organizations were merely pro viding the French with the very material as to the failure of Germany to disarm which they desired as pretexts for main

    taining measures of coercion. He wrote an article to this effect, expressing at the same time the opinion that the higher

    military authorities were not responsible for these harmful activities, but hinting that Germany's position would be im

    proved if the illegal organizations were not shielded by certain other authorities

    particularly as the Allied governments knew all about them.

    Dr. Quidde had some difficulty in get ting any newspaper to publish the article. Eventually it appeared in the pacifist Welt am Montag in Berlin. The extreme Na tionalists in Bavaria, against whom it was

    chiefly directed, were furious, and the Munich judicial authorities were prevailed upon to have Dr. Quidde arrested on a

    charge of treason, for which he was in formed he might receive a death sentence. His treatment while under detention in Bavarian prisons was harsh, and he claimed afterwards that it was contrary to a number of regulations. He was not even taken before a magistrate for three days. Eventually it was found impos sible to uphold the charge.

    M. Buisson

    M. Ferdinand Buisson was born in Paris in 1841 and educated at the College of Argentan and the Saint-Etienne and Condorcet Lycees. From 1866 to 1870 he

    taught in Switzerland, and in 1871 he returned to France and was appointed inspector of schools. His advocacy of non-sectarian education met with strong opposition, and he was forced to resign after being denounced in the National

    Assembly. In 1875 he was sent as official delegate to the Vienna Exhibition and in 1876 and 1878 he carried out similar duties at the Philadelphia and Paris ex hibitions. He became director of primary education in 1879 and successfully re sumed his campaign in favor of non-sec tarian schools. M. Buisson entered Par

    liament as Deputy for the Seine in 1902 and became a Senator in 1919. After the war he became a leading figure in the movement for p