90 ADVOCATE OF PEACE February that these latter were sincere in their sym
pathy for the Chinese Nationalists move
ment, but recent events fully showed that
the Soviet had attempted to denationalize the Nationalist movement with the object of converting China into a mere appan
age of the Soviet Union. Elementary con
siderations of self-defense required a re
moval of centers of hostile activity. Dr. Wu mentions that he gave warning
last June, but the warning had no effect. He concludes: "In taking this purely de
fensive measure, it is immaterial to us
whom such action happens to please or
Chicherin Blames Great Britain
On December 23 Chicherin issued a
statement, in which he said:
The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs has repeatedly had to point out that
whenever a revolutionary movement occurs
in any country the enemies of the Soviet
Union invariably declare it has been pro
voked by agents of the Soviet Government.
Thus, the counter-revolutionary generals in
that country who have drowned in torrents
of blood the great revolt of the workers in
Canton, heaping the corpses of tortured
workers in the streets, have manifested
especial hatred toward the Soviet citizens
who were in Canton and who were among
the first of innumerable victims.
But although the crimes of the Canton
generals against the Soviet Union are unpre
cedentedly serious, the heavy responsibility for these cannot be confined to Canton. The
political responsibility for these atrocities
rests on all persons in the region of so-called
"Nationalist" governments. Not only Gen
erals Chang Fat-kwei and Li Fu-ling, who
acted at Canton, but also others, such as Li
Chi-sheng, Chiang Kai-shek, and Pei Chung
shi, are guilty of these crimes.
Responsibility also falls on other forces of
world reaction which are hostile to the Soviet
Union. It may be said that a decisive factor
in causing these events was the instigation by all the Imperialist and "White Guardist" groups in Shanghai, Hongkong, and other
centers of colonial policy in China, and by inspiration from London. This fact was per
fectly clear, and has now been confirmed by the jubilations of the English press.
British Imperialist reaction must be recog nized as the chief motive force of the Canton
slaughter and the acts of violence perpe trated on Soviet citizens. The toilers of the
Soviet Union are deeply afflicted at the death
of their comrades, tortured by henchmen of
the South Chinese counter-revolutionaries, but their martyr blood has not been shed in
The Soviet Government sees in the bar
barous acts of the Chinese counter-revolu
tionaries and of the forces standing behind
them an open attack on the Soviet Union.
While immutably pursuing its policy of peace, a new expression of which was the proposal for general disarmament made recently at
Geneva, the Soviet Union is at the same time
ready for the worst and will not be taken unawares. On behalf of the Soviet Govern
ment, the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs protests before the whole world
against the outrages of the Chinese counter
revolutionaries. The Soviet Government re
serves the right to undertake all measures
which it may deem necessary in view of the
bloody crimes committed in South China
against the Union. These savage acts can
not remain unpunished.
THE NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS
HE Nobel Peace Prize this year was
awarded, as was last year's prize, to
two persons. They were Prof. Ludwig Quidde, of Germany, and M. Ferdinand
Buisson, of France. Following are the
biographies of these two workers for world peace:
Dr. Ludwig Quidde was born in Bre
men in 1858. He studied history at the
Universities of Strasburg and Gdttingen. After taking his doctor's degree in 1881, he spent some years in Frankfurt, Kdnigs
berg, and Munich working on old Ger man parliamentary records. In 1890 he founded and published for six years a his
torical review, the Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft.
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1928 WORLD PROBLEMS IN REVIEW 91 From 1893 onward Dr. Quidde took an
increasingly prominent part in the demo
cratic and pacifist movements. In 1894
he caused considerable excitement by pub lishing a study entitled "Caligula," which contained some sharp criticism of the
young Kaiser Wilhelm II and his methods of government. The book went through 30 editions. Dr. Quidde continued to write along the same lines and in 1896 he was sentenced to three months' imprison ment for lbse-majesti. Later he became a town councilor in Munich, and in 1907 he was elected to the Bavarian Second Chamber. After the revolution in 1918 he was vice-president of the Bavarian Provisional Council and he also attended the Weimar Assembly.
The international peace movement has,
however, absorbed even more of Dr.
Quidde's attention than home politics. He founded the Munich Peace Society in
1894 and has been a member of the Inter
national Peace Committee since 1901.
Dr. Quidde is now the leader of the Ger man pacifist movement, being president of the German Peace Society. His pen has
always been active in the cause of peace and it got him into trouble for the second time in 1924.
Although a convinced pacifist, Dr.
Quidde has never shared the view of some of the more fanatical German pacifists, that the best way to serve the cause of
peace is to work against their own coun
try. He is gifted with a certain dry hu mor which has generally preserved him from exaggerations. His feelings with
regard to the treaty of Versailles and the Ruhr occupation were hardly distinguish able from those of the Nationalists. Early in 1924 he came to the conclusion that the activities of the illegal semi-military
Nationalist organizations were merely pro viding the French with the very material as to the failure of Germany to disarm which they desired as pretexts for main
taining measures of coercion. He wrote an article to this effect, expressing at the same time the opinion that the higher
military authorities were not responsible for these harmful activities, but hinting that Germany's position would be im
proved if the illegal organizations were not shielded by certain other authorities
particularly as the Allied governments knew all about them.
Dr. Quidde had some difficulty in get ting any newspaper to publish the article. Eventually it appeared in the pacifist Welt am Montag in Berlin. The extreme Na tionalists in Bavaria, against whom it was
chiefly directed, were furious, and the Munich judicial authorities were prevailed upon to have Dr. Quidde arrested on a
charge of treason, for which he was in formed he might receive a death sentence. His treatment while under detention in Bavarian prisons was harsh, and he claimed afterwards that it was contrary to a number of regulations. He was not even taken before a magistrate for three days. Eventually it was found impos sible to uphold the charge.
M. Ferdinand Buisson was born in Paris in 1841 and educated at the College of Argentan and the Saint-Etienne and Condorcet Lycees. From 1866 to 1870 he
taught in Switzerland, and in 1871 he returned to France and was appointed inspector of schools. His advocacy of non-sectarian education met with strong opposition, and he was forced to resign after being denounced in the National
Assembly. In 1875 he was sent as official delegate to the Vienna Exhibition and in 1876 and 1878 he carried out similar duties at the Philadelphia and Paris ex hibitions. He became director of primary education in 1879 and successfully re sumed his campaign in favor of non-sec tarian schools. M. Buisson entered Par
liament as Deputy for the Seine in 1902 and became a Senator in 1919. After the war he became a leading figure in the movement for p