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The Nervous System. The Neuron The neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system Central Neurons in CNS Peripheral Neurons in PNS

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Text of The Nervous System. The Neuron The neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system Central Neurons in...

  • Slide 1
  • The Nervous System
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  • The Neuron The neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system Central Neurons in CNS Peripheral Neurons in PNS
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  • The Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems The peripheral nervous system carries information to and from the nervous system The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries information to skeletal muscles
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  • The Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems The sympathetic nervous system is the part of the autonomic nervous system that becomes most active during emergency situations
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  • The Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems The parasympathetic nervous system is the part of the autonomic nervous system that controls the ongoing maintenance processes of the body
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  • Figure 2.8 The Basic Divisions of the Nervous System
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  • Five Principles of Brain Organization 1. The hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain each involve several brain regions that carry out different types of information processing 2. There are identifiable neural pathways projecting from one area to the next
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  • Five Principles of Brain Organization 3. Each part of the brain projects to the next in an orderly fashion creating organized regions that can be mapped 4. The brain is hierarchically organized 5. The brain systems are organized so that one side of the brain controls the other side of the body
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  • Figure 2.11 The Hindbrain
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  • The Midbrain The midbrain receives afferent signals from other parts of the brain and relays the information to a more complex part of the brain
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  • The Forebrain The forebrain is the most complicated and advanced of the three divisions of the brain The thalamus sends information to other parts of the brain The hypothalamus affects many complex behaviours
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  • Figure 2.12 The Forebrain
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  • The Forebrain The limbic system is an interconnected group of structures that influences emotions and memory The hippocampus is involved in new learning The amygdala is involved in emotional control
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  • Figure 2.13 Principal Structures of the Limbic System
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  • The Forebrain The basal ganglia controls movement and posture The corpus callosum provides cross- hemisphere connections
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  • The Cortex The cortex is divided into a series of lobes
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  • The Cortex The frontal lobe is concerned with directing thought processes The parietal lobe integrates visual input The occipital lobe processes visual input The temporal lobe is important for language comprehension
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  • Figure 2.14 The Cortex and the Lobes of the Brain
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  • Monitoring Neural Activity Single-unit recording measures activity in individual neurons Electroencephalography (EEG) measures electrical activity in the nervous system
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  • Monitoring Neural Activity CT scans are computer-enhanced X- rays PET tracks radioactive markers that have been injected into the bloodstream
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  • Monitoring Neural Activity MRI uses magnetic fields fMRI measures brain activity as it takes place