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skill and individuality, and a pioneer in France in the spreadof the teaching of Pasteur and Lister. ’

- Dr. LUCAS-CHAMPIONNIÈRE, who was received with greatenthusiasm, briefly returned thanks to the assembled com-pany for their reception of him and his family, and to theLord Mayor and Lady Mayoress whose guests he, Madame ’!

Lucas-Championniere, and their two daughters were. He

humorously pleaded old age as an excuse for not making aspeech.

Mr. WILLIAM SHEEN, honorary secretary of the LynnThomas and Skyrme Fund, then made a brief statement asto the constitution and results of the Fund. He stated howthe action in which Mr. Lynn Thomas and Mr. Skyrme wereinvolved arose as far back as 1904. The first trial was in

December, 1905, and the second in November, 1906. The

plaintiff, who claimed £2000 damages, was awarded E100,but as the verdict carried with it costs the expense to thedefendants amounted to such a total that after taxation, andafter a contribution from the Medical Defence Union of over

.f.900, there still remained to be paid £3200. Following amedical dinner which was held at Cardiff within a few

days of the second trial, when about 130 medical men em-phatically expressed their sympathy with the defendants, anappeal was made, and within a period of four months therewas collected for a re-imbursement fund £1781. The resultwas that Mr. Lvnn Thomas and Mr. Skvrme would receiveabout .8800 each towards the expenses which they had in-curred. The money had been subscribed by some 2000medical men all over the country, no less than 200 beingsubscriptions of 2s. 6d.

Mr. EDMUND OWEN, in introducing Mr. Lynn Thomas andMr. Skyrme to the presenter of the testimonial, congratu-lated all those responsible for the gathering upon its greatsuccess. In a manner which obviously went home to hishearers he dwelt upon the splendid way in which Mr. LynnThomas had stood by Mr. Skyrme. This fact had been re-

cognised by the medical profession, and he felt that bothMr. Lynn Thomas and Mr. Skyrme had come well througha painful ordeal, and that the verdict of the courts wasnot that of their fellow practitioners.

Sir ALFRED THOMAS and Mr. MANSELL MouLLix havingalso spoken in testimony of the personal worth of those whowere about to receive the testimonial, Mr. Lynn Thomas andMr. Skyrme, amidst much applause, walked up the hall arm-in-arm to where Dr. Lucas-Championniere sat on the rightof the chairman, and received from him the cheques resultingfrom the fund.

Mr. LYNN THOMAS spoke first in acknowledgment of thepresentation. He declared that the event would for ever be

memorable to him as proving to him that he had retained the- confidence of his fellows and bringing with it the assurance. that an invisible hand would support members of the medical. profession under wrongful accusations. He returned thewarmest thanks to Dr. Lucas-Championniere for his presencethere that evening, to Mr. William Sheen for his devotedlabour in organising the fund, and to all those who had sub-scribed to it. Mr. SKYRME spoke in a similar vein, pointingout also that the issue of this case, in support of which theMedical Defence Union had paid no less a sum than £928,had been that both that society and the London and CountiesMedical Protection Society had now made arrangements withinsurance companies whereby, in consideration of a smallannual subscription, the payment of the damages and costsin such actions as those in which he and Mr. Lynn Thomashad been involved would be paid up to a certain amount bythe insurance companies.

. Dr. D. R. PATERSON then proposed " The Health of theVisitors," to which the LORD MAYOR of Cardiff, Dr. DAWSONWILLIAMS, and Dr. SQUIRE SPRIC,GE responded.

. The LORD MAYOR having warmly expressed his pleasureboth at welcoming Dr. Lucas-Championnière to Cardiff andat being present on an occasion so gratifying to Mr. Lynn

Thomas, Mr. Skyrme, and the medical profession generally,Dr. SQUIRE SPRIGGE said that as the significance of the

meeting had already been so eloquently indicated by previousspeakers hoe would confine his words to one particular point

-viz., the manner in which the appeal to the profession wasmade. That manner was wholly admirable. The statementof the case in the medical press was studiously fair, andevery point made was, or could be, vouched for by high

surgical opinion. The original letter of appeal was basedon broad grounds, without a touch of bitterness or personal

recrimination in it, was signed by names eminent in themedical world as professors, consultants, and leaders

generally, and received a remarkable scientific endorsementfrom the continent and the United States. The success of.the movement was assured by the manner in which it wasinaugurated no less than by the righteousness of the causeadvocated.

Dr. DAWSON WILLIAMS said that the movement whichreached its final stage on that occasion owed nothing of itssuccess to personal considerations. It was a movement tovindicate the right to freedom of thought. The claim tothat right was no new thing, for it had led to the founda-tion of the mediaeval universities, but it was appropriateenough that this most recent defence of the principle shouldhave originated in Wales, for the people of the Princi-pality had in comparatively recent times been impelled,by a punctilious adherence to that principle, willingly tomake many sacrifices. In the exercise of the medical artfreedom of thought implied freedom to act for the best,according to the best knowledge of the day. In conclusion,he said that he was commissioned to state that Dr. E. Rayner,

treasurer of the British Medical Association, had intended tobe present, but was detained in London by pressure of busi-ness. Dr. H. Davy, too, who when President of the Associa-tion, had taken a warm interest in the initiation of themovement, was also unfortunately detained at the lastmoment.

After the health of the chairman and secretaries of thedinner, which was in every way a most successful function,had been duly drunk the meeting dispersed.


AN exhibition organised by this association was opened,as we have already announced, by Mr. John Burns, thePresident of the Local Government Board, on June 2nd atthe Art Gallery, High-street, Whitechapel. The object ofthe exhibition, which is chiefly of a popular and educationalcharacter, is to bring home to the people the nature oftuberculosis, the extent of its ravages, and the possibilityof its prevention and cure. To this end, popular lectures,homely talks, and lantern demonstrations are given fromtime to time during the period which the exhibition remainsopen-namely, till June 19th-and no charge is made foradmission. The success which follows such exhibitions hasbeen proved in America, and also in Ireland by the campaignorganised by Lady Aberdeen, and the country owes a debtof gratitude to the National Association for its presentexhibition and for its determination to carry on the work

throughout the Kingdom.On entering the vestibule of the exhibition attention is

immediately arrested by the large posters of the associationwith the heading "Symptoms of Early Consumption."These posters state that consumption is curable in the

majority of cases if taken in hand early, and after detailing thesymptoms which may point to consumption exhort sufferersto take prompt medical advice. It is to be hoped that thecrowds, among whom are many working men and women,who attentively peruse these excellent posters, will profitby the advice given. Almost directly inside the doors of theexhibition, the walls of which are covered with maps show-ing the statistics of tuberculosis and photographs of unhealthyand overcrowded areas, are two models of a one-roomedtenement as it exists in London. The first displays its furni-ture-if the tatterdemalion bed, the washstand without abasin, and the crazy chest of drawers can be so designated-without an attempt to conceal its failings or repair itsdefaults. The actual dwelling which the full-sized modelrepresents was occupied by four people-father, mother,and two children-and darkness and dampness are its chieffeatures. The next model shows the same room, butintelligence and a feeling for cleanliness and decencyhave now transformed it into an inhabitable, nay, an

attractive dwelling. Gone are the paper-patched windows,and where there was darkness, inevitably accompaniedby stench and disease, there is now light, the old



furniture wears a new aspect, and we feel that there isalso an atmosphere of health in the general cleanlinessand tidiness. Near to this exhibit are rough drawingsshowing the right and the wrong way to sweep a floor. One

picture shows a woman sweeping a floor on which sits a

baby, while the dust which the sweeper is raising with herbroom almost chokes the child. The other shows the broom

enveloped in a damp cloth and the child is playing happilywithout being subjected to the risk of disease from infecteddust. Of course, it would be better if the child were takenout of the room altogether while sweeping operations were inprogress, but this exhibition is meant to be practical, andthose who manage it know that in some of the dwellings of thepoor this might not be possible. "How to Cough

" and " HowNot to Cough " are other effective pictures. The one showsthe bacilli-laden moisture from a consumptive patient infect-ing another person at a distance of 25 feet, and the otherthe same patient coughing with his hand before his mouth,afterwards spitting into a piece of paper which he

crumples up and throws into the fire. Not far off isa model cradle made out of a banana box with hammockmattress of unbleached calico, cretonne drapery, andmuslin covering. This easily and cheaply made contrivanceis a direct answer to the statement that the poor cannotafford cradles ; the idea is to this extent far superior to theemployment of a drawer-the usual substitute for a cradle-in that all the drawers which poor women have are

generally badly wanted. This contrivance, which is similarto one shown in connexion with the Second Inter-national Congress of School Hygiene,l was sent by theMarylebone Health Society, which also exhibits a cheapapparatus for sterilising milk. All of these tangible andvisible things have a more potent effect upon the minds of thereally poor or ignorant than the scientific part of theexhibition, and nothing but good can come of this somewhatsensational way of proving to the populace that many featuresof daily life are dangerous. The exhibition of various kindsof food with notes on their dietetic value should also servea useful purpose in the education of those whose daily fareis too often prompted merely by custom and who have nevergiven thought to the economy of their food.A special section is devoted to tuberculosis in children,

and one of the most interesting exhibits in this departmentis a large model of an open-air school designed by Dr.Frederick Rose, assistant educational adviser to the LondonCounty Council. An eight-page pamphlet giving an accountof the nature and scope of open-air schools, and details andestimates of the model can be obtained at the pamphlet stallin the exhibition. This model was originally shown at theCountry in Town Exhibition held at Whitechapel in 1908.2 Theinstitution known as Lord Mayor Treloar’s Cripple Home andCollege at Alton is represented by photographs showing howtuberculosis in children is treated, and the methods adoptedin other institutions, including the Alexandra Hospital andthe Salop Convalescent Home, are also shown in a similarmanner and by models. One end of the main room of theexhibition building is fitted up as a ward of the RoyalVictoria Hospital for Consumption at Craigleith, Edin-

burgh, and there is also a model showing the arrangementsof the buildings and grounds of this institution. The

hospital is connected with the Royal Victoria Dispensaryfor Consumption, which was started in 1887 with theobject of combating tuberculosis and of affording a centralinstitution towards which persons suffering from the diseasemight be directed. Sanatoriums of various kinds are well

represented, and the models include the Seaforth Sanatorium,the Maitland Cottage Sanatorium at Peppard Common, theFrimley Sanatorium, and the Kelling Sanatorium, the lastmodel being constructed by a patient. Mention here shouldalso be made of the models illustrating progressive over-crowding as a cause predisposing to consumption and itsspread, which have been constructed by Mr. R. Sykes,R.I.B.A., and lent by Dr. John F. J. Sykes. The Hudders-field exhibit of models of back-to-back houses, old and newtype, is also instructive.An important development of the treatment of tuberculosis

in sanatoriums is the graduated system of work for thepatients, and many of the sanatoriums represented showphotographs of ne system adopted. Actual specimens of

1 THE LANCET, vol. ii., 1907, p. 548, &c.2 THE LANCET, vol. ii., 1908, p. 132.

manufacture by the patients are also displayed. By theVictoria Home for Invalid Children, Margate, some speci-mens of wool garments are shown, while the St. Vincent’sCripples’ Home show photographs of the inmates atwork knitting, tailoring, and brush-making. Specimensof brush work are exhibited by the St. Hugh’s Cripples,Home. From the Royal Victoria Hospital for Consumptionat Craigleith come pictures the patients engaged in work ofmany kinds, domestic, industrial, and agricultural. Thephotographs and actual specimens of work done by the

patients in the Blencathra Sanatorium, Threlkeld, form amost interesting and instructive exhibit, as do also the seriesof photographs shown by the Frimley Sanatorium. Thislatter institution includes in its exhibit spades and otherimplements graduated in weight and size in accordance withthe strength of the patients using them. The work done at

King Edward VII. Sanatorium at Midhurst is also shown pho-tographically, and the National Association for the Establish-ment and Maintenance of Sanatoria for Workers Sufferingfrom Tuberculosis at Benenden, the Inverness-shire Sana- ;torium, and the Daneswood Sanatorium for the Jewish Poorillustrate the work of the patients in similar ways. Thisfeature of the exhibition is one which requires the earnestand attentive study of all who are in any way concerned inthe management of sanatoriums. The exhibits are neces-

sarily somewhat scattered about in different parts of the

exhibition, but a special study of the subject can be easilymade with the aid of the catalogue.’i A small room is set apart as a pathological section. Hereare specimens of the liver, lung, and udder of the cowaffected with tuberculous disease, lent by Dr. E. W. Hopefrom the public health department of Liverpool. Similar

specimens, together with illustrations of infected and dirtymilk, are lent by Professor S. Del6pine from the ManchesterUniversity, while Professor G. Sims Woodhead shows a largenumber of bottle specimens from the Humphry Museum ofthe University of Cambridge. These are mostly from thehuman subject. The Royal College of Surgeons of Englandalso lends some pathological specimens both of the humansubject and of birds. X ray photographs are also lent bythe Humphry Museum and by the Royal Chest Hospital,while others are provided by the Local Government Boardand Dr. E. J. Steegmann, and lantern slides are sent byDr. Arthur Ransome.

It is intended to open similar exhibitions in all thepoorer districts of London in turn, and later an extendedtour of the provincial cities and towns will be made. Itis also hoped that the work may be supplemented bysmaller portable exhibitions in travelling vans, so that thepropaganda may reach the country districts. The movementis entirely free from commercial enterprise and no chargewill anywhere be made for admission.

Looking Back.FROM


The sulphuret of carbon, though discovered by Lampadiusin 1796, has not yet been introduced into the medical dis-pensatories. MM. Wutzer and Pellengham have latelyinvestigated its properties with the following results :-

1. The sulphuret of carbon is one of the most powerful ofthe diffusible stimulants yet discovered.

2. It excites powerfully the activity of the heart andarterial system.

3. Its internal use quickly determines acceleration of thepulse, increased heat, and sanguineous congestion towardsthe skin, and genito-urinary apparatus.

4. The most remarkable secondary symptoms are, abundantdiaphoresis, increase of the urinary secretion and of themenstrual discharge.


5. It has been used with the utmost success as a remedyin chronic rheumatism, and in gout where no fever simul-taneously exists.

6. The dose in which it is fit to give it internally, is fromthree to eight drops, in any convenient liquid vehicle, or on