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The Science of Human Movement THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

The Musculoskeletal system

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The Musculoskeletal system. The Science of Human Movement. If we had no bones. Video. The human skeleton. The purpose of the skeleton is to provide structure , support and protection to the various organs and systems necessary for life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: The Musculoskeletal system

The Science of Human Movement

THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Page 2: The Musculoskeletal system

Video

IF WE HAD NO BONES

Page 3: The Musculoskeletal system

• The purpose of the skeleton is to provide structure, support and protection to the various organs and systems necessary for life

• A typical adult human skeleton contains 206 bones

THE HUMAN SKELETON

Page 4: The Musculoskeletal system

Do infants have more or fewer bones than adults?

THE HUMAN SKELETON

Page 5: The Musculoskeletal system

Do infants have more or fewer bones than adults?

Answer: More! Many bones begin separated but fuse together as humans develop. For example, the bones of the skull begin separated to allow for brain growth and development.(This is why babies’ heads are so vulnerable)

THE HUMAN SKELETON

Page 6: The Musculoskeletal system

Do infants have more or fewer bones than adults?

THE HUMAN SKELETON

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The human skeleton consists of three types of connective tissue:

• Bone Tissue • Ligaments • Cartilage

STRUCTURAL FEATURES

The Right Knee

Page 8: The Musculoskeletal system

• Rigid and dense material which contains living cells and non-living minerals (mostly calcium and phosphorus).

• Canals in bones contain nerves and blood vessels.

BONES

The Right Knee

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BONES

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• Due to the living cells, bone can regenerate if injured.

• Only a small percentage of bone tissue is actually living

BONES

The Right Knee

Page 11: The Musculoskeletal system

BONE TISSUE

Page 12: The Musculoskeletal system

BONE CELLS

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• Tough, elastic connective tissues

• Hold bones together, especially where extra support is necessary (ie. at joints)

• Made up of collagen fibres (non-living), so regeneration after an injury is more difficult

LIGAMENTS

The Right Knee

Page 14: The Musculoskeletal system

• Made of special cells, surrounded by collagen fibres (stretchy elastic fibres). Limited regeneration following injury

• Strong and flexible, but they contain special proteins that decrease friction

• Located where bones contact each other

CARTILAGE

The Right Knee

Page 15: The Musculoskeletal system

In small groups, consider the following question:

What does your body do, in order for you move from one place to another?

HOW DO WE MOVE?

Page 16: The Musculoskeletal system

The human body contains three different types of muscle:

• Cardiac Muscle is the muscle lining the walls of the heart.

• Smooth Muscle is the muscle lining the digestive system (peristalsis)

• The type specifically associated with movement is called Skeletal Muscle.

MUSCLE

(Bundle of Muscle fibres)

Page 17: The Musculoskeletal system

MUSCLE

Page 18: The Musculoskeletal system

MUSCLE

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A Skeletal Muscle is connected to one or more bones via Tendons, which are like less elastic (but

more stable) versions of ligaments.

Muscles exert a force on bones and cause them to move in

response to signals from the nervous system.

Muscles can pull, but never push…

SO HOW DO WE MOVE?

Page 20: The Musculoskeletal system

• In order to return a bone to its original position, an opposing muscle, or antagonist muscle must pull it back

ANTAGONIST MUSCLES

Page 21: The Musculoskeletal system

QWOP!!!

http://www.foddy.net/Athletics.html

ANTAGONIST MUSCLES

Page 22: The Musculoskeletal system

• A bone disorder characterized by loss of calcium

• Affects people of all ages, women are more prone to it

OSTEOPOROSIS

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• Painless, but weaker bones make injuries more common, especially in the elderly

• Consuming foods with lots of calcium and vitamin D help lessen the risk

OSTEOPOROSIS

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OSTEOPOROSIS

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Since the skeleton is central to the human body’s support and protection, it

experiences many physical impacts and stresses.

Severe impacts can tear ligaments, tendons, muscles and fracture bones.

X-Rays are taken after a serious injury to determine if a bone is fractured, and how

to best treat the injury.

STICKS AND STONES…

Page 26: The Musculoskeletal system

Left ArmBroken ulna (Transverse Fracture)

STICKS AND STONES…

Page 27: The Musculoskeletal system

All vertebrates have musculoskeletal systems similar to ours, with muscles attached to bones beneath the skin.

IN OTHER NEWS…

Invertebrates (worms, jellyfish etc.) have very different systems, since they have no rigid frame and can change shape.

Page 28: The Musculoskeletal system

EXOSKELETONS

Insects and arthropods wear their skeleton outside of their skin (called an exoskeleton).

Page 29: The Musculoskeletal system

Homework: pg 101 - #1-6

HOMEWORK