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The Minimum Wages Act, 1948

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Text of The Minimum Wages Act, 1948


  • MINIMUM WAGES ACT, 1948To Secure the welfare of the workers in a competitive market by fixing the minimum rates of wages in certain employments.Intention was to apply it to those industries or localities in which there are causes or reasons such as: unorganized labor;absence of machinery for regulation of wages;wages paid to workers were inadequate in light of general level of wages and subsistence level.

  • NEED FOR THE ACTThe labour struggle in India is characterised by demand for fair treatment and gains like increase in wages, resistance to decrease in wages, and grant of benefits and allowances etc.The Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery Convention was held at Geneva in the year 1928 and passed a resolution to fix minimum wages in the case of trades or parts of trades (and in particular in home working trades) in which no arrangements exist for the effective regulation of wages by collective agreements or otherwise and wages are exceptionally low.

  • APPLICABILITY & SCOPE OF THE ACTThe Act applies to the whole of India.It aims at making provision for the statutory fixation of minimum rates of wages in a number of industries with unorganised & sweated labour.The purpose is to prevent exploitation of labour by authorising the appropriate Government to take steps to prescribe minimum rates of wages in certain employments.

  • MINIMUM WAGEIt is based on ethical ground & considerations and not on economic ground.It has no reference either to the value of the work done by the worker or the capacity of the industry to pay. If industry cannot pay this then it must be shut down.It is not only to meet the physical needs of a worker but also to ensure subsistence of his family and preserve his efficiency.It has to be determined on the cost of living and the normal or reasonable needs of worker and his family.

  • WAGE FIXATIONAn important aspect of social welfare programme.Wage cannot be fixed in vacuum and consideration has to be made to so many factors from real life a worker lives., or is expected to live or to look forward to.Principles of fixation:Minimum Wages must be paid in any event, irrespective of the extent of profits, the financial condition of the establishment or the availability of workmen on lower wages.


    Wages must be fair : Basic needs of family like food, shelter, clothing, medical care and child education .Fair wage is not living wageCapacity of industry to pay minimum wage is irrelevant.

    Minimum Wage is the starting point.Directive principles of state policy

  • DEFINITIONSCHILD-Age less than 14ADOLESCENT-Age more than 14less than 18ADULT-Age more than 18APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT The Central Government : scheduled employment provided by Central Government, Railway administration, Oil-fields, Major Ports or any Corporation established by Central Government. The State Government in relation to any other scheduled employment Specified in the schedule of the Act.

  • DEFINITIONS (CONTD.)COMPETENT AUTHORITY The Authority appointed by the appropriate Government by notification in its Official Gazette to ascertain from time to time the cost of living index number applicable to the employees employed in the scheduled employments. COST OF LIVING INDEX NUMBER: Ascertained and declared by Competent authority by notification in Gazette on the basis of which minimum rate is fixed. ( Also called as Consumer price index number)EMPLOYER Who employs persons directly or indirectly through other person.

  • DEEMED EMPLOYER IN THE CASE OF GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY The person appointed by the Government to Supervise and Control the Employees. In case no person was appointed then the Head of the Department will be the Deemed Employer

    DEEMED EMPLOYER IN THE CASE OF LOCAL AUTHORITY The person appointed by the Local Authority to Supervise and Control the Employees. In case no person was appointed then the Chief Executive Officer of the Local Authority will be the Deemed Employer

    DEEMED EMPLOYER IN OTHER CASES Any person responsible to the owner for the supervision and control of the Employees or for the Payment of Wages

  • SCHEDULED EMPLOYMENT Any employment specified in Part I and Part II of the Schedule provided in Minimum Wages Act.

    WAGES Expressed or Implied Monetary Payment in terms of Contract of Employment and includes House Rent Allowance.

  • WAGES DO NOT INCLUDE House Accommodation, Supply of necessities like Light, Water and Provision of Medical Attendance and Other Amenity or Service specifically excluded by the Appropriate Government. Contribution made to Pension Fund or Provident Fund or under any scheme of Social Insurance Travelling Allowance or the value of any Travelling Concession Special Allowances provided based on the nature of Employment Gratuity Payable

  • EMPLOYEE:Any person who is employed to do any work in scheduled employment:Skilled or unskilledManual or clerical An out workerChowkidar &AccountantDismissed employee for the purpose of claiming relief under the Act.It does not include Armed Forces.

  • FIXATION AND REVISION OF WAGESSection3: Appropriate Government is empowered to fix minimum wages in scheduled employment.Section 4: Contents of minimum wagesSection 5: procedure for fixing and revising minimum wages.

  • FIXING OF MINIMUM RATES OF WAGES (SECTION 3)The Appropriate Government :Shall fix the minimum rates of wages payable to employees in scheduled employment (Part1 & 2) and in employment added in any Part by notification in Gazette of India.Fixing of wage rates in Part 2 is to be done for Part of the State or for any specified class or classes of such employment in whole state or part there of.To review these rates every 5 years and revising them, if necessary.To refrain from fixing wages for those scheduled employments where number of employees are below 1000 in the whole state.

  • MINIMUM RATESMINIMUM TIME RATE The Minimum Wages paid for Time Work.MINIMUM PIECE RATE The Minimum Wages paid for Piece Work.GUARANTEED TIME RATE Those employed under the scheme of Piece Work but, Guaranteed Wages will be paid on the basis of Time.OVERTIME RATE Time Rate or Piece Rate will apply where the Employee has worked overtime over and above his normal working hours.

  • DIFFERENT MINIMUM RATESMINIMUM RATE OF WAGES WILL BE FIXED FOR Employments provided in Schedule Part I & II Different Types of Employments provided in Schedule Part I&II Adults, Adolescents, Children and Apprentices. Different LocalitiesWAGE PERIODS FIXED UNDER MINIMUM RATE OF WAGES By the Hour By the Day By the Month By such other larger wage period as may be prescribed

  • COMPONENTS OF MINIMUM WAGES- Section 4Method 1 Basic Rate of Wages + Special Allowance called as Cost of Living AllowanceMethod 2 Basic Rate of Wages without any Cost of Living AllowanceMethod 3 Consolidated Pay without splitting into Basis Rate of Wages, Cost of Living Allowance or Cash Value of Concession.Value of Supply of Essential Commodities at concessional rates The Value will be computed by the Competent Authority Periodically as per the directions given by the Appropriate Government.

  • PROCEDURE FOR FIXING AND REVISING MINIMUM WAGES Section 5Mode one- Appointment of Committee: Committees and Sub-Committees appointed by the Appropriate Authority will hold enquiries, collect information and will submit the proposal for Revision of Minimum Wages to the Appropriate Authority.Mode two Publication of proposals in the Official Gazette. The Appropriate Authority will publish its proposals by notification in the official gazette and the specific date from which the revised wages has to be paid. The specific date should not be less than two months from the date of notification.Consultation with Advisory BoardAll representations to be in written form. Govt. not bound to accept the recommendation of committees under mode one.( Correction of errors is possible)

  • Advisory Board & Central Advisory Board (Sections 7-9 & 29)ADVISORY BOARD An Advisory Board will be appointed by the Appropriate Government for co-ordinating the work of Committees and Sub-Committees and also the Advisory Board will provide its valuable suggestions and recommendations to the Appropriate Government.CENTRAL ADVISORY BOARD The Central Advisory Board is appointed by Central Government for advising Central & State Govt. and for co-ordinating the work of Advisory Boards.COMMITTEES The Committees or Sub-Committees shall consist of the persons nominated by the Central Government Equal employers and employees representatives in the scheduled employments. Independent persons not less than 1/3rd of the total number of members. The independent person will be The Chairman of the Committee.

  • Section 29Power of the Central Government to make rules regarding terms, procedures, methods etc.

  • Safeguards in Payment of Minimum WagesSection 11 - 18Wages in Kind (Sec 11)Minimum Wages shall be paid in Cash.Where it is customary that, Minimum Wages has to be paid partly in cash and partly in kind or wholly in kind, in those circumstances the Appropriate Government by issuing a notification in the official gazette will authorize for Payment of Wages in kind.The Appropriate Government will decide the value for the concessional, essential commodities provided to the employees by issuing a notification in the official gazette.

  • The Minimum Wages has to be paid without any deductions other than Statutory Deductions. Where the contract rate of wages is higher , the statutory obligation does not come into play. (Sec 12)Fixing hours for a normal working day, etc (sec13)For an Adult Worker, Working in Factories the number of Working Hours should not exceed 48 Hours in a week.One Day should be given as a holiday as Weekly Holiday. The Day can be any day but it should be adhered for every week. The same should be displayed in the notice board of the Factory.The Daily Hours should not exceed more than 9 Hours with 1 Hour Rest Interval.Where a person has worked on a Holiday either a Compensatory Holiday may be provided or An Overtime Wages will be paid.

  • EXCEPTIONS TO NORMAL WORKING HOURSThe Normal Working Hours need not be adhered in the following cases: (1) Where the persons were employed to meet emergency or urgent work. (2) Whose Employment is dependent on Natural Factors (3) Employees those who have not completed their duty in time for technical reasons. (4) Where the Nature of Duties has to be necessarily carried out beyond Normal Working Hours.

  • OVERTIME WAGES (Section 14)Where a person has worked more than the Normal Working Hours for any day, the excess hours worked will be treated as OvertimeWhere the Fixed Normal Working Hours for any day is in excess of 8 Hours we have to go by the method of weekly worked hours. If the person has worked for more than 48 hours in a week then, the excess hours worked will be treated as Overtime.

  • WAGES FOR A PERSON WHO HAS WORKED LESS THAN NORMAL WORKING HOURS (Section 15)Where an Employee worked on any day less than the Normal Working Hours due to the fact that, Employer could not provide the activities of the job then, the Employee is entitled to receive full salary.Where an Employee worked on any day less than the Normal Working Hours due to the fact that, Employee has not worked due to his unwillingness then, the employee is not entitled to receive full salary.

  • Wages for 2 or more classes of work (Section 16)Where an Employee does two types of works which has different Minimum Wages then, the Employer shall pay to such Employee based on working hours allocated to each type of job. Wages not less than rates applicable to both classes to be paid.MINIMUM TIME RATE WAGES FOR PIECE WORK (Section 17)When an employee is employed on piece work for which piece rate has not been fixed but a time rate of wage has been fixed then employer shall pay at a rate not less than time rate.

  • Maintenance of registers and records( Sec 18)Employer should maintain a Register of Employees containing the details such as the name, address, fathers name, age, sex, the work performed, the wages paid to them.Every Employer should display the above particulars in the premises where the Employee works.The other Registers to be maintained are: (1) Register of Fines. (2) Register of Deductions for Damage / Loss caused to the employer, by the neglect / default of the employed persons. (3) Overtime Register for Workers (4) Muster-RollThe Registers shall be preserved for a period of 3 years after the date of last entry made therein.

  • Enforcement of the Act (Section 19 21)The Appropriate Government through notification in the official gazette appoint inspectors and also define the local limits for such inspectors.The inspectors have right to enter the premises of employers at all reasonable hours and have right to verify all the records as required to be maintained by law.The inspectors have right to examine any person they find in the premises.Inspectors have right to enquire about the work given to workers and have right to get information from the employers about the payment of wages, etc.,The Inspectors have right to cease or take copies of registers maintained by the Employer in case, the Inspectors feel that the Employer has committed any mistake. The Inspector shall be deemed to be a Public Servant.

  • CLAIMS (Section 20)The Appropriate Government by notification in the official gazette appoint any commissioner for workmen compensation or labour commissioner for any region or any officer of the State Government not below the rank of Labour Commissioner or Judicial Magistrate to be Authority to hear and decide for any specified area all claims arising out of payment of less than the Minimum rate of Wages to Employees employed in that area.Who may Apply?: Employee himself, any legal practitioner, any authorised official of registered TU, any inspector or any person acting with permission of authority.

  • Claims contd.Application to be filed within 6 months from date of applicability of minimum rates any delay without reasonable cause will not be entertained.Amount of Compensation: Both parties are given chance to be heard.Difference in rate & paid: difference x 10.Any other case: payment of amount due to employee plus compensation not exceeding Rs.10.In case the Appropriate Authority finds that the Employee is guilty then, no Compensation is payable.In case the Appropriate Authority finds that both Employer and Employee is not guilty then, Employee has to pay Rs.50/- to Employer.The direction given by the Appropriate Authority shall be final.The Compensation directed by the Appropriate Authority shall be recovered from the Employer as if the Authority is a Magistrate. The proceedings before the Authority will be treated at par with Civil Courts

  • Offences & Penalties (Section 22)Any employer who had violated the provisions of the Act will be treated as he had made an offence and Rs.500 fine will be collected from the employer. ( or 6 months imprisonment if violates section 13)The Appropriate Authority will pass orders for any claims made by Employee against Employer.No Court shall take any case directly.No Court shall take up a Case of Appeal against the order of the Appropriate Authority not more than 30 days from the date of order.In the case of a Company, the person incharge at the time of offence happened will be responsible to discharge the liability under this Act.In the case of a Partnership Firm, the Managing Partner at the time of Offence happened will be responsible to discharge the liability under this Act.

  • Miscellaneous ( Sections 22-D to 30)Payment of un- disbursed amounts due to employees to be deposited with prescribed authority in case of death or loss of whereabouts of employee.Protection against attachment of assets of employer with Government.Exemption of employer from liability in certain cases. Exemptions and ExceptionsThe Appropriate Government depending on the situation may direct that this Act shall not be applicable in relation to Wages payable to disabled Employees.The Appropriate Government for any special reasons by notification in the official gazette direct that the Act shall not be applicable to any specific locality or specified group of Employees.The Act will not be applicable to the Wages payable by an Employer to a member of his family who is living with him and dependent on him. Family includes his / her spouse, child, parent, brother or sister.

  • Contracting Out : Any contract or agreement whereby employee relinquishes or reduces his right to a minimum rate shall be null and void.Power of Appropriate Government to add to schedulePower of Central Government to give directions to State Government for execution of the Act.Power of Central Government to make rules regarding advisory board and committees.Rules to be laid before Parliament.

  • PART - IEmployment in any woollen carpet making or shawl weaving establishment.Employment in any rice mill, flour mill or dhal mill.Employment in any tobacco (including bidi making) manufactory.Employment in any plantation, that is to say, any estate which is maintained for the purpose of growing cinchona, rubber, tea or coffee.Employment in any oil mill.Employment under any local authority.Employment on the construction or maintenance of roads or in building operations.Employment in stone breaking or stone crushing.Employment in any lac manufactory.Employment in any mica works.

  • Employment in public motor transport.Employment in tanneries and leather manufactory.Employment in gypsum minesEmployment in barytes minesEmployment in bauxite mines.Employment in Manganese mines.Employment in the maintenance of buildings and employment in the construction and maintenance of railways.Employment in China clay minesEmployment in kyanite minesEmployment in Copper mines

  • Employment in Clay Mines covered under the Mines Act, 1952.Employment in Mangnesite Mines covered under the Mines Act, 1952.Employment in white clay minesEmployment in stone minesEmployment in Steatite Mines (including the mines producing Soeapstone and Talc).Employment in Ochre Mines.Employment in Asbestos Mines.Employment in Fire clay Mines.Employment in Chromite Mines.

  • Employment in Quartzite Mines.Employment in Quartz Mines.Employment in Silica Mines.Employment in Graphite Mines

  • PART - IIEmployment in agriculture, that is to say, in any form of farming, including the cultivation and tillage of the soil, dairy farming, the production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodity, the raising of live-stock, bees, or poultry, and any practice performed by a farmer or on a farm as incidental to or in conjunction with farm operations (including any forestry or timbering operations and the preparation for market and delivery to storage or to market or to carriage for transportation to market of farm produce).

  • NEWSThe decision to hike minimum wages to Rs 100 per day would be implemented with retrospective effect from November 1, 2009, - CG the whole minimum wages should be covered under the retirement benefits like EPF & Gratuity.

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