of 1 /1
1775 transgressors shall destroy them’ and the lip of truth shall be established for ever, but a lying tongue is but for a moment,’ but I feel that it would ill become me to allow these pirates to continue for even one day their nefarious calling....... That God will award them their just deserts I am fully confident." He also says : "I am receiving daily numbers of letters from those who have been cured by the use of the Corrassa Compound, but I never under any cir- cumstances make known the contents of these letters." Unfortunately for the 11 Reverend’s " reputation for truth he encloses a large sheet containing photo-engravings of " clip- pings from recent letters coming unsolicited from patients," and he also intimates that he " will send as many more as you wish." The documents carry on their face their own condemnation; and we commend the "Heverend," whose address on the circular is given as Ray Villa, St. Anne’s- crescent, Lewes, Sussex, England, to the notice of the police as a man who is attempting to obtain money under false pretences, and of the Post Office as a disseminator of blasphemous obscenity. - THE LAW OF CURATEL AND STATE ASYLUMS FOR INEBRIATES. ON the llth inst. a lecture was delivered at Essex Hall, Essex-street, Strand, by Herr Director Schlangenhausen with the object of enlightening opinion as to the reform of lunacy administration and the treatment of habitual drunkards. In the first part of the address the Austrian law of Curatel was explained, its introduction into this country advocated, together with the foundation of "psychiatric institutions " similar to those existing on the Continent. The law of Curatel," it may be observed, has a very wide application. It provides for the appointment by a specially constituted court of a curator or administrator of the property of persons declared incapable of managing their own affairs, and thus in principle coincides with the English law of chancery. But its powers extend beyond those of the English court, for it takes cognisance of all such persons, rich or poor, with respect to whom application for Curatel is made by relations or parish or asylum authorities. The procedure in the case of the mentally afflicted consists in the examination of the individual by a State commission comprising a legal adviser and two specialists in lunacy, upon whose report the court takes action. The law is not limited to the insane, but includes also children, spendthrifts, and con- victs. The lecturer gave details of the process, and con- sidered that it could be attained in this country by the creation of a central authority for the entire system of lunacy applicable to Great Britain and Ireland, which might, " perhaps, be placed under the Home Office. He advocated further the establishment by the State of " psychiatric " institutions similar to those to be found attached to Continental universities, where facilities for study would be given to medical students and recent graduates, especially those who were to hold appointments as State officials. In connexion with these institutions it was mentioned that in Austria there is appended to each an "observation depart- ment," where incipient cases of mental derangement are detained before being certified as suitable for asylum treatment. The second part of the lecture was a powerful plea for the extension of the Curatel system in this country to habitual drunkards, and for the founda- tion for such cases of asylums separate from asylums for the insane. We gather that in Austria the latter in- stitutions are becoming increasingly filled by the victims of alcoholism, itself a prolific source of insanity. The law passed by the Canton St. Gall in Switzerland in 1891 was cited as an excellent move in the right direction, since it provided for the establishment of an asylum for habitual drunkards who can be detained therein for from nine to ) eighteen months, either on their own application or on " the demand of the magistrates." Herr Schlangenhausen was convinced that in Great Britain and Ireland, as well as in all other civilised countries, the construction of asylums for drunkards is only a question of time." He believed that such measures, as well as the more pro- longed detention of the insane, would result in the actual diminution in the numbers of the latter by restricting the two most prolific sources of supply-viz., alcoholism and heredity. The lecture, which has been printed, is well worthy of the attention of statesmen and physicians. The procedure of Curatel may be capable of improvement, whilst compulsory legislation for habitual drunkards is certainly not a harsh proposal, since the victims of alcoholism are a source of misery and degradation to others as well as them- selves. ___ THE MARQUIS OF DUFFERIN ON THE FUNCTIONS OF A HOSPITAL. AT a public meeting of the citizens of Belfast, held on Dec. 9th, to consider the desirability of erecting a new hospital as a fitting memorial of Her Majesty’s long and eventful reign, the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, in moving a resolution, spoke of the functions of a hospital in the following beautiful way: "Quite apart and independent of its agency in relieving individual suffering there are other functions of an equally important character which a hospital fulfils. A hospital is an entrenched castle from which medical science makes its onslaughts on disease and death. It is an arsenal where she forges her arms and invents new weapons; it is a laboratory from which there emanate those specifics which, it may be no exag- geration to say, are occasionally potent, not only to arrest, but absolutely to dominate and annihilate epidemics that were once considered so formidable. Amongst many scientific bodies, and certainly in the domain of art, there are probably none which have made such progress during the last twenty years as medicine and surgery ; but I think it will be admitted that those triumphs have not been effected through the experience gained in private practice, but are the results of those ample fields of observation placed at the disposal of our great physicians and surgeons in the mag- nificent hospitals that exist in other parts of the kingdom. The efficiency of a hospital must in great part depend on the size of its workshops and the extent of the field over which it can apply its remedies." THE CIRRHOTIC LIVER. " DR. H. D. RoLLESTOX and Dr. W. J. Fenton-have made an interesting contribution to our knowledge of the natural history of cirrhosis of the liver in a paper (reprinted from the Birmingham Medical Review, October, 1896) based on a careful analysis of 114 cases occurring in the pathological records of St. George’s Hospital during the last ten years. These cases are divided into two categories, according as to whether the death was immediately due to the hepatic disease or due to intercurrent maladies. The analysis is strictly statistical, but it serves a good purpose in the correction of current misconceptions on the subject. As regards etiology it may be remarked that in a considerable proportion, fewest in those fatal from the cirrhosis itself and in those dying from pulmonary tuber- culosis, no history of alcoholism was present. The com- parative frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis is noted. On the other hand, in only three cases was death due to peri- pheral neuritis of alcoholic origin. It appears that although cirrhosis is more frequent in males than in females in the ratio of 5 : 2, its presence more often gives rise to symptoms in the latter than in the former. The average age of death was 48-1 years on all the cases, or 48’8 for

THE MARQUIS OF DUFFERIN ON THE FUNCTIONS OF A HOSPITAL

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Page 1: THE MARQUIS OF DUFFERIN ON THE FUNCTIONS OF A HOSPITAL

1775

transgressors shall destroy them’ and the lip of truth shall

be established for ever, but a lying tongue is but for

a moment,’ but I feel that it would ill become me to allow

these pirates to continue for even one day their nefariouscalling....... That God will award them their just desertsI am fully confident." He also says : "I am receiving dailynumbers of letters from those who have been cured by theuse of the Corrassa Compound, but I never under any cir-

cumstances make known the contents of these letters."

Unfortunately for the 11 Reverend’s " reputation for truth heencloses a large sheet containing photo-engravings of " clip-pings from recent letters coming unsolicited from patients,"and he also intimates that he " will send as many more as

you wish." The documents carry on their face their own

condemnation; and we commend the "Heverend," whoseaddress on the circular is given as Ray Villa, St. Anne’s-crescent, Lewes, Sussex, England, to the notice of the policeas a man who is attempting to obtain money under falsepretences, and of the Post Office as a disseminator of

blasphemous obscenity. -

THE LAW OF CURATEL AND STATE ASYLUMSFOR INEBRIATES.

ON the llth inst. a lecture was delivered at Essex Hall,Essex-street, Strand, by Herr Director Schlangenhausen withthe object of enlightening opinion as to the reform of lunacyadministration and the treatment of habitual drunkards. Inthe first part of the address the Austrian law of Curatel wasexplained, its introduction into this country advocated,together with the foundation of "psychiatric institutions "

similar to those existing on the Continent. The law of

Curatel," it may be observed, has a very wide application.It provides for the appointment by a specially constitutedcourt of a curator or administrator of the property of personsdeclared incapable of managing their own affairs, and thus in principle coincides with the English law of chancery.But its powers extend beyond those of the English court, forit takes cognisance of all such persons, rich or poor, withrespect to whom application for Curatel is made by relationsor parish or asylum authorities. The procedure in the caseof the mentally afflicted consists in the examination ofthe individual by a State commission comprising a

legal adviser and two specialists in lunacy, upon whosereport the court takes action. The law is not limited to the

insane, but includes also children, spendthrifts, and con-

victs. The lecturer gave details of the process, and con-sidered that it could be attained in this country by thecreation of a central authority for the entire system of

lunacy applicable to Great Britain and Ireland, which might, "

perhaps, be placed under the Home Office. He advocatedfurther the establishment by the State of " psychiatric "institutions similar to those to be found attached to

Continental universities, where facilities for study would begiven to medical students and recent graduates, especiallythose who were to hold appointments as State officials. Inconnexion with these institutions it was mentioned that inAustria there is appended to each an "observation depart-ment," where incipient cases of mental derangement aredetained before being certified as suitable for asylumtreatment. The second part of the lecture was a

powerful plea for the extension of the Curatel system inthis country to habitual drunkards, and for the founda-tion for such cases of asylums separate from asylums forthe insane. We gather that in Austria the latter in-stitutions are becoming increasingly filled by the victimsof alcoholism, itself a prolific source of insanity. The law

passed by the Canton St. Gall in Switzerland in 1891 wascited as an excellent move in the right direction, since it

provided for the establishment of an asylum for habitualdrunkards who can be detained therein for from nine to )

eighteen months, either on their own application or on " thedemand of the magistrates." Herr Schlangenhausen wasconvinced that in Great Britain and Ireland, as wellas in all other civilised countries, the construction of

asylums for drunkards is only a question of time."He believed that such measures, as well as the more pro-longed detention of the insane, would result in the actualdiminution in the numbers of the latter by restricting thetwo most prolific sources of supply-viz., alcoholism andheredity. The lecture, which has been printed, is well

worthy of the attention of statesmen and physicians. The

procedure of Curatel may be capable of improvement, whilstcompulsory legislation for habitual drunkards is certainlynot a harsh proposal, since the victims of alcoholism are asource of misery and degradation to others as well as them-selves.

___

THE MARQUIS OF DUFFERIN ON THE FUNCTIONSOF A HOSPITAL.

AT a public meeting of the citizens of Belfast, held onDec. 9th, to consider the desirability of erecting a new

hospital as a fitting memorial of Her Majesty’s longand eventful reign, the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava,in moving a resolution, spoke of the functions of a

hospital in the following beautiful way: "Quite apart andindependent of its agency in relieving individual sufferingthere are other functions of an equally important characterwhich a hospital fulfils. A hospital is an entrenched castlefrom which medical science makes its onslaughts on diseaseand death. It is an arsenal where she forges her armsand invents new weapons; it is a laboratory from whichthere emanate those specifics which, it may be no exag-geration to say, are occasionally potent, not only to arrest,but absolutely to dominate and annihilate epidemics thatwere once considered so formidable. Amongst manyscientific bodies, and certainly in the domain of art, thereare probably none which have made such progress duringthe last twenty years as medicine and surgery ; but I thinkit will be admitted that those triumphs have not been effectedthrough the experience gained in private practice, but are

the results of those ample fields of observation placed at thedisposal of our great physicians and surgeons in the mag-nificent hospitals that exist in other parts of the kingdom.The efficiency of a hospital must in great part depend onthe size of its workshops and the extent of the field overwhich it can apply its remedies."

THE CIRRHOTIC LIVER."

DR. H. D. RoLLESTOX and Dr. W. J. Fenton-have made an

interesting contribution to our knowledge of the natural

history of cirrhosis of the liver in a paper (reprinted fromthe Birmingham Medical Review, October, 1896) based on acareful analysis of 114 cases occurring in the pathologicalrecords of St. George’s Hospital during the last ten years.These cases are divided into two categories, according as towhether the death was immediately due to the hepaticdisease or due to intercurrent maladies. The analysisis strictly statistical, but it serves a good purposein the correction of current misconceptions on the

subject. As regards etiology it may be remarked that ina considerable proportion, fewest in those fatal from thecirrhosis itself and in those dying from pulmonary tuber-culosis, no history of alcoholism was present. The com-

parative frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis is noted. Onthe other hand, in only three cases was death due to peri-pheral neuritis of alcoholic origin. It appears that althoughcirrhosis is more frequent in males than in females in theratio of 5 : 2, its presence more often gives rise to symptomsin the latter than in the former. The average age of

death was 48-1 years on all the cases, or 48’8 for