1
1276 HUMAN FITNESS FOR INDUSTRY. Two small volumes have just been issued, the titles of which might easily have been interchanged. One is by a physiologist,l the other by a psychologist and each reviews from a different angle the facts disclosed in recent years, mainly through the activities and publications of the Industrial Fatigue Research Board. The one shows how the human organism reacts to the milieu of modern industry ; the other describes why it so reacts. Life to-day, in com- parison with 200 years ago, is happier and healthier, because, by lightening human toil through the use of power-driven machinery, we are ever more and more shaping our environ- ment to suit our requirements. But the way in which the means to this end, the new mills of industry and the old human factor, are acting and reacting each on the other is a fascinating study. It is the study of industrial fatigue, which has now passed through an experimental period during which it was far more talked about than understood, I and has settled to the stage of painstaking observation and I experiment-a stage wearisome to the public but entrancing to the worker. Now and again a report of solid worth, though not easy to read, discloses some new fact or facts. But the additions to the edifice which is being built out of our knowledge concerning human capacity are apt to escape notice. Prof. E. P. Cathcart embodies in his small book lectures given to engineering students-potential works’ managers. Herein is clearly explained the practical bearing upon workshop practice of the new knowledge. The physiology of activity is described and of fatigue and monotony. The possibilities of alleviating fatigue, by suiting hours of labour to the requisite physical effort, by fitting the worker to his work, and by the adoption of more convenient methods are explored. The way in which the environment affects working capacity through the influence of ventilation, heating, humidity, lighting, noise, sitting accommodation, and design of machinery is clearly set out. Prof. Pear has been less successful. He seems possessed with the idea that modern industry is some demon specially devised for mangling the mind of man. He shows little appreciation of the advances of recent years and of occupa- tional life as it was lived in pre-machine days. M. C. Buer, in a survey of Health, Wealth, and Population in the Early Part of the Industrial Revolution, has described it as life in overcrowded and soul-destroying hovels, where monotony, if it only meant freedom from the irritation of sickness, was a glorious relief from that bodily pain and ill-health which ended the life of the manual worker at 45. Prof. Pear does not supply practical wisdom which may be put to everyday use, but looks for motives behind action. A chapter dealing with the psychology of laziness makes good reading ; it tells clearly how we may react mental! y to disagreeable chores, but hardly give sufficient weight to the possibility that Willie’s weariness may depend upon endocrine deficiency. This work does not lead us much further. MEDICAL EDUCATION. THE Rockefeller Foundation continues to issue its useful and interesting accounts of the equipments and methods in use in teaching medicine and the medical sciences in various parts of the world. The tenth series 3 contains 33 well- illustrated articles covering a range from Singapore to Chile ; three of them are on medical libraries and how to use them. Every teacher who has done it knows the advantage of going about and seeing other institutions than his own and other methods of instruction, and if he cannot go in person to the institute of physiology and general pathology at Debreczen or the institute for nutrition at Tokyo, he will get some useful hints on what to do and what not to do by reading about them. The schools of pathology, bacteriology, and physiology in the University of Leeds and the courses of instruction given in them are described in this volume by Prof. M. J. Stewart and Prof. B. A. McSwiney, and there is a useful account of the demonstration of biological experi- ments by optical projection methods by Dr. M. S. Biskind, of the Western Reserve University. M.D. writes : I have the misfortune to suffer from a chronic osteitis of the lumbar vertebrae and right os innominatum, entailing much pain, which especially in later months has yielded in wonderful manner to the exhibition of aspirin. I should be much obliged if any of my colleagues would give me their views as to deleterious effects likely to follow on taking about grs. 30 daily. I have taken that amount for about one and a half years, so far as I can tell without harm. 1 The Human Factor in Industry. By E. P. Cathcart, C.B.E., M.D., F.R.S., Gardiner Professor of Chemical Physiology, University of Glasgow. London : Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. 1928. Pp. 105. 5s. 2 Fitness for Work. By T. H. Pear, M.A., B.Sc., Professor of Psychology, Manchester. London: University of London Press. 1928. Pp. 187. 5s. 3 Methods and Problems of Medical Education. Tenth series. Rockefeller Foundation. 1928. THE KING’S ILLNESS. OFFICIAL BULLETINS. (Continued from p. 1222.) THE following is the text of the official bulletins which have been issued during the King’s illness by Sir Stanley Hewett and Lord Dawson. THURSDAY, DEC. 6TH. 10.45 A.M. The King has passed a fair night and the temperature this morning is lower. The general condition is slowly improving and the infective process, which remains severe, is becoming more localised. 8.20 P.M. The King’s general condition remains the same as that reported in this morning’s bulletin. The localisation of the infection at the base of the right side of the chest is rather more defined, which conforms to the progress of the illness during the last two days. (Signed also by Sir Farquhar Buzzard and Sir Humphry Rolleston.) , FRIDAY, DEC. 7TH. 11.30 A.M. The King has had some restful sleep and his general strength is maintained. Further investigation of the right side of the chest will be undertaken during the day. 8.15 P.M. His Majesty has not had a restful day. A radiological examination was carried out this after- noon. Neither this nor exploration by needle, previously carried out, has disclosed any appreciable amount of pleural effusion. The general condition remains unchanged. (Signed also by Dr. H. Graham Hodgson.) SATURDAY, DEC. 8TH. 11.15 A.M. The King has had some hours of sleep. The temperature is still raised on account of the local lung condition. The general condition is the same. 8.15 P.M. The King has passed a quiet day with some sleep. The raised temperature persists, because the inflammation of the lung must of necessity be slow in its progress towards repair. (Signed also by Dr. H. Graham Hodgson, Sir Humphry Rolleston, and Sir Farquhar Buzzard). SUNDAY, DEC. 9TH. 11.45 A.M. The King has had several hours’ sleep. The prolongation of the fever is having the inevitable effect of producing a certain measure of exhaustion. The pulse, how- ever, remains steady. 8.30 P.M. The King has passed a quiet day, but there is no diminution in the exhaustion referred to in this morning’s bulletin. The pulse remains steady. MONDAY, DEC. 10TH. 11.30 A.M. Although the King has passed a disturbed night, there has been some fall in the temperature this morning. and there is also a slight improvement in the general condition. Anxiety, however, must continue. 8.45 P.M. His Majesty the King has had a quiet day. The signs in the lung have improved. The fever persists, though it is not so high as last evening, and is due to some return of the general infection, which necessarily affects the condition of the heart. (Signed also by Sir Farquhar Buzzard and Sir Humphry Rolleston. ) TUESDAY, DEC. 11TH. 11.15 A.M. His Majesty the King has had several hours’ sleep, The temperature remains high, but there is no further impairment of strength. 8.30 P.M. His Majesty the King has had a quiet day. There is no increase in the exhaustion, and the pulse remains steady. WEDNESDAY, DEC. 12TH. 10.30 A.M. The King has had some hours’ sleep. The slight improvement noted late last night is maintained, the temperature being somewhat lower and the general condition a little better. 4 P.M. (about). The slight improvement in the King’s condition noted this morning is maintained. Some purulent fluid round the base of the right lung was removed by puncture this morning, and further drainage will be necessary. (Signed also by Dr. L. E. H. Whitby, Sir Farquhar Buzzard, and Sir Humphry Rolleston.) 8.30 P.M. An operation on the King for the drainage of the right side of the chest has been successfully performed this evening. The condition of His Majesty is satisfactory. (Signed also by Sir Hugh Rigby Dr. Francis Shipway, Sir Farquhar Buzzard, and Sir Humphry Rolleston.)

THE KING'S ILLNESS

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1276

HUMAN FITNESS FOR INDUSTRY.Two small volumes have just been issued, the titles of

which might easily have been interchanged. One is by aphysiologist,l the other by a psychologist and each reviewsfrom a different angle the facts disclosed in recent years,mainly through the activities and publications of theIndustrial Fatigue Research Board. The one shows howthe human organism reacts to the milieu of modern industry ;the other describes why it so reacts. Life to-day, in com-parison with 200 years ago, is happier and healthier, because,by lightening human toil through the use of power-drivenmachinery, we are ever more and more shaping our environ-ment to suit our requirements. But the way in which themeans to this end, the new mills of industry and the oldhuman factor, are acting and reacting each on the other isa fascinating study. It is the study of industrial fatigue,which has now passed through an experimental periodduring which it was far more talked about than understood, Iand has settled to the stage of painstaking observation and I

experiment-a stage wearisome to the public but entrancingto the worker. Now and again a report of solid worth,though not easy to read, discloses some new fact or facts.But the additions to the edifice which is being built out ofour knowledge concerning human capacity are apt to escapenotice. Prof. E. P. Cathcart embodies in his small booklectures given to engineering students-potential works’managers. Herein is clearly explained the practical bearingupon workshop practice of the new knowledge. Thephysiology of activity is described and of fatigue andmonotony. The possibilities of alleviating fatigue, bysuiting hours of labour to the requisite physical effort, byfitting the worker to his work, and by the adoption of moreconvenient methods are explored. The way in which theenvironment affects working capacity through the influenceof ventilation, heating, humidity, lighting, noise, sittingaccommodation, and design of machinery is clearly set out.Prof. Pear has been less successful. He seems possessed withthe idea that modern industry is some demon speciallydevised for mangling the mind of man. He shows littleappreciation of the advances of recent years and of occupa-tional life as it was lived in pre-machine days. M. C. Buer,in a survey of Health, Wealth, and Population in the EarlyPart of the Industrial Revolution, has described it as lifein overcrowded and soul-destroying hovels, where monotony,if it only meant freedom from the irritation of sickness, wasa glorious relief from that bodily pain and ill-health whichended the life of the manual worker at 45. Prof. Pear doesnot supply practical wisdom which may be put to everydayuse, but looks for motives behind action. A chapter dealingwith the psychology of laziness makes good reading ; it tellsclearly how we may react mental! y to disagreeable chores, buthardly give sufficient weight to the possibility that Willie’sweariness may depend upon endocrine deficiency. This workdoes not lead us much further.

MEDICAL EDUCATION.THE Rockefeller Foundation continues to issue its useful

and interesting accounts of the equipments and methods inuse in teaching medicine and the medical sciences in variousparts of the world. The tenth series 3 contains 33 well-illustrated articles covering a range from Singapore to Chile ;three of them are on medical libraries and how to use them.Every teacher who has done it knows the advantage ofgoing about and seeing other institutions than his own andother methods of instruction, and if he cannot go in personto the institute of physiology and general pathology atDebreczen or the institute for nutrition at Tokyo, he willget some useful hints on what to do and what not to do byreading about them. The schools of pathology, bacteriology,and physiology in the University of Leeds and the coursesof instruction given in them are described in this volume byProf. M. J. Stewart and Prof. B. A. McSwiney, and there isa useful account of the demonstration of biological experi-ments by optical projection methods by Dr. M. S. Biskind,of the Western Reserve University.

M.D. writes : I have the misfortune to suffer from achronic osteitis of the lumbar vertebrae and right os

innominatum, entailing much pain, which especially inlater months has yielded in wonderful manner to theexhibition of aspirin. I should be much obliged if any ofmy colleagues would give me their views as to deleteriouseffects likely to follow on taking about grs. 30 daily. I havetaken that amount for about one and a half years, so faras I can tell without harm.

1 The Human Factor in Industry. By E. P. Cathcart, C.B.E.,M.D., F.R.S., Gardiner Professor of Chemical Physiology,University of Glasgow. London : Humphrey Milford, OxfordUniversity Press. 1928. Pp. 105. 5s.

2 Fitness for Work. By T. H. Pear, M.A., B.Sc., Professor ofPsychology, Manchester. London: University of LondonPress. 1928. Pp. 187. 5s.

3 Methods and Problems of Medical Education. Tenth series.Rockefeller Foundation. 1928.

THE KING’S ILLNESS.OFFICIAL BULLETINS.

(Continued from p. 1222.)

THE following is the text of the official bulletinswhich have been issued during the King’s illness bySir Stanley Hewett and Lord Dawson.

THURSDAY, DEC. 6TH. 10.45 A.M.The King has passed a fair night and the temperature

this morning is lower. The general condition isslowly improving and the infective process, whichremains severe, is becoming more localised.

8.20 P.M. The King’s general condition remains thesame as that reported in this morning’s bulletin.The localisation of the infection at the base of theright side of the chest is rather more defined, whichconforms to the progress of the illness during the lasttwo days. (Signed also by Sir Farquhar Buzzard andSir Humphry Rolleston.)

, FRIDAY, DEC. 7TH. 11.30 A.M.’

The King has had some restful sleep and his generalstrength is maintained. Further investigation of theright side of the chest will be undertaken duringthe day.

8.15 P.M. His Majesty has not had a restful day. Aradiological examination was carried out this after-noon. Neither this nor exploration by needle,previously carried out, has disclosed any appreciableamount of pleural effusion. The general conditionremains unchanged. (Signed also by Dr. H. GrahamHodgson.)

SATURDAY, DEC. 8TH. 11.15 A.M.The King has had some hours of sleep. The temperature

is still raised on account of the local lung condition.The general condition is the same.

8.15 P.M. The King has passed a quiet day with somesleep. The raised temperature persists, because theinflammation of the lung must of necessity be slowin its progress towards repair. (Signed also by Dr.H. Graham Hodgson, Sir Humphry Rolleston, andSir Farquhar Buzzard).

SUNDAY, DEC. 9TH. 11.45 A.M.The King has had several hours’ sleep. The prolongation

of the fever is having the inevitable effect of producinga certain measure of exhaustion. The pulse, how-ever, remains steady.

8.30 P.M. The King has passed a quiet day, but thereis no diminution in the exhaustion referred to in thismorning’s bulletin. The pulse remains steady.

MONDAY, DEC. 10TH. 11.30 A.M.

Although the King has passed a disturbed night, therehas been some fall in the temperature this morning.and there is also a slight improvement in thegeneral condition. Anxiety, however, must continue.

8.45 P.M. His Majesty the King has had a quiet day.The signs in the lung have improved. The feverpersists, though it is not so high as last evening, andis due to some return of the general infection, whichnecessarily affects the condition of the heart. (Signedalso by Sir Farquhar Buzzard and Sir HumphryRolleston. )

TUESDAY, DEC. 11TH. 11.15 A.M.His Majesty the King has had several hours’ sleep,The temperature remains high, but there is no

further impairment of strength.8.30 P.M. His Majesty the King has had a quiet day.

There is no increase in the exhaustion, and thepulse remains steady.

WEDNESDAY, DEC. 12TH. 10.30 A.M.The King has had some hours’ sleep. The slightimprovement noted late last night is maintained,the temperature being somewhat lower and thegeneral condition a little better.

4 P.M. (about). The slight improvement in the King’scondition noted this morning is maintained. Somepurulent fluid round the base of the right lung wasremoved by puncture this morning, and furtherdrainage will be necessary. (Signed also by Dr.L. E. H. Whitby, Sir Farquhar Buzzard, and SirHumphry Rolleston.)

8.30 P.M. An operation on the King for the drainageof the right side of the chest has been successfullyperformed this evening. The condition of His Majestyis satisfactory. (Signed also by Sir Hugh RigbyDr. Francis Shipway, Sir Farquhar Buzzard, and SirHumphry Rolleston.)