THE JOURNAL Egyptian Archaeology - Plymouth City Council

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    THE JOURNAL OF

    EyptianArhaeoloy

    VOLUME 94

    2008

    PUBLISHED BY

    THE EgYPT ExPLORATION SOcIETY

    3 DOUgHTY MEwS, LONDON wc1N 2Pg

    ISSN 03075133

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    Printed in Great Britain By

    CommerCial Colour Press PlC,

    anGard House, 185 Forest road,

    Hainault, essex iG6 3Hx

    and PuBlisHed By

    tHe eGyPt exPloration soCiety

    3 douGHty mews, london wC1n 2PG

    issn 03075133

    all riGHts reserVed

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    The Journal o Egyptian Archaeology 94 (008), 1078

    ISSN 007-51

    THE COFFINS OF IYHAT AND TAIRY:

    A TALE OF TWO CITIES *

    ByAidAn dodson

    T pulcton o two cons prsntly n t Cty Musum nd Art Gllry n Plymout, Enlnd.

    Dtn to t Twnty-t Dynsty, ty r ntrstn xmpls o nnr cons o tr prod,tt o Try vn n unusul rm rrnmnt. Ty lso v n ntrun modrn story, nd

    n ttmpt s md to trc tm rom tr rst pprnc t t Brstol Insttuton (ncstor ot modrn Cty Musum & Art Gllry) n 184, trou t Brstoln prvt collcton o md-nntnt cntury collctor nd trvllr Toms Ps (18161884), to tr rrvl n Plymoutn 1919.

    The orns o wt s now Brstols Musums, Gllrs & Arcvs1 l n t

    oundton, n 18, o t Brstol Insttuton or t Advncmnt o Scnc nd

    Art, srn rnd-nw prmss t t ottom o Prk Strt (. 1) wt t sltly

    oldr Brstol Ltrry nd Plosopcl Socty. T uldn ws dsnd y Sr

    Crls Cockrll (1788186), wo ws ltr to complt t Ftzwllm Musum,

    Cmrd, nd to uld St Gors Hll, Lvrpool.

    In Aprl 1871, t Insttuton mrd wt t Brstol Lrry Socty, nd n187 movd to nw uldn t t top o Prk Strt, wc ws xtndd n 1877

    (. ). In 1894, t Musum nd Lrry, struln nnclly, wr trnsrrd

    to Brstol Corporton. In 1906, t Lrry movd to ts currnt om on Coll

    Grn, wl n 1899 t tocco ron Sr Wllm Hnry Wlls (1801911, ltr

    Lord Wntrstok) ord to und nw Cty Art Gllry & Musum o Antquts,

    wc ws ult djcnt to t 187 Musum uldn, nd opnd n Frury

    1905. T Eyptn collcton ws movd nto t nw structur, nd s rmnd

    tr vr snc.

    *

    For tr nvlul ssstnc n t prprton o ts ppr, I m prtculrly ndtd to Su Gls,Curtor o Etnorpy nd Forn Arcoloy, Brstols Cty Musum nd Art Gllry (BCMAG), Rcl

    Smt, Assstnt Kpr o Humn Hstory t Plymout Cty Musum nd Art Gllry, nd Jon Tylor o t

    Brts Musum. In prtculr, Ms Gls nd Dr Tylor v clttd ccss to rlr rsrc mtrl rlt-

    n to t topc, ncludn nvsttons y Nck Dxon o BCMAG on l o Dr Tylor n 1985. Tnks

    r lso du to Slly-Ann Aston o t Ftzwllm Musum; Amr Druc nd Smnt Hlltt o BCMAG;

    Crstopr Dnmn o t Socty o Frnds Rdlnd Mtn; Dyn Hlton; Crstn Hus o t Sstrs

    o Nzrt Gnrl Arcv; Mrrt McGror, Arcvst t Brstol Rcord Oc; Brnd Moon; Crs

    Nunton o t Eypt Explorton Socty; Gurny Ps; Jms Russll nd Gwynn Stock o t Brstol &

    Avon Arcolocl Socty; Alx Tompson o Hrts Hous, Almondsury; nd Wndy Cwtorn, Assstnt

    Lrrn, Golocl Socty o London, or tr lp.1 For n ovrvw o t story o t Brstol Eyptn collcton, s A. Dodson nd S. Gls, T Eyp-

    tn Collcton o Brstol Cty Musum, n V. Solkn (d.), , II: 150-

    B /Ancient Egypt, II: On the Occasion o the 150th Birthday Anniversary o

    Vladimir S. Golenischev (Moscow, 006), 110, nd d., Ancnt Eypt n t Cty nd County o Brstol, Kmt

    18/4 (0078), 0. Muc usul dtl on t ltr yrs o t Cty Musum nd Art Gllry s wol s

    contnd n K.-M. Wlton, 75 years o Bristol Art Gallery (Brstol, 1980).

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    108 AIDAN DODSON JEA 94

    Fig. 1. Frmsons Hll on Prk Strt, Brstol, ornlly compltd n

    18 to ous t Brstol Ltrry nd Plosopcl Socty ndBrstol Insttuton or t Advncmnt o Scnc nd Art (utor).

    Fig. . T uldn rctd n 187 s t nw Brstol Musum nd Lrry,

    tr ts 1877 rrwrd xtnson (rom Bristol in 18989 (Brton, 1898), 6).

    T mn ocus o t ornl Insttuton ws t nturl scncs, ut rom t

    vry nnn t ws collctn Eyptn mtrl, lt n smll quntts: durn

    t rst tn yrs, only twlv out o out 1,50 dontons wr Eyptolocl tms,

    nd tr o tos wr ooks. T tnt tm rcvd ws n Mummy (ltr

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    008 THE COFFINS OF IYHAT AND TAIRY 109

    Brstol Musums H540 nd stll ltr H785), prsntd y Jon W, Brstoln

    rsdnt o Lvorno, Itly, on 9 Mrc 18, nd on 6 Mrc t ollown yr

    urtr mummy ws vn to t Insttuton y t Cty Cmrln o Brstol,

    Toms Grrrd (17871859).

    Curously, t ccompnyn Etnt Dynstywt con o crtn Ty (H60) ws not mntond n t Insttutons Dontons

    Book ltou t som st t con tsl rcvd pntd nscrpton rcordn

    ts donton y Grrrd. Ts lur to not t con(s) nclosn mummy s

    pnomnon tt s rptd ltr. Ts mummy ws unwrppd or n udnc

    on 9 Dcmr tt yr.4 Ts ws crrd out y tm ld y Dr Jms Cowls

    Prcrd (17861848), suron, psyctrst, nd pyscl ntropolost wo d

    lso wrttn on Eyptn mytoloy.5 W prsntd urtr mummy, tt o

    cld, on 6 Aprl 186, totr wt prt o notr juvnl ody.6

    On Mrc 184 t or y Mmr to llow on o t n Mumms

    snt to m rom rod to opnd ws rportd.7

    T Mmr n qustonws Grrrd, nd on 1 Mrc, srs o lcturs y Dr Prcrd n wt t

    unwrppn o t nw mummy. An xtrmly dtld contmporry ccount o

    ts vnt runs s ollows:8

    T Mummy, wc rom t c o t cs ws lvd to tt o ml, ws

    nclosd n two srcop o sycmor wood c o wc ws ormd o ck nd

    ront porton, dovtld, mortsd nd dowlld totr. T outsd o c cs

    ws covrd wt pntns nd rolypcs. On t nsd o t xtrnl cs ws

    ml ur n prol; nd t nsd o t ntrnl cs ws covrd wt ro-

    lypc wrtn.

    Ts css vn n rmovd t mummy ws xposd to vw nvlopd n

    ts nds. O ts t xtrnl ons wr nrrow, turnd n t tr ds, nd

    crucorm. Bnt ts ws lr wrppr o drk rd clot, wc nvlopd t

    As wt mny musums, t Brstol collcton s usd svrl numrn systms ovr t yrs. T Brstol

    Insttuton numrd ts dontons n tr ordr o cquston, ut ts numrs wr nvr mrkd on t

    ojcts, nor pprntly usd to rr to tm. Tn, n t lt nntnt cntury, systm o numrs ws

    doptd tt s now rrrd to s Fls Accsson Numrs; ts wr stll not mrkd on t ojcts. In

    prlll, snc 1898 ndvdul dprtmnts d strtd tr own rstrs (c wt tr own lttr-prxs),

    nd rom 1 Dcmr 191 Antquts lso dd so, prxn ts numrs wt t lttr H. T rst ojct

    so numrd (H1) ws st vn y Mr F. P. Brown, ollowd y nwly rrvd ojcts rom t Eypt

    Explorton Fund nd Brts Scool o Arcoloy n Eypt, tkn numrs up to H6. Oldr mtrl ws

    ddd to t H-Rstr s nd wn tm ws vll, so tt som o t vry rlst Brstol gyptiaca

    wr t lnt vn numrs n t H500 nd H600 srs n 1917 (c. low, p. 114 nd n. 5), wl t MppCollcton, rcvd n 1956, ws only rstrd durn 19777, documntton contnun nto t currnt

    dcd. Crtn tms wr ndvrtntly numrd twc, wc sms to v n t cs wt H540/H785.

    T H rstr ws closd nd t H rstr nuurtd n Frury 1971; ts contnud t srls usd n

    H, H50 n ollowd y H51 (ltou strctly spkn, to ollow Musum procdurs, t sould v

    un t H1). H ws tn Cty Trsurr rom 186 to 1856, ollown t Muncpl Corportons Act o 185; s

    Oxord Dictionary o National Biography (rtr ODNB), XXI, 516.4 An ccount pprd n t our prncpl Brstol locl nwspprs; c. A. B. Grnvll, An Essy on Eyp-

    tn Mumms, Philosophical Transactions o the Royal Society o London 115 (185), 91.5An Analysis o the Egyptian Mythology (London, 1819); ts trd dton ws ncorportd nto Prcrds

    Analysis o the Historical Records o Ancient Egypt (London, 188); s W. R. Dwson, E. P. Upll, nd M. L.

    Brrr, Who Was Who in Egyptology, rd rv. dn (London, 1995), 4; ODNB, XLV, 9.6 Ntr ody cn dntd tody, unlss t ormr mummy s H5597, c. D. P. Dwson, S. Gls, nd M.

    W. Ponsord (ds), Horemkenesi, May He Live Forever: The Bristol Mummy Project (Brstol, 00), 5.7 Felix Farleys Bristol Journal, Mrc 184.8 Brstol Insttuton Opnn o t Mummy, Bristol Mirror, Sturdy 5 Aprl 184.

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    110 AIDAN DODSON JEA 94

    wol ront o t ody, nd wc ws lcd nd wt srds o lnn. Undr t

    wr ound w ds o smvtrous sustnc wc mt v n ornlly on

    strn ut no vst o t ws lt. Lyrs o nds o ltr colour tn pr-

    sntd tmslvs, wound trnsvrsly round t ody, ltrntn wt otrs pssn

    lontudnlly wc nrlly ormd cross ovr t cst. Atr v o ts ltr-ntons t d nds wr sprt; nd tr ws srs o oldd comprsss

    ovr t wol ody, nt wc vry rmrkl cross ws sn. T nds

    tn cm drnt sown drk ptcs o tumnous mttr ...

    T wx urs wc wr ound wr proly tos o two cldrn, nd

    rprsntton o jckl-dd dty [(. )9]. Ty ll r mrks o t tum

    nd wr vdntly prprd n urry. On rmnt ound wt tm s n y, wt

    ln undr t ... Bnt ts ws ound wx plt, rprsntn wn, nd sl-

    sk. Wc orm totr l t mlm o t Atodmon.[10]

    T lnt o t ody tsl ws v t nd l n nc. T cutcl pprs to

    v n rmovd; t r s rtr lon nd o drk uurn colour, ut mttd

    totr y spltum. T rs r not ord: t nos s tolrly prsrvd utsomwt comprssd; ts ntrnl structur ws rokn down or t rmovl o t

    rn; t sockts o t ys wr lld up wt rsnous mttr, proly n prt

    myrr. T mout s sltly opn nd t tt r n ood prsrvton ...

    T collr ons r promnnt, nd t souldrs unnturlly rout orwrd. On

    t lt sd on lvl wt t lst dorsl nd rst lumr vrtr s lr crculr

    ncson trou wc t vscr o tt cvty wr xtrctd: t cvty n lld

    up wt rsn mxd wt rt ... T oot ws smll nd wll-proportond, wt

    nstp, lk tos o t Grk sttus ...

    At t concluson o t lctur lst vnn [.. 4 Aprl], Dr. Rly[11] sustd

    tt t ws vry dsrl tt t sklton o t mummy sould prsrvd, n ordr

    tt comprsons mt drwn rom t wt tos o otr rcs n t prsnt dy.

    To ts proposton ts lrl possssor mmdtly ssntd.

    9 Now BCMAG H1111, notd s Tkn rom t domnl nvstmnts o n Eyptn Mummy opnd t

    t Insttuton n 184; or notr our suc urs, s p. 114, l