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    THE JOURNAL OF

    EyptianArhaeoloy

    VOLUME 94

    2008

    PUBLISHED BY

    THE EgYPT ExPLORATION SOcIETY

    3 DOUgHTY MEwS, LONDON wc1N 2Pg

    ISSN 03075133

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    Printed in Great Britain By

    CommerCial Colour Press PlC,

    anGard House, 185 Forest road,

    Hainault, essex iG6 3Hx

    and PuBlisHed By

    tHe eGyPt exPloration soCiety

    3 douGHty mews, london wC1n 2PG

    issn 03075133

    all riGHts reserVed

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    The Journal o Egyptian Archaeology 94 (008), 1078

    ISSN 007-51

    THE COFFINS OF IYHAT AND TAIRY:

    A TALE OF TWO CITIES *

    ByAidAn dodson

    T pulcton o two cons prsntly n t Cty Musum nd Art Gllry n Plymout, Enlnd.

    Dtn to t Twnty-t Dynsty, ty r ntrstn xmpls o nnr cons o tr prod,tt o Try vn n unusul rm rrnmnt. Ty lso v n ntrun modrn story, nd

    n ttmpt s md to trc tm rom tr rst pprnc t t Brstol Insttuton (ncstor ot modrn Cty Musum & Art Gllry) n 184, trou t Brstoln prvt collcton o md-nntnt cntury collctor nd trvllr Toms Ps (18161884), to tr rrvl n Plymoutn 1919.

    The orns o wt s now Brstols Musums, Gllrs & Arcvs1 l n t

    oundton, n 18, o t Brstol Insttuton or t Advncmnt o Scnc nd

    Art, srn rnd-nw prmss t t ottom o Prk Strt (. 1) wt t sltly

    oldr Brstol Ltrry nd Plosopcl Socty. T uldn ws dsnd y Sr

    Crls Cockrll (1788186), wo ws ltr to complt t Ftzwllm Musum,

    Cmrd, nd to uld St Gors Hll, Lvrpool.

    In Aprl 1871, t Insttuton mrd wt t Brstol Lrry Socty, nd n187 movd to nw uldn t t top o Prk Strt, wc ws xtndd n 1877

    (. ). In 1894, t Musum nd Lrry, struln nnclly, wr trnsrrd

    to Brstol Corporton. In 1906, t Lrry movd to ts currnt om on Coll

    Grn, wl n 1899 t tocco ron Sr Wllm Hnry Wlls (1801911, ltr

    Lord Wntrstok) ord to und nw Cty Art Gllry & Musum o Antquts,

    wc ws ult djcnt to t 187 Musum uldn, nd opnd n Frury

    1905. T Eyptn collcton ws movd nto t nw structur, nd s rmnd

    tr vr snc.

    *

    For tr nvlul ssstnc n t prprton o ts ppr, I m prtculrly ndtd to Su Gls,Curtor o Etnorpy nd Forn Arcoloy, Brstols Cty Musum nd Art Gllry (BCMAG), Rcl

    Smt, Assstnt Kpr o Humn Hstory t Plymout Cty Musum nd Art Gllry, nd Jon Tylor o t

    Brts Musum. In prtculr, Ms Gls nd Dr Tylor v clttd ccss to rlr rsrc mtrl rlt-

    n to t topc, ncludn nvsttons y Nck Dxon o BCMAG on l o Dr Tylor n 1985. Tnks

    r lso du to Slly-Ann Aston o t Ftzwllm Musum; Amr Druc nd Smnt Hlltt o BCMAG;

    Crstopr Dnmn o t Socty o Frnds Rdlnd Mtn; Dyn Hlton; Crstn Hus o t Sstrs

    o Nzrt Gnrl Arcv; Mrrt McGror, Arcvst t Brstol Rcord Oc; Brnd Moon; Crs

    Nunton o t Eypt Explorton Socty; Gurny Ps; Jms Russll nd Gwynn Stock o t Brstol &

    Avon Arcolocl Socty; Alx Tompson o Hrts Hous, Almondsury; nd Wndy Cwtorn, Assstnt

    Lrrn, Golocl Socty o London, or tr lp.1 For n ovrvw o t story o t Brstol Eyptn collcton, s A. Dodson nd S. Gls, T Eyp-

    tn Collcton o Brstol Cty Musum, n V. Solkn (d.), , II: 150-

    B /Ancient Egypt, II: On the Occasion o the 150th Birthday Anniversary o

    Vladimir S. Golenischev (Moscow, 006), 110, nd d., Ancnt Eypt n t Cty nd County o Brstol, Kmt

    18/4 (0078), 0. Muc usul dtl on t ltr yrs o t Cty Musum nd Art Gllry s wol s

    contnd n K.-M. Wlton, 75 years o Bristol Art Gallery (Brstol, 1980).

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    108 AIDAN DODSON JEA 94

    Fig. 1. Frmsons Hll on Prk Strt, Brstol, ornlly compltd n

    18 to ous t Brstol Ltrry nd Plosopcl Socty ndBrstol Insttuton or t Advncmnt o Scnc nd Art (utor).

    Fig. . T uldn rctd n 187 s t nw Brstol Musum nd Lrry,

    tr ts 1877 rrwrd xtnson (rom Bristol in 18989 (Brton, 1898), 6).

    T mn ocus o t ornl Insttuton ws t nturl scncs, ut rom t

    vry nnn t ws collctn Eyptn mtrl, lt n smll quntts: durn

    t rst tn yrs, only twlv out o out 1,50 dontons wr Eyptolocl tms,

    nd tr o tos wr ooks. T tnt tm rcvd ws n Mummy (ltr

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    008 THE COFFINS OF IYHAT AND TAIRY 109

    Brstol Musums H540 nd stll ltr H785), prsntd y Jon W, Brstoln

    rsdnt o Lvorno, Itly, on 9 Mrc 18, nd on 6 Mrc t ollown yr

    urtr mummy ws vn to t Insttuton y t Cty Cmrln o Brstol,

    Toms Grrrd (17871859).

    Curously, t ccompnyn Etnt Dynstywt con o crtn Ty (H60) ws not mntond n t Insttutons Dontons

    Book ltou t som st t con tsl rcvd pntd nscrpton rcordn

    ts donton y Grrrd. Ts lur to not t con(s) nclosn mummy s

    pnomnon tt s rptd ltr. Ts mummy ws unwrppd or n udnc

    on 9 Dcmr tt yr.4 Ts ws crrd out y tm ld y Dr Jms Cowls

    Prcrd (17861848), suron, psyctrst, nd pyscl ntropolost wo d

    lso wrttn on Eyptn mytoloy.5 W prsntd urtr mummy, tt o

    cld, on 6 Aprl 186, totr wt prt o notr juvnl ody.6

    On Mrc 184 t or y Mmr to llow on o t n Mumms

    snt to m rom rod to opnd ws rportd.7

    T Mmr n qustonws Grrrd, nd on 1 Mrc, srs o lcturs y Dr Prcrd n wt t

    unwrppn o t nw mummy. An xtrmly dtld contmporry ccount o

    ts vnt runs s ollows:8

    T Mummy, wc rom t c o t cs ws lvd to tt o ml, ws

    nclosd n two srcop o sycmor wood c o wc ws ormd o ck nd

    ront porton, dovtld, mortsd nd dowlld totr. T outsd o c cs

    ws covrd wt pntns nd rolypcs. On t nsd o t xtrnl cs ws

    ml ur n prol; nd t nsd o t ntrnl cs ws covrd wt ro-

    lypc wrtn.

    Ts css vn n rmovd t mummy ws xposd to vw nvlopd n

    ts nds. O ts t xtrnl ons wr nrrow, turnd n t tr ds, nd

    crucorm. Bnt ts ws lr wrppr o drk rd clot, wc nvlopd t

    As wt mny musums, t Brstol collcton s usd svrl numrn systms ovr t yrs. T Brstol

    Insttuton numrd ts dontons n tr ordr o cquston, ut ts numrs wr nvr mrkd on t

    ojcts, nor pprntly usd to rr to tm. Tn, n t lt nntnt cntury, systm o numrs ws

    doptd tt s now rrrd to s Fls Accsson Numrs; ts wr stll not mrkd on t ojcts. In

    prlll, snc 1898 ndvdul dprtmnts d strtd tr own rstrs (c wt tr own lttr-prxs),

    nd rom 1 Dcmr 191 Antquts lso dd so, prxn ts numrs wt t lttr H. T rst ojct

    so numrd (H1) ws st vn y Mr F. P. Brown, ollowd y nwly rrvd ojcts rom t Eypt

    Explorton Fund nd Brts Scool o Arcoloy n Eypt, tkn numrs up to H6. Oldr mtrl ws

    ddd to t H-Rstr s nd wn tm ws vll, so tt som o t vry rlst Brstol gyptiaca

    wr t lnt vn numrs n t H500 nd H600 srs n 1917 (c. low, p. 114 nd n. 5), wl t MppCollcton, rcvd n 1956, ws only rstrd durn 19777, documntton contnun nto t currnt

    dcd. Crtn tms wr ndvrtntly numrd twc, wc sms to v n t cs wt H540/H785.

    T H rstr ws closd nd t H rstr nuurtd n Frury 1971; ts contnud t srls usd n

    H, H50 n ollowd y H51 (ltou strctly spkn, to ollow Musum procdurs, t sould v

    un t H1). H ws tn Cty Trsurr rom 186 to 1856, ollown t Muncpl Corportons Act o 185; s

    Oxord Dictionary o National Biography (rtr ODNB), XXI, 516.4 An ccount pprd n t our prncpl Brstol locl nwspprs; c. A. B. Grnvll, An Essy on Eyp-

    tn Mumms, Philosophical Transactions o the Royal Society o London 115 (185), 91.5An Analysis o the Egyptian Mythology (London, 1819); ts trd dton ws ncorportd nto Prcrds

    Analysis o the Historical Records o Ancient Egypt (London, 188); s W. R. Dwson, E. P. Upll, nd M. L.

    Brrr, Who Was Who in Egyptology, rd rv. dn (London, 1995), 4; ODNB, XLV, 9.6 Ntr ody cn dntd tody, unlss t ormr mummy s H5597, c. D. P. Dwson, S. Gls, nd M.

    W. Ponsord (ds), Horemkenesi, May He Live Forever: The Bristol Mummy Project (Brstol, 00), 5.7 Felix Farleys Bristol Journal, Mrc 184.8 Brstol Insttuton Opnn o t Mummy, Bristol Mirror, Sturdy 5 Aprl 184.

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    110 AIDAN DODSON JEA 94

    wol ront o t ody, nd wc ws lcd nd wt srds o lnn. Undr t

    wr ound w ds o smvtrous sustnc wc mt v n ornlly on

    strn ut no vst o t ws lt. Lyrs o nds o ltr colour tn pr-

    sntd tmslvs, wound trnsvrsly round t ody, ltrntn wt otrs pssn

    lontudnlly wc nrlly ormd cross ovr t cst. Atr v o ts ltr-ntons t d nds wr sprt; nd tr ws srs o oldd comprsss

    ovr t wol ody, nt wc vry rmrkl cross ws sn. T nds

    tn cm drnt sown drk ptcs o tumnous mttr ...

    T wx urs wc wr ound wr proly tos o two cldrn, nd

    rprsntton o jckl-dd dty [(. )9]. Ty ll r mrks o t tum

    nd wr vdntly prprd n urry. On rmnt ound wt tm s n y, wt

    ln undr t ... Bnt ts ws ound wx plt, rprsntn wn, nd sl-

    sk. Wc orm totr l t mlm o t Atodmon.[10]

    T lnt o t ody tsl ws v t nd l n nc. T cutcl pprs to

    v n rmovd; t r s rtr lon nd o drk uurn colour, ut mttd

    totr y spltum. T rs r not ord: t nos s tolrly prsrvd utsomwt comprssd; ts ntrnl structur ws rokn down or t rmovl o t

    rn; t sockts o t ys wr lld up wt rsnous mttr, proly n prt

    myrr. T mout s sltly opn nd t tt r n ood prsrvton ...

    T collr ons r promnnt, nd t souldrs unnturlly rout orwrd. On

    t lt sd on lvl wt t lst dorsl nd rst lumr vrtr s lr crculr

    ncson trou wc t vscr o tt cvty wr xtrctd: t cvty n lld

    up wt rsn mxd wt rt ... T oot ws smll nd wll-proportond, wt

    nstp, lk tos o t Grk sttus ...

    At t concluson o t lctur lst vnn [.. 4 Aprl], Dr. Rly[11] sustd

    tt t ws vry dsrl tt t sklton o t mummy sould prsrvd, n ordr

    tt comprsons mt drwn rom t wt tos o otr rcs n t prsnt dy.

    To ts proposton ts lrl possssor mmdtly ssntd.

    9 Now BCMAG H1111, notd s Tkn rom t domnl nvstmnts o n Eyptn Mummy opnd t

    t Insttuton n 184; or notr our suc urs, s p. 114, low.10 Prsumly ctully n mlmrs plt ncorportn wnd urus; ts cnnot now dntd n t

    Musum collcton.11 Hnry Rly, MD (17971848), ws pyscn to t Brstol Inrmry twn 184 nd 1847, nd ws lso

    lcturr t Brstol Mdcl Scool rom 18 to 1846. H v populr lcturs on vrous sujcts t t Insttuton,

    ncludn comprtv ntomy, zooloy, rptls, nd plosurns, dontn t procds to t Insttuton.

    Fig. . T tr wx urs o sons o Horus rcovrd rom t mummy unwrppd n 184

    (BCMAG H1111: Amr Druc, courtsy Brstols Musums, Gllrs & Arcvs).

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    008 THE COFFINS OF IYHAT AND TAIRY 111

    Tr survvs pntn y t locl wtrcolorst Jon Sknnr Prout (18061874)

    nttld T Ttr o t Brstol Insttuton, Prk Strt, durn t Dlvry o

    Dr Prcrds Lcturs on Eyptn Antquts (. 4).1 A consdrl numr o

    Eyptn ntquts d n ssmld to provd ckdrop or Prcrds prsn-ttons. Tos vsl nclud tr mumms, on unwrppd, nd v cons.1

    T con top t pdstl t t rr o t dsply (1) s t ormntond

    xmpl lonn to Ty. At t ront o t dsply s t nwly unwrppd mummy

    (); t tr wx ms ound durn t unwrppn r to sn on t tl

    nd (11), wt notr tm tt my t closur o t mlmn wound.14

    T mummy lyn n t con trou t t rt (), dornd wt msk nd

    crtonn pnls, s Ws 18 t, H540 = H785. Tody, t mummy ls n n

    old znc-lnd ox n wc t s n ssumd to v n rout rom Eypt: t

    my v n tmporrly plcd n ts trou or dsply purposs only. To jud

    rom ts sz, nd t podum undr t t o t trou, t my tt t s romt con wos ld s on t r lt o t pntn (8).

    T wrppd mummy on t lt (4) closly mtcs t dscrpton vn ov

    o t xtrnl pprnc o t mummy unwrppd on 1 Mrc, nd must

    scond spcmn dontd y Grrrd. Ts s lstd lon wt t unwrppd ody

    n n ntry md durn My 184 n t Insttutons Dontons Book undr t

    numr 180: Two Eyptn Mumms. On ml nd t otr ml; t ormr

    n ts ornl ndn, t lttr s opnd t lctur tr on Mrc 1st 184 &

    ntndd or sklton.

    Altou no cons r mntond s ccompnyn ts two mumms, t

    contmporry ccount quotd ov dscrs t mummy to unwrppd s nnclosd n two srcop. Ts clrly must two o t our rmnn cons

    sown n t wtrcolour (58), wc r wtout dout two outr nd two nnr

    cons o typcl lt Trd Intrmdt Prod typ.15 Tt on t r rt o t

    pntn (5) cn rconsd y vrtu o ts vry unusul rm rrnmnt s t

    nnr cs o t Ldy o t Hous Try, dutr o Asry nd Dntnstt,

    now n Plymout Cty Musum nd Art Gllry (Appndx b). Its outr con

    s prsumly tt stndn nxt to t. T nnr ld stndn on t r lt (8) s

    1 Gvn to t Musum nd Art Gllry y Mr F. Nwcom n 1918. T ollown nlyss o t ojcts

    sown drs somwt rom tt st out n Dodson nd Gls, II, 114.1 O t otr mtrl vsl, t stl low Tys con sms to drwn. T corncd stl n ront

    o t unwrppd mummy (10) s dntl s tt o Iyty, dtl to t rn o Tutmos IV or Amn-

    otp III, nd now H67: ts could t Eyptn Monumnt o 185. O t roup on t tl (1), could

    t cnopc jr (not now dntl n t Brstol collcton) monst t Morrs Idols? T djcnt stl on

    t tl r dcult to ssss n vw o totl lck o dtl, ut on (possly t on n t cntr) s lkly to

    tt o t Hm-nTr n Wrt-HkAw Pnmun, rstrd n 1917 s H514, nd wtout ny story. Tr r no otr

    complt stl n Brstol tt could cnddts or t rmnn pr, ltou t s possl tt n ccdnt

    ltr ll on o tm, nd tt t could prtly rprsntd y H74, t mddl scton o rokn Nw

    Kndom stl o n Ovrsr o Cttl. Tr r no potntl cnddts or t trd stl: prps t nd t

    cnopc jr wr smply lnt or t occson? Altrntvly, ty my v n prt o t Insttutons oldns,

    ut susquntly lt t collcton n crcumstncs tt r now wolly oscur (c. n. 81).14 Tr prsnc sows clrly tt t mummy s t nwly unwrppd on, rtr tn t ody rom t

    con o Ty, unwrppd dcd rlr, s s sustd n Dwson, Gls, nd Ponsord (ds), Horemkenesi, 19.

    It s possl tt t lttr mummy s ddn rom vw nsd ts con, wc my xpln wy ts pc s lyn

    on ts ck, rtr tn plcd uprt lk t rst o t cons prsnt, ut c. n. low.15 C. urtr low.

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    11 AIDAN DODSON JEA 94

    6

    91

    7

    4 12

    11

    3

    8

    5

    2

    10

    Fig. 4. Wtrcolour y J. S. Prout, md t t Brstol Insttuton twn

    1 Mrc nd 4 Aprl 184, durn srs o Eyptolocl lcturs y

    Jms Prcrd (BCMAG M984, courtsy Brstols Musums, Gllrs & Arcvs).

    Ojcts tt my dntd r s ollows:

    1. BCMAG H60;

    . Mummy unwrppd on 1 Mrc 184;

    . H540=H785, n Plymout, Ps

    Lon C(?);

    4. Mummy prsntd wt .;

    5. Plymout Cty Musum & Art Gllry

    Ps Lon C;

    6. H61;

    7. H69;

    8. Plymout Ps Lon C1;

    9. H5588;

    10. H67;

    11. H1111;

    1. Stl not ully dntl, ut tt n

    cntr s proly H514; t cnopc jr

    s not dntl.

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    008 THE COFFINS OF IYHAT AND TAIRY 11

    lss dstnctv, ut s consstnt wt n tt o con wc ccompnd tt

    o Try wn t rrvd n Plymout, tt o t wab-prst o Amun, Iyt, son

    o Gods Ftr o Amun Pwrm nd nbt-pr Hnttwy (Appndx 1b). T

    dcortv lmnts ndctd on t wtrcolour r ll consstnt wt tos to sn n Plymout, wl t sp o t nos sown susts t dm to sn

    tody on t c o Iyts con. Altou t ld n t wtrcolour rs rd,

    n contrst wt t currnt stt o Iyts covr, t rokn rmns o just suc

    rd stll xst undr tt cons cn.

    Ts dntcton o t nnr cons sown n t 184 pntn rss two

    prtculr ssus. T rst rss rom prusl o t pulsd ccount o t

    unwrppn. Hr, w rd tt t nsd o t ntrnl cs ws covrd wt

    rolypc wrtn. Ts s tru o Iyts con, ut not tt o Try. Tr r

    numr o optons r: rst, tt t sx o t con nd/or mummy ws mstkn

    n 184; scond, tt t corrspondnt ws mstkn; trd, tt t mumms dn swtcd t som pont; or ourt, tt t con sown s not tr ll tt o

    Try n Plymout.

    Unortuntly, t sx o t corps cnnot tody vrd. In Jnury 185,

    t ws notd16 tt on dsply []n t Loy, Hll, nd upon t Str-cs [o t

    Insttuton] r modls, csts, s rls, nd usts, totr wt svrl mumms

    nd mummy css, nd t sklton o mummy doutlss t vctm o t

    prvous yrs unwrppn. Howvr, nst t 184 mumms ormntond

    ntry n t Insttutons Dontons Book s ltr not sttn Dstroyd 1906.17

    T dstructon o t unwrppd mummy s conrmd n t ltr Gnrl Rstr

    o t Musum nd Art Gllry, wr 78 Fml mummy wtout Bndn,s ollowd y not tt rpts t wordn o t Donton Book concrnn

    ts unwrppn nd ntndd mploymnt s sklton, plus Dstroyd 1906.

    Nvrtlss, t mummy d n closly xmnd, nd on would v xpctd

    ny sxn rror to v n spottd y t tm o t My ntry n t Dontons

    Book, spclly s t ws n skltonsd t t tm. T odys sttur would

    lso n kpn wt ts n tt o ml.18

    A corrspondnts rror...

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