The Influence of Competency and Commitment to ... lack of good organizational citizenship behavior,

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  • Journal of Business and Economics, ISSN 2155-7950, USA August 2014, Volume 5, No. 8, pp. 1430-1441 DOI: 10.15341/jbe(2155-7950)/08.05.2014/022  Academic Star Publishing Company, 2014 http://www.academicstar.us

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    The Influence of Competency and Commitment to Organizational

    Citizenship Behavior and Its Impact to Employee Productivity Based on

    Perception of Supervisors: A Survey at Star Hotels in West Java

    Asep Kurniawan (Faculty of Economics, University of Jenderal Achmad Yani (Unjani) Bandung, Cimahi, Indonesia)

    Abstract: The number of employees who are not productive due to lack of competence and commitment and lack of good organizational citizenship behavior, resulting in the disruption of the achievement of employee productivity. This study aims to produce study the influence of competence, commitment to employee productivity, both directly and through organizational citizenship behavior. This research is descriptive and verifikatif the method of the survey, conducted in five-star hotel star in particular 3, 4 and 5 in West Java with a total sample size of 223 supervisors of food and beverage and supervisor of room division. Testing hypotheses is using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed: contribute to the influence of competency and commitment to employee productivity through greater organizational citizenship behavior compared to the influence of competency and commitment to employee productivity directly, this suggests that organizational citizenship behavior is built through competency and committed employees have a major role to increase productivity and decrease employee star hotels.

    Key words: competence; commitment; organizational citizenship behavior and employee productivity JEL codes: Z1

    1. Introduction

    Fluctuations in the number of tourist arrivals were accommodated in West Java province can be seen in 2004 grew by 34.67% from the previous year, and continue to decline. In 2006 growth in tourist arrivals had very poor condition, due to a decrease of 19.40% from the previous year. Year 2008 saw a huge growth in the amount of 65.71% from the previous year. Furthermore, fluctuations in the number of domestic tourist visits were accommodated in West Java province can be seen in 2004 grew by 41.75% from the previous year, and has decreased notably in 2005 was 9.78%. Furthermore, in 2006 the growth of tourist arrivals increased from 2005 by 6.70% in 2007, but the growth is very small at 0.41% over the previous year and in 2008 there was an increase is quite high at 9.46% from the previous year (Department of Tourism and Culture of West Java Province, 2010). The growing amount of accommodation in the province of West Java in 2003-2010 can be explained that the development of the star from 2003 to 2005 did not experience an increase in the number of hotels. In 2006 the

    Asep Kurniawan, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics, University of Jenderal Achmad Yani (Unjani) Bandung; research area/interests:

    human resources management. E-mail: asepkurniawan2010@gmail.com.

  • The Influence of Competency and Commitment to Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Its Impact to Employee Productivity Based on Perception of Supervisors: A Survey at Star Hotels in West Java

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    development of the number of star hotels grew by 4.44% or as much as 6 star hotels, and in 2007 also grew by 9.93% or as many as 14 hotels. Later in 2008, an increase of 12.90% and until 2010 there was no increase in growth in the number of hotels (Department of Tourism and Culture of West Java Province, 2010).

    Productivity Indonesian ranks 59 of 61 countries (Reuters, 2009). If Indonesian is reviewed more in-depth ranking of 60 countries in 2005 alone ranked Indonesian remained unchanged in position 59 of the 60 countries to compete with the overall productivity of Thailand (ranked 27), Malaysia (ranked 28), Korea (ranked 29), China (ranked 31), Philippines (ranked 49) (IDM Word Competitiveness Yearbook, 2005).

    Minister of Manpower and Transmigration (minister) Erman said that the labor productivity of HR (human resources) Indonesian is low. According to an international survey, Indonesia ranks 137 of 147 countries surveyed. In Indonesian, people of different cultures—different causes demising productivity—each different region (Bali Post).

    According Wiratha (1998) that have not achieved target of tourist allegedly caused by the professionalism of the employees of the hospitality industry as an industry providing accommodation services remains low, with the knowledge or insights of employees relatively narrow and less able to create ideas, solve problems that arise and sense of responsibility is still relatively small. Furthermore, Kessler (2008) states that many organizations have attempted to build a model—a model of competence to identify the core competencies that organizations need to be more competitive and successful in the future.

    Level of employee commitment in Indonesian is still low when compared to other countries. According to the Asia Market Intelligence said that employees in Asia involving 1679 respondents in nine countries, namely Indonesian, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Hong Kong and China. The survey results demonstrate the commitment and loyalty of employees in Indonesian is relatively low compared with other Asian countries (14/XVII SWA Magazine, July 2001). Along with other researchers, namely Wyatt who conducted a survey of 8000 employees from 46 companies in 14 major industry in Indonesian shows the level of commitment and loyalty of employees in Indonesian is still low (Reuters, December 1, 2004).

    Based on preliminary research and observations that have been made against 30 people who assess the operational supervisor employees at the food and beverage as well as the employees of the hotel room division three, four and five in West Java Province, investigators get some phenomenon.

    The first phenomenon is related to the fact that employee competence (ECPT) star in West Java Province explained that 53.33% in the opinion of food and beverage supervisor and the supervisor’s immediate superior room division as an employee, showing employees who worked under him was not competent. According to Kessler (2008) states that organizations should be able to make sure employees understand the job competencies to be able to adjust to the job.

    The second phenomenon, an overview of employee commitment (ECMT) star in West Java Province by rating food and beverage supervisor and supervisor room devision showed 56.67% of the employees are not committed. According to Luthans (2006) suggested that a summary of past and present research shows a positive relationship between organizational commitment and desired outcomes such as high performance, low employee turnover, and absenteeism rates.

    The third phenomenon, an overview of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) employee-star hotel in West Java can be seen that 56.67% of the employees are not organizational citizenship behavior. According to an expert who has examined the OCB, that will enhance the achievement of goals and organizational effectiveness (Bowler, 2006).

  • The Influence of Competency and Commitment to Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Its Impact to Employee Productivity Based on Perception of Supervisors: A Survey at Star Hotels in West Java

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    Finally the fourth phenomenon, to employee productivity (EPR) star in West Java Province assessments food and beverage supervisor and supervisor room division showed 53.33% of employees are not productive. According to Sedarmayanti (2010) that with the development of business activities in various sectors, it needs more attention workings that will create efficiencies that will ultimately result in labor productivity.

    Increased productivity will be difficult to be increased if the management of an organization does not manage its human resources effectively. According Rivai and Sagala (2010) stated that the achievement of the business objectives of the organization, the problems faced by the management not only in raw materials, work tools, production machines, money and the environment, but also about employees (human resources) which manage factors of production other.

    Based on the above research background, the research problem is formulated as follows: How much influence employee competence (ECPT), employees’ commitment (ECMT) on employee productivity (EPR), both directly and through organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) on star hotels in West Java Province

    2. Literature Review

    Grand Theory in this research is the theory of management. The power management is shown by the many individuals who have the dedication, integrity and professionalism in the travel and career development (Druker & Maciariello, 2008)

    Middle Range Theory is a theory in the study of Human Resource Management (HRM) and Organizational Behavior. Human Resource Management is the process of managing the individuals in achieving organizational goals. HRM is part of the management process associated with managing resources effectively and efficiently starting from procurement, developing and retaining competent human resources to achieve organizational goals (Mahapatro et al., 2010). According to Armstrong (2009) states that the practice of HRM focuses on aspects of how to manage the human resources employed in the organization. Furthermore Torrington et al. (2008) suggested that HRM is the basis of all management activities but not of all business

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