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The Human World: Resources, Trade and the Environment

The Human World: Resources, Trade and the EnvironmentChapter 4 Section 4EQ: How does the availability and use of natural resources affect economic activities and the environment?OBJ: I will be able to analyze how changes in the physical environment of a place can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activity.

Resource managementElements from the Earth that are not made by people but can be used by them for food, fuel, or other necessities are called natural resourcesRenewable resources cannot be used up, or can be replaced naturally, or grown again in a relatively short amount of timeTypes of Renewable ResourcesWaterSunWindForestsAnimal LifeNon-renewable resources cannot be replaced, such as minerals and fossil fuelsORGANIZER!Economies and world trade: economic developmentGeographers and Economists classify the worlds economic activity into 4 typesPrimary economic activitiesInvolve taking or using natural resources directly from the EarthSecondary economic activitiesRaw materials are used to produce something new and more valuableTertiary economic activitiesHelps provide services to people and businessesQuaternary economic activitiesConcerned with the processing, management and distribution of informationEconomies and world trade: economic developmentIndustrialization, or the spread of industry, help influence a countrys level of developmentDeveloped countriesMost people work in service, manufacturing, or information industries and enjoy a high standard of livingNewly industrialized countriesIncludes Mexico and MalaysiaDeveloping countriesIn these developing countries, agriculture remains dominantPeople engage in subsistence farmingMilitant groups arise due to resentment of and discontentment with lack of resources

World tradeThe unequal distribution of natural resources promotes a complex network of trade among countriesDifferences in labor costs and education levels affect world trade as wellBarriers to TradeA government conducts trade to benefit its own economyTax or tariff on imported/exported goodsQuotasEmbargos Free TradeThe removal of barriers so that goods can flow freely among countries

World tradeThe General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was the first international agreement to promote free tradeIn 1995 GATT became the World Trade Organization (WTO)North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)Mexico, Canada, and the United States are a part of this agreementEliminates all trade barriers to goods of these countriesThe European Union is the worlds largest trading bloc and includes many countries of EuropeThey have a regional currency known as the euro to show cooperationThe Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand Encourages economic growth and tradePeople and the EnvironmentWater and Land PollutionOil spills, chemical waste, fertilizer, and pesticides can pollute the water supplyChemical waste and radioactive waste can poison fertile topsoil and also leak deep into the soilAir PollutionThe main sources of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels by industries and vehiclesChemicals in the air combine with precipitation to form acid rainForests provide animal habitats, prevent oil erosion, and carries out photosynthesisThe Fragile EcosystemHuman activity can disrupt the environmentEarths land, air, and water are interrelated so what harms one part of the system harms all other parts including all living things