The High Middle Ages: Growth of Europe SS.A.2.4.7; SS.B.1.4.1; SS.A.2.4.11; SS.B.1.4.4

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  • The High Middle Ages: Growth of EuropeSS.A.2.4.7; SS.B.1.4.1; SS.A.2.4.11; SS.B.1.4.4

  • Vikings Become Normans

  • England & The Norman InvasionAD 400: Anglos and Saxons invade England800s: King Alfred the Great unites Anglo-Saxon kingdoms; Anglo-Saxons rule EnglandOctober 14, 1066: Battle of HastingsWilliam of Normandy leads mounted army of Normans against the foot-soldiers of King HaroldAll knights get land for swearing loyalty to William, as sole ruler of EnglandOfficial language of the Kings court is French, eventually Anglo-Saxon and French cultures mixWilliam conducts first census since Romans

  • William the Conqueror

  • King Henry II of England1154-1189: Henry II expands monarchys powerCourts of Justice closed, replaced by Kings courtLocal codes of law replaced by English common lawCatholic Church challenges kings power to put clergy on trial, when Henry tries to punish Archbishop Thomas Becket of CanterburyInstead, Henry has the archbishop killed, but when people get angry with him, he gives church its way

  • Henry II vs. Thomas

  • The Magna CartaMany rich noblemen did not like the growing power of the king/monarchy1200s: Noblemen rise up and rebel against kingKing John forced to put seal on a document of rights called The Magna Carta (Great Charter)Limited the power of the monarchA feudal document recognizing the mutual obligations of lords and vassalsMagna Carta allows for Englands first Parliament to form under reign of Edward I

  • The Magna Carta

  • Europe, A.D. 1160

  • France: Rise of the Capetians843: Carolingian Empire divided, W. Frankish kingdom becomes early French kingdom987: Last Carolingian king dies, replaced by Hugh Capet, starting Capetian Dynasty in FranceEarly on Capetian kings had little power, controlling only the lands around Paris (a.k.a. Ile-de-France)1182-1223: King Philip II Augustus defeat English armies and take control of territories of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine, expanding the power and wealth of the French crown

  • King Philip II Augustus of France

  • Philips Conquests

  • France1223-1314: kings Louis IX and Philip IV expand French power and wealth even moreBy 1300, France was the largest, most powerful European monarchical state1302: Philip IV established Frances first parliament by holding regular meetings with the three estates:First Estate: the clergySecond Estate: the nobilityThird Estate: peasants and townspeople

  • King Louis IX

  • The Holy Roman Empire900s: Saxon dukes became kings of Eastern Frankish Kingdom, renamed GermanyIn return for protecting the pope, King Otto I of Germany is crowned Emperor of the Romans in 962 (first since Charlemagne)As new Roman emperors, German kings attempted to rule both Germany and ItalyKings wanted to make money off of ItalyItaly must be at center of a holy or Roman realm

  • Banner of the Holy Roman Empire

  • Holy Roman Struggles In ItalyWith Jerusalem under Arab control, Rome becomes center of Christianity to W. EuropeansFrederick I considers his empire holy and thinks Rome must be included to legitimize empireItaly is only part of Europe with good tradePope opposes Fredericks campaign in ItalyNorthern Italian cities, used to their freedom, join the pope and defeat HRE in 1176Frederick II won many battles, also defeated

  • Empire In DeclineWhile emperors fought in Italy, powerful lords left behind to rule GermanyWith defeat in Italy, many lords think emperor weak, and create their own smaller kingdomsGerman H.R. Emperors left with no real powerGermany and Italy never create powerful, centralized monarchy; unlike England & FranceItaly & Germany consist of small, independent states until 1800s

  • Central & Eastern EuropeSlavic people started as single group in C.E.Split into western, eastern, and southern SlavsWestern Slavs establish Polish and Bohemian (Czech) kingdoms, converted to Western Christianity by German monks in tenth centuryHungary also converted by GermansEastern and southern Slavs convert to Eastern Orthodox Christianity by Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodius Croats, southern Slavs, accept the Roman church

  • RussiaSlavs also settle in area of modern Ukraine and RussiaLate 700s: Swedish Vikings come, dominateLocals call their new rulers RusViking leader Oleg, settles in city of KievEstablishes Principality of Kiev, a Rus stateEventually, Kiev rules over lands b/w Baltic and Black seas, and the Danube and Volga riversVikings eventually assimilate into Slavic cultureRus convert to Orthodox Christianity

  • End of the Russian State1200s: Mongols conquer Russia, requiring Rus princes to pay them tributeOne prince, Alexander Nevsky, emerges as most powerful1242: Nevsky defeats invading German armyThe Khan, mongol leader, rewards Nevsky with title of grand-princeNevskys descendants eventually come to rule