The Geographers Tools
Geographers use maps, globes, charts, graphs, and new technology to learn about and display the features of Earth.
It is important to study the geography and history of other countries around the world We need to understand other cultures in order to appreciate our world Knowledge of other countries is the key to understanding themToday, we will review our map skills so that we can find where places are located!
Maps and Globes
Differences Between Maps and GlobesA globe is an accurate, three-dimensional model of the earthMaps are less accurate than globes in picturing the earth because they are just two-dimensionalKnowing how to read a map is very important Lets talk about some types of maps
The World PhysicalPhysical maps show what the surface of the Earth looks like.
The World PoliticalPolitical maps show how people have divided places on the Earth into countries, states, cities and other units for the purpose of governing them.
Locating Places on a Map Maps show the locations of different places: countries, states, state capitals, and other places, too. Without a map, it would be really hard to know where all these places are. every map has tools to help us read the map
Latitude and LongitudeThe earth is divided into lots of lines called latitude and longitude.
LinesLongitude lines run north and south.Latitude lines run east and west. The lines measure distances in degrees. LatitudeLongitude
Where is 0 degree?The equator is 0 degree latitude. It is an imaginary belt that is the halfway point between the North Pole and the South Pole.Equator
Where is 0 degree?The prime meridian is 0 degrees longitude. This imaginary line runs through the United Kingdom, France, Spain, western Africa, and Antarctica.
Absolute Location- where a line of latitude intersects with a line of longitude
A. The Absolute Location is given as a coordinate pair (X,Y on an axis)B. Latitude (the X number) is always listed first
HemispheresBy using the equator and prime meridian, we can divide the world into four hemispheres, north, south, east, and west.
CompassA compass is a tool that helps the user know what direction one is headed.On a map, a compass or a compass rose helps the user locate these directions.
ScaleMaps are made to scale; that is, there is a direct connection between a unit of measurement on the map and the actual distance.For example, each inch on the map represents one mile on Earth. So, a map of a town would show a mile-long strip of fast food joints and auto dealers in one inch.
Time ZonesThe Earth is divided into 24 time zones, corresponding to 24 hours in a day. As the earth rotates, the sun shines in different areas, moving from east to west during the course of a day. Places that have the same longitude will be in the same time zone.