The First Nations Peoples in the Northwest. Whiskey Trade North West Mountain Police Treaties. Whiskey Traders. In the early 1870’s, American fur traders in the Southwest part of the North West Territories. American fur trade companies were smaller, independent companies. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The First Nations Peoples in the Northwest
The First Nations Peoples in the Northwest Whiskey TradeNorth West Mountain PoliceTreaties
Whiskey Traders In the early 1870s, American fur traders in the Southwest part of the North West Territories.
American fur trade companies were smaller, independent companies.
They traded strong, cheap liquor to the First Nations peoples in return for buffalo robes and other furs.Whoop-UpWas the principle trading Fort, center of trade that devastated the local First Nations groups.
Liquor trade led to widespread alcoholism among the First Nations peoples. Malnutrition, disease and death.
FirewaterWhiskey today is usually about 40% alcohol.
Firewater is extremely powerful liquor, it was almost pure alcohol.
Distilled from grain in stills.
Its colourless so whiskey traders would add molasses or Tabasco sauce.
It can cause death in even small quantities. North West Mounted Police 1872 Canadian government decided that the Northwest required some policing.
It feared the loss of territory to the Americans.
NWMP were a police force and a paramilitary (unofficial military organization). NWMP ROLES #1- Drive out whiskey traders & regain control over the entire North West Territories.
CYPRESS HILL MASSACRE1874 group of Assiniboin was attacked by a party of whiskey traders on Cypress Hill (Southern Saskatchewan)
30 Assiniboin were killed.
Eastern Canada was outraged.
Sent a force of 300 NWMP to Ft. Whoop-up.
Whiskey traders fled back into the U.S.
Treaties with the First-Nations People Goal of the Canadian Government was to open up the prairies for European settlement.
By the 1870 all the land in the Northwest besides the Selkirk settlement was still held by Aboriginal Nations. Department of Indian Affairs 1870 Canadian government began negotiating treaties with First Nations people.
Commissioner W. Simpson was sent to talk to the Cree and Saulteaux peoples.
August 1871 Treaty #1 & #2 = peoples of Manitoba had signed away their claim to their traditional homeland. Cree and Saulteaux Wanted to control about 60 percent of the land in Manitoba.
Simpson offered 160 acres (64.7 hectares) for every family of five.
In return for land the government agreed to give both nations farm equipment, supplies and instruction in farming techniques. Un Kept Promises. Aboriginal peoples welcomed the idea of becoming farmers.
However, the supplies, tools and animals they were promised never materialized and their standard of living began to decline.
Governments Response Government said it was unnatural for these native peoples to use farm machinery, even though it was impossible to grow and harvest wheat without it.
By the end of the 19th century many First Nations peoples on the Prairies abandoned farming and were completely dependent on the Canadian Government. Indian Act 1876 Confirmed that First- Nations peoples were required to live on reserves.
First-Nations children were to go to Residential Schools.
NWMP escorted First Nations onto the reserves. Residential Schools A school system set up by the Canadian Government and administered by the Catholic Church.Forcing children to adopt Euro-Canadian and Christian ways of living and assimilating them into mainstream Canadian society.The Policy became to kill the Indian in the child Residential Schools The system forcibly separated children from their families. Forbade them to acknowledge their Aboriginal heritage and culture or to speak their own languages. Children were severely punished if these, among other, strict rules were broken. Former students of residential schools have spoken of horrendous abuse at the hands of residential school staff: physical, sexual, emotional, and psychological
When do you think the last Residential School was Closed in Canada?Terms Paramilitary pg. 181Missionaries pg. 182