The Empire Under Strain Chapter 4. Distance After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious effort to tighten control over colonies After Glorious

  • View
    221

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of The Empire Under Strain Chapter 4. Distance After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious...

  • Slide 1

The Empire Under Strain Chapter 4 Slide 2 Distance After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious effort to tighten control over colonies After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious effort to tighten control over colonies Kings Control Kings Control Colonies i. New Jersey 1702 ii. North and South Carolina 1729 iii. Georgia 1754 Slide 3 Distance (cont.) Mercantilist Laws Mercantilist Laws i. Navigation Acts ii. restricting colonial manufactures iii. prohibiting paper currency iv. regulating trade Slide 4 Loose Policy Loose Policy Robert Walpole, PM, believed that little control was good Few officials visit America Colonial appointments came from bribery or favoritism First American Assemblies First American Assemblies 1750s claim right to levy taxes, make appropriations, approve appointments and pass laws Colonists continue to think of themselves as loyal English subjects England only tie Slide 5 Improving Communication Improving Communication Trade = roads and seaports colonial postal service Still Weak Still Weak 1754 when faced with war against French and Indians British gov. allows delegates from Penn., Mary., NY, NE to meet in Albany Ben Franklin proposes Albany Plan Slide 6 Ben Franklin proposes Albany Plan Ben Franklin proposes Albany Plan one general gov. retain its present constitution president general It was REJECTED / Failure to agree.... Ben Franklin exclaims that colonists are a bunch of weak noodles Slide 7 The War Before the War French and Iroquois French and Iroquois French and English coexisted peacefully for nearly a century French deep in continent French Jesuits French men married natives Slide 8 Tensions arise Tensions arise Louis XIV wishes to expand empire Louisiana Battle for N.A would be determined by which group could best win the allegiance of natives: English offered goods English offered goods French offered tolerance French offered tolerance Slide 9 Iroquois Confederacy Iroquois Confederacy five Indian nations Unified Ohio Valley Ohio Valley French claimed it Indians lived there English colonists begin to expand into it Slide 10 More Drama in Europe! More Drama in Europe! William of Orange takes over England William is one of Louis XIVs biggest enemies Louis wants to expand and William opposes him (King Williams War 1689-1697) France = Catholic ; Spain = Catholic ; Spain + France = Powerful Allies Slide 11 More Drama in Europe! Contd More Drama in Europe! Contd Queen Anne (Williams sister in law) ascends the throne 1702 Queen Annes War 1701-1713 Queen Annes War 1701-1713 border fighting with Spanish in South border fighting with Spanish in South border fighting with French to Northwest border fighting with French to Northwest France + Prussia vs. England + Austria = King Georges War 1744-1748 Iroquois begin trading with English, thus English move west Iroquois begin trading with English, thus English move west French set up forts in response in the Ohio Valley French set up forts in response in the Ohio Valley Slide 12 Phase One: French Indian War (aka Seven Years War) Phase One: French Indian War (aka Seven Years War) Fort Necessity Debacle Fort Necessity Fort Necessity George Washingtons troops forced to surrender George Washingtons troops forced to surrender Weak British Assistance General Edward Braddock failed in 1755 to stop a fleet of French reinforcements General Edward Braddock failed in 1755 to stop a fleet of French reinforcements ambush leaves Braddock dead and troops in disarray ambush leaves Braddock dead and troops in disarray Indian Raids all Indian tribes (except Iroquois) allied with French all Indian tribes (except Iroquois) allied with French Slide 13 Phase Two: French Indian War Phase Two: French Indian War Intercontinental Fighting in Europe, W.Indies, and India Fighting in Europe, W.Indies, and India Principal Struggle in North America Principal Struggle in North America William Pitt: America Under British Control impressment impressment housing/quartering housing/quartering Slide 14 Phase Three: French Indian War Phase Three: French Indian War Pitt agrees to reimburse the colonists for all supplies taken during the war Returned control of military recruitment to the colonial assemblies Turning the Tide Turning the Tide French were always outnumbered Poor Harvests 1756 Scalp bounties = brutal raids as counter attack Peace of Paris Peace of Paris French give some West Indian islands Gave Canada and all other French territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain Ceded New Orleans and all lands west of the Mississippi to Spain Slide 15 Effects Effects English Perspective Greatly expanded Englands territory in New World Greatly expanded Englands territory in New World Enlarged Britains debt Enlarged Britains debt Officials in England angry about colonists Officials in England angry about colonists Particularly bitter at colonists Particularly bitter at colonists Colonists Perspective colonial assemblies colonial assemblies illegitimacy of British presence illegitimacy of British presence British perceived as arrogant British perceived as arrogant Native perspective Ohio Valley natives: disastrous because allied with French = enemies with Britain Ohio Valley natives: disastrous because allied with French = enemies with Britain Iroquois: mistrust from British because of inaction during war Iroquois: mistrust from British because of inaction during war outnumbered and unorganized outnumbered and unorganized Slide 16 From Rash Recovery to Rebellion King George III King George III ascended to throne in 1760 age twenty-two suffered from bouts of insanity nominates George Grenville PM in 1763 tried to control colonists tried to control colonists believed in limiting their freedoms believed in limiting their freedoms Slide 17 King George III Contd King George III Contd Marquis of Rockingham succeeds Grenville as PM in July 1765 tried to appease both English and Americans tried to appease both English and Americans got king to repeal Stamp Act got king to repeal Stamp Act kicked out of office kicked out of office William Pitt becomes PM (again) 1766 old and mentally unstable old and mentally unstable Charles Townshend substitutes Charles Townshend substitutes CT dies in 1767 CT dies in 1767 Lord North becomes PM 1767 repeals all Townshend Acts except tax on Tea repeals all Townshend Acts except tax on Tea Slide 18 Post War Policies Post War Policies Proclamation of 1763 (Grenville) forbid settlers to advance beyond a line drawn along the Appalachian Mts. British Incentives: control west. movement of colonial pop. control west. movement of colonial pop. avoid conflict with Natives ($) avoid conflict with Natives ($) keep colonists near coastline for trade ($) keep colonists near coastline for trade ($) Cherokee supported it, hoped to end white expansion west Colonial Response: Whites continued to claim lands across the boundary line Whites continued to claim lands across the boundary line Slide 19 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd Sugar Act of 1764 (Grenville) British Incentives: British Incentives: eliminate illegal sugar trade British courts in America to try accused smugglers, Colonial Response; Colonial Response; hampered trade business, $, lost anger towards outside control Currency Act of 1764 (Grenville) stop issuing paper money and to destroy all money in circulation stop issuing paper money and to destroy all money in circulation Slide 20 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd Stamp Act of 1765 (Grenville) imposed a tax on most printed documents in the colonies: newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses British Incentives: profit profit limit propaganda, communication limit propaganda, communication Colonists Response: taxes prior were intended to raise commerce, this one raised money taxes prior were intended to raise commerce, this one raised money anger towards taxation without consent anger towards taxation without consent Patrick Henry Virginia Resolves Patrick Henry Virginia Resolves Stamp Act Congress meets in NY Stamp Act Congress meets in NY Sons of Liberty terrorize stamp agents Sons of Liberty terrorize stamp agents Riots Riots British Response to Colonial Response (Rockingham): New govt convinces king to end the Stamp Act in 1766 New govt convinces king to end the Stamp Act in 1766 English powers demand a new law in response... English powers demand a new law in response... Slide 21 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd Declaratory Act 1766 (Rockingham) asserted Parliaments authority over the colonies in all cases whatsoever asserted Parliaments authority over the colonies in all cases whatsoever gave Parliament sweeping power gave Parliament sweeping power Mutiny Act of 1765 (Grenville) colonists required to assist in the provisioning and maintaining of the army colonists required to assist in the provisioning and maintaining of the army colonial officials ordered to take up posts (no more substitutes) colonial officials ordered to take up posts (no more substitutes) restricted colonial manufacturing restricted colonial manufacturing British Incentives: British Incentives: stop smugglers keep colonial businesses from competing with English Colonial response: Colonial response: trade limited, businesses go bankrupt anger towards outside control taxation without consent British Response to Colonial Response..... Slide 22 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd Townshend Acts 1767 disbanded NY assembly disbanded NY assembly levied new taxes on different products levied new taxes on different products board of customs in Boston board of customs in Boston imposes a tax on tea imposes a tax on tea 1st Colonial Response: 1st Colonial Response: Massachusetts Assembly circulates letter to all colonial govts urging them to stand against every tax boycott British Response (North; Townshend dead): British Response (North; Townshen

Recommended

View more >