1
375 Next, Hobbs and Bortnick impregnated some of the animals that had previously been given endometrial implants in order to ascertain if a decidual reaction occurred in the ectopic endometrium in the lung. In several instances this could be demonstrated, and their microphotographs clearly show a decidual reaction. In control pregnant rabbits no decidual reaction could be seen in serial section of the lungs. In a final experiment they tried to stimulate the ectopic endometrial tissue in the lung with stilboestrol, and in 4 out of 12 experiments a diffuse endometriosis was produced. This work, if confirmed, proves that endometrium can be transported to distant metastatic foci by the veins, that it can live in its own environment, and that it is capable of under- going the same changes as its parent tissue under the stimulus of the various internal secretions. Hobbs and Bortnick carry their argument a step further and suggest that some obscure benign and malignant tumours of the lung in women may be derived from a metastatic endo- metrial implant, but so far a study of 33 primary lung tumours has failed to demonstrate endometrial tissue. THE ELECTRO-ENCEPHALOGRAM IN EPILEPSY THE discovery that epilepsy is associated with paroxysmal outbreaks of high voltage in electro- encephalographic records opened up wide fields for investigation. The sequence of these waves whether rhythmic or random, their constancy, their dominant frequency, their voltage, the percentage of time that they occupy on the record, the type of wave, the number of waves in each paroxysm, their localisation on the cortex, whether discrete, bilateral, multiple or diffuse must all be considered. Further studies would determine the effect upon them of physiological events, of pathological states, of drugs, of special diets and of hyperventilation, and endeavour would be made to correlate the findings with various types of epileptic attack and mental states associated with epilepsy. The field is an enormous one and a mass attack has recently been made into it by Jasper and Kershman working at the department of neurology and neurosurgery at McGill University, Mon- treal. These authors present interseizure records of 468 epileptic patients. They divide the high voltage waves into random waves and paroxysmal rhythms, and sug- gest further subdivisions of these two great groups according to shape, pattern and frequency. From the point of view of localisation they classify their records into three groups : the localised unilateral cortical, where only a discrete area of the cortex is involved (50% of their series); the bilaterally synchronous from homologous areas of the cortex (35%) ; and the diffuse (15%). They find that the great majority of the localised uni- lateral cortical group have, in fact, fits with a focal onset, and this is especially the case with certain types and frequency of wave. In these cases a family history of epilepsy is uncommon. Operative procedure should be carefully considered and pneumoencephalography will often help in the decision. Slow bilateral synchronous waves occur in patients who lose consciousness at the onset of their attacks, whether petit mal or grand mal ; the fits usually begin before adolescence and are called idiopathic. The origin of the waves is presumably deep-seated. Rather more frequent (6 per sec.) bilateral synchronous waves, usually bifrontal or bitemporal, are often associated with psychomotor attacks. These are the waves which are sometimes discovered in non-epilep- tic behaviour-problem children. Diffuse waves are usually found in patients subject to major fits without focal onset. As a generalisation, therefore, the pattern and localisation of the waves bear a close relation to the type of fits. The real trouble with mass interpretation of electro- encephalograms is that there are so many variables to be 1. Jasper, H. H. and Kershman, J. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat, 1941, 45, 903. considered. In classifying the epilepsies the clinical variables require painstaking observation and on the side of the electro-encephalogram the polyglot of fre- quencies encountered, their size, shape, number and combination call for an equally experienced and con- servative analysis. When the difference between the " between seizure " and the " seizure " record of the epileptic is considered it is not surprising that workers have mainly concentrated upon the distinct wave-forms encountered during clinical and subclinical fits. In this field the greater part of the work of Gibbs and Lennox 2 3 stands unchallenged as the classical reference point in the modern study of the epilepsies. Their correlation of the distinct patterns encountered in grand mal, petit mal, the petit mal variants, and in the jumble of the psycho- motor epilepsies forms a basis for exact clinical diagnosis. Grey Walter approached the subject from the other side, and studied the position of foci of abnormal waves in the between-seizure records of epileptic patients. He was able to show the relationship between the clinical pattern of attacks and the focus of abnormality ; with McKissock he later showed that surgical removal of areas of focal abnormality did not benefit the patient, but that in fact epilepsy is a disease of the hemispheres as a whole. The biochemical approach to the epilepsies which has been made through the medium of the electro- encephalogram by Lennox 5 and his co-workers, Williams 6 and others points to an underlying metabolic abnormality which may explain the relative unimportance of focal abnormality in the treatment of individual cases. Jasper and Kershman have done well to correlate so many data, and have added to our knowledge, but a final synthesis is not yet in sight. SEX GLANDS AND BLOOD-PRESSURE Two sets of facts are combining to direct attention to a possible influence of the gonads on blood-pressure. On the one hand are the well-known observations on the effects of adrenaline and pituitary extract in both man and animals ; the low blood-pressures in Simmonds’s and Addison’s diseases and the high ones in basophil tumour of the pituitary and cortical tumour of the adrenals ; the high systolic with low diastolic pressure so often found in Graves’s disease ; and a host of other observations linking blood-pressure with the endocrine system in general. On the other hand is the rapidly growing pile of observations linking the glands of the system so intimately with each other that diseases of single glands are hardly recognised and the term poly- glandular syndrome has lost all meaning, since almost all glandular syndromes are " poly." Added to these general signposts are a few somewhat vague clinical observations, some of which have been misunderstood. Thus the frequent appearance of high blood-pressure at the menopause has been attributed to a deficiency of cestrogens, whereas the increase of pituitary basophil cells and adrenal cortical hyperplasia which occur at this period in animals make it much more likely that one of these glands is responsible. This supposition is sup- ported by the observation that menopausal hyperpiesia in women is more common when symptoms suggestive of Cushing’s syndrome, such as adiposity, hypertrichosis and carbohydrate intolerance, are also present. This type of high blood-pressure so often returns spontane- ously to normal that it is difficult to assess the value of oestrogen treatment. Nevertheless, such treatment is rational, and until there is evidence of its uselessness it is clearly justifiable to exhibit oestrogens with a view to shortening the hyperpietic period and possibly of pre- venting the permanent changes which often occur. There have been reports of small numbers of patients not 2. Gibbs, F. A., Gibbs, E. L. and Lennox, W. G. Brain, 1937, 60, 377. 3. Gibbs, F. A. J. Pediat. 1939, 15, 749. 4. Golla, F., Graham, S. and Walter, W. G. J. ment. Sci. 1937, 83, 137. 5. Nims, L. F. et al. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 1940, 43, 262. 6. Williams, D. J. Neurol. Psychiat. 1941, 4, 32.

THE ELECTRO-ENCEPHALOGRAM IN EPILEPSY

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375

Next, Hobbs and Bortnick impregnated some of theanimals that had previously been given endometrialimplants in order to ascertain if a decidual reactionoccurred in the ectopic endometrium in the lung. Inseveral instances this could be demonstrated, and theirmicrophotographs clearly show a decidual reaction. Incontrol pregnant rabbits no decidual reaction could beseen in serial section of the lungs. In a final experimentthey tried to stimulate the ectopic endometrial tissue inthe lung with stilboestrol, and in 4 out of 12 experimentsa diffuse endometriosis was produced. This work, ifconfirmed, proves that endometrium can be transportedto distant metastatic foci by the veins, that it can livein its own environment, and that it is capable of under-going the same changes as its parent tissue under thestimulus of the various internal secretions. Hobbs andBortnick carry their argument a step further and suggestthat some obscure benign and malignant tumours of thelung in women may be derived from a metastatic endo-metrial implant, but so far a study of 33 primary lungtumours has failed to demonstrate endometrial tissue.THE ELECTRO-ENCEPHALOGRAM IN EPILEPSY

THE discovery that epilepsy is associated withparoxysmal outbreaks of high voltage in electro-

encephalographic records opened up wide fields for

investigation. The sequence of these waves whether

rhythmic or random, their constancy, their dominant

frequency, their voltage, the percentage of time that theyoccupy on the record, the type of wave, the number ofwaves in each paroxysm, their localisation on the cortex,whether discrete, bilateral, multiple or diffuse must all beconsidered. Further studies would determine the effect

upon them of physiological events, of pathological states,of drugs, of special diets and of hyperventilation, andendeavour would be made to correlate the findings withvarious types of epileptic attack and mental statesassociated with epilepsy. The field is an enormous oneand a mass attack has recently been made into it byJasper and Kershman working at the department ofneurology and neurosurgery at McGill University, Mon-treal. These authors present interseizure records of 468epileptic patients. They divide the high voltage wavesinto random waves and paroxysmal rhythms, and sug-gest further subdivisions of these two great groupsaccording to shape, pattern and frequency. From thepoint of view of localisation they classify their recordsinto three groups : the localised unilateral cortical, whereonly a discrete area of the cortex is involved (50% of theirseries); the bilaterally synchronous from homologousareas of the cortex (35%) ; and the diffuse (15%).They find that the great majority of the localised uni-lateral cortical group have, in fact, fits with a focal onset,and this is especially the case with certain types andfrequency of wave. In these cases a family history ofepilepsy is uncommon. Operative procedure should becarefully considered and pneumoencephalography willoften help in the decision. Slow bilateral synchronouswaves occur in patients who lose consciousness at theonset of their attacks, whether petit mal or grand mal ;the fits usually begin before adolescence and are calledidiopathic. The origin of the waves is presumablydeep-seated. Rather more frequent (6 per sec.) bilateralsynchronous waves, usually bifrontal or bitemporal, areoften associated with psychomotor attacks. These arethe waves which are sometimes discovered in non-epilep-tic behaviour-problem children. Diffuse waves are

usually found in patients subject to major fits withoutfocal onset. As a generalisation, therefore, the patternand localisation of the waves bear a close relation to thetype of fits.The real trouble with mass interpretation of electro-

encephalograms is that there are so many variables to be1. Jasper, H. H. and Kershman, J. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat, 1941,

45, 903.

considered. In classifying the epilepsies the clinicalvariables require painstaking observation and on theside of the electro-encephalogram the polyglot of fre-

quencies encountered, their size, shape, number andcombination call for an equally experienced and con-servative analysis. When the difference between the" between seizure " and the " seizure " record of the

epileptic is considered it is not surprising that workershave mainly concentrated upon the distinct wave-formsencountered during clinical and subclinical fits. In thisfield the greater part of the work of Gibbs and Lennox 2 3stands unchallenged as the classical reference point in themodern study of the epilepsies. Their correlation of thedistinct patterns encountered in grand mal, petit mal,the petit mal variants, and in the jumble of the psycho-motor epilepsies forms a basis for exact clinical diagnosis.Grey Walter approached the subject from the otherside, and studied the position of foci of abnormal wavesin the between-seizure records of epileptic patients.He was able to show the relationship between the clinicalpattern of attacks and the focus of abnormality ; withMcKissock he later showed that surgical removal ofareas of focal abnormality did not benefit the patient,but that in fact epilepsy is a disease of the hemispheresas a whole. The biochemical approach to the epilepsieswhich has been made through the medium of the electro-encephalogram by Lennox 5 and his co-workers, Williams 6and others points to an underlying metabolic abnormalitywhich may explain the relative unimportance of focalabnormality in the treatment of individual cases.

Jasper and Kershman have done well to correlate so manydata, and have added to our knowledge, but a finalsynthesis is not yet in sight.

SEX GLANDS AND BLOOD-PRESSURE

Two sets of facts are combining to direct attentionto a possible influence of the gonads on blood-pressure.On the one hand are the well-known observations on theeffects of adrenaline and pituitary extract in both manand animals ; the low blood-pressures in Simmonds’sand Addison’s diseases and the high ones in basophiltumour of the pituitary and cortical tumour of the

adrenals ; the high systolic with low diastolic pressureso often found in Graves’s disease ; and a host of otherobservations linking blood-pressure with the endocrinesystem in general. On the other hand is the rapidlygrowing pile of observations linking the glands of thesystem so intimately with each other that diseases ofsingle glands are hardly recognised and the term poly-glandular syndrome has lost all meaning, since almostall glandular syndromes are " poly." Added to these

general signposts are a few somewhat vague clinicalobservations, some of which have been misunderstood.Thus the frequent appearance of high blood-pressure atthe menopause has been attributed to a deficiency ofcestrogens, whereas the increase of pituitary basophilcells and adrenal cortical hyperplasia which occur at thisperiod in animals make it much more likely that one ofthese glands is responsible. This supposition is sup-ported by the observation that menopausal hyperpiesiain women is more common when symptoms suggestiveof Cushing’s syndrome, such as adiposity, hypertrichosisand carbohydrate intolerance, are also present. This

type of high blood-pressure so often returns spontane-ously to normal that it is difficult to assess the value ofoestrogen treatment. Nevertheless, such treatment is

rational, and until there is evidence of its uselessness it isclearly justifiable to exhibit oestrogens with a view toshortening the hyperpietic period and possibly of pre-venting the permanent changes which often occur.

There have been reports of small numbers of patients not2. Gibbs, F. A., Gibbs, E. L. and Lennox, W. G. Brain, 1937, 60, 377.3. Gibbs, F. A. J. Pediat. 1939, 15, 749.4. Golla, F., Graham, S. and Walter, W. G. J. ment. Sci. 1937, 83, 137.5. Nims, L. F. et al. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 1940, 43, 262.6. Williams, D. J. Neurol. Psychiat. 1941, 4, 32.