The Discovery of the Lascaux Cave

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    12-Feb-2017

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<ul><li><p>PROJECT PRESENTATION</p></li><li><p>LASCAUX IN 6 DATES:</p><p>1940: discovery of Lascaux</p><p>4 teenagers (Marcel Ravidat, Jacques Marsal,</p><p>Simon Coencas and Georges Agniel) set out on</p><p>an adventure on September 12th 1940 on the hill</p><p>overlooking the village of Montignac. It led them</p><p>to make one of the greatest archaeological disco-</p><p>veries of the 20th century. </p><p>The cave was listed as an Historic Monument in</p><p>December 1940.</p><p>1963: closure of Lascaux</p><p>The Minister for Cultural Affairs, Andr Malraux,</p><p>announced the closure of the cave on March 20th</p><p>1963. </p><p>1979: UNESCO listing</p><p>Lascaux was listed as a World Heritage site and</p><p>received the UNESCO award. </p><p>1983: opening of Lascaux 2</p><p>The first tourist entered Lascaux 2 on July 18th</p><p>1983.</p><p>Lascaux 2 is buried into the same hill as the </p><p>original cave. It houses a replica of the Hall of</p><p>the Bulls and the Axial Recess which account for</p><p>90% of the originals paintings. </p><p>Two exhibition chambers tell the story of the</p><p>cave and describe the artistic techniques. </p><p>Almost 10 million people have visited Lascaux 2</p><p>since it opened.</p><p>Lascaux is the setting for a cave art masterpiece in the Dordogne, </p><p>in the Montignac area in the heart of the Prigord Noir.</p><p>This timeless and universal work is among the greatest creations in </p><p>Humanity.</p><p>The cave complex covers approximately 200m and is made up of round</p><p>rooms and galleries.</p><p>Research carried out in recent decades has found that Lascaux iconogra-</p><p>phy dates back to between the Solutrean and Magdalenian periods</p><p>around 20,000 years ago.</p><p>Frescoes represent many animals: horses, bulls, cows, a deer, feline </p><p>animals, a bear and even a weird unicorn.</p><p>These representations are accompanied by engravings and several </p><p>mysterious symbols.</p><p> Larivire</p><p> Semitour Prigord</p><p> CG24</p><p> Semitour Prigord</p></li><li><p>2012: start of the Lascaux </p><p>International Exhibition tour</p><p>This huge exhibition uses new moulding and mi-</p><p>neral wall recreation technology (patented veil</p><p>of stone technology) to reconstruct parts of </p><p>the original cave which were not reproduced in</p><p>Lascaux 2: the Nave (the Great Black Cow, the</p><p>Swimming Stags, the Panel of the Imprint and </p><p>the Back-to-Back Bisons) and the Well.</p><p>The grand tour of the exhibition aims at sharing</p><p>the heritage of humanitys very first artists with</p><p>the world.</p><p>After Bordeaux (Cap-Sciences) in 2012, Chicago</p><p>(Field Museum) in 2013, Houston (Houston Mu-</p><p>seum of Natural Science) in 2013-2014 and</p><p>Montreal (Centre des Sciences) in 2014, the exhi-</p><p>bition returned to Europe in Brussels (Muse du</p><p>Cinquantenaire) from November 2014 to April</p><p>2015. After Belgium it will be Paris turn (Parc</p><p>des Expositions Porte de Versailles) to host the</p><p>exhibition from May to the end of August 2015</p><p>before it heads to Switzerland (Geneva) from </p><p>October 2015 to the end of January 2016;</p><p>then Asia: South Korea in 2016 and Japan </p><p>2016-2017.</p><p>2016: The Centre International de</p><p>lArt Parital Montignac-Lascaux</p><p>The Lascaux cave in its entirety will be the </p><p>beating heart of the Centre International de lArt</p><p>Parital in Montignac. The future complex will</p><p>focus on the entire reconstruction of the Lascaux</p><p>cave and the use of new imaging and virtual </p><p>technology for interpretation purposes.</p><p>The Cent re In ternat ional de l 'Ar t Par i ta l </p><p>Montignac-Lascaux will be a reference for tourist</p><p>and cultural settings showcasing the popularisa-</p><p>t ion of cave ar t thanks to pain t ings and </p><p>engravings from the Lascaux cave.</p><p>20,000 years ago</p><p>Man printed i ts mark on LascauxTHE DAWN OF ART</p><p>What does the Dordogne owe its status as the home of prehistory to?</p><p>Not only to the fame of exceptional sites such as Lascaux and Les Eyzies, but also our land gathers </p><p>testimonies of almost 450,000 years of human life which is the equivalent of the most recent quarter of</p><p>humanity.</p><p>Among the many sites, there are the deposits what focus is on the materials (tools, bones, burial places,</p><p>ashes etc.) that were kept in them and the fascinating caves which our ancestors decorated with </p><p>drawings, paintings and engravings. </p><p>The sheer number of these sites in the Prigord made our region a hotspot at the turn of the 19th and</p><p>20th century for the founders of prehistoric science led by Abb Henri Breuil.</p><p>Certain periods, cultures and human types are even named after some of our sites. Aside from Lascaux,</p><p>the Dordogne has a multitude of painted caves and shelters which embody our ancestors first artistic</p><p>expression. </p><p> CG24 SNOHETTA - Duncan Lewis</p></li><li><p>Overview</p><p>The plot for the Centre International de lArt Parital</p><p>MontignacLascaux covers a 6.5 hectare area in</p><p>total. The building unfolds at the foot of the hill </p><p>on a 11,400m (1.14 hectare) area with a total</p><p>floor area of 8635m.</p><p>The land opposite the Centre (on the edge of the RD</p><p>704 road) is to be used as a car park (168 spaces)</p><p>and an additional ticket office for the busy summer</p><p>period.</p><p>The building is an average of 8m tall, approxima-</p><p>tely 150m long at its longest point and up to 70m</p><p>wide at its widest point. </p><p>The roof is softly jagged to reflect the movement of</p><p>the hill. The roof design is a key part of the project</p><p>as it brings to life the sense of a rift or crack in the</p><p>landscape which is also portrayed by the sites </p><p>architectural style. </p><p>The building plays on the sites layout and puts its</p><p>roots down in the hill where it harvests a sort of </p><p>organic continuity. The roof to the right of the back</p><p>wall is actually level with the ground. </p><p>The hal f -bur ied bui ld ing thus merges in to the</p><p>landscape. The back disappears into the hill and the</p><p>forest whilst the transparent front opens up wide to</p><p>the valley.</p><p>The choice of material is consistent with the notion</p><p>of a landscape building which is part of the geogra-</p><p>phy yet cuts through it. The flooring (indoor and out-</p><p>door), walls, roof and faade strip are made of the</p><p>same architectural concrete which makes the whole</p><p>building look like solid rock. The raw material</p><p>brings to mind the mineral world and the rocks in</p><p>the hills and caves. Concrete itself is a blend of </p><p>natural elements and human technique reminiscent</p><p>In order to secure the caves preservation conditions and its long-term longevity,</p><p>the Science Committee in charge of the site has recommended a complete </p><p>sanctuarisation of the Lascaux hill. This recommendation dictated the guiding </p><p>principle of the project which has just launched at the foot of the hill. </p><p>The Centre International de lArt Parital Montignac-Lascaux site in Montignac-</p><p>sur-Vzre is between the Vzre Valley and Lascaux hill. It therefore unfolds on</p><p>the edge of farmland bearing the mark of human life and a dense forest whose</p><p>thick and tall vegetation plunges the undergrowth into darkness. Nestled between</p><p>these two contrasting landscapes, the project takes advantage of the geography</p><p>and of the hilly area. It is a landscape building which gives a sense of an incision</p><p>and underlines the border between the valley and hill. Based on contextual logic,</p><p>the Centre International de lArt Parital Montignac-Lascaux is designed in keeping</p><p>with existing forces, natural irregularities and the sites lumps and bumps.</p><p>In a way, the spirit of Lascaux also guided the architectural vision for the project.</p><p>It helped create an architectural project that is understated, that doesnt overdo it</p><p>in terms of shape and material yet exudes real power namely in its relation with</p><p>the elements: the relief, forest, rocks and light.</p><p>PROJECT </p><p>DESCRIPTION:Vision </p><p> SNOHETTA - Duncan Lewis</p></li><li><p>of Lascaux where cavities sculpted by nature were</p><p>the canvas for mans thoughts and movements. </p><p>The projects second material is glass which </p><p>dominates the faade and the cover of the orienta-</p><p>tion area. It produces a series of contrasting effects</p><p>with the concrete: obscurity/transparency; dark-</p><p>ness/light; raw/sophisticated; rough/smooth. Their</p><p>balance helps characterise the features of a unique</p><p>and modern setting. </p><p>In terms of use and function, the Centre International</p><p>de lArt Parital Montignac-Lascaux is a visitor in-</p><p>terpretive centre. Unlike regular museums, a visitor</p><p>interpretive centre doesnt exhibit collections of</p><p>items but instead showcases and describes a site</p><p>and its treasures. Thats why architecture, the site</p><p>and its educational vocation are intrinsically</p><p>connected here. The project has been designed</p><p>using an approach whereby the landscape, archi-</p><p>tecture and staging are considered one and the</p><p>same with a direct connection to the visits narrative</p><p>and scenario. Digital and interactive installations</p><p>play a key role.</p><p>A bespoke device using RFID technology and Wi-Fi</p><p>acts as a true tour companion. Throughout the visit,</p><p>everyone can collect content and information for</p><p>their age and level of knowledge to suit themes that</p><p>capture their attention. </p><p>In terms of the project as a whole, visitors can easily</p><p>distinguish between the areas due to the clear and</p><p>simple pathway and the connection of certain set-</p><p>tings to functions or services. Each setting has a</p><p>meaning in line with the content provided to the vi-</p><p>sitor. For example, the exhibition areas tend to be</p><p>deep in the hill and in the dark whilst reception,</p><p>transition and dining areas are bathed in natural</p><p>light. These variations in setting and light along </p><p>with the contrasts between ascent and descent, </p><p>indoor and outdoor, land and sky, nature and </p><p>culture are all reminiscent of the analogy with the</p><p>cave experience in its broadest sense.</p><p>The visitor journey</p><p>Vis i tors are gree ted by the Mont ignac - fac ing </p><p>faade of the Centre International de lArt Parital</p><p>Mont ignac - Lascaux. I t s t ransparency creates a </p><p>visual connection between the indoors and outdoors.</p><p>It invites the general public to come in and provides</p><p>glimpses of what sort of thing happens in the </p><p>building. From the entrance, the notion of both phy-</p><p>sical and material accessibility is at the heart of the</p><p>project. The faade acts as a signal delivering a</p><p>simple initial message to visitors. It lights up at night</p><p>to embody the influence of the Centre International</p><p>de lArt Parital Montignac-Lascaux. The reception</p><p>is where the general public gets individual informa-</p><p>tion equipment and begin their journey punctuated</p><p>by different sequences (zones 1-7 and intermediary</p><p>spaces).</p><p>Visitors can take the lift platform up to the observa-</p><p>tion deck on the buildings roof.</p><p>Visitors can enjoy expansive views and soak up </p><p>Lascauxs surroundings from the observation deck</p><p>(zone 1). Visitors walk along a slightly sloped path</p><p>on the roofs incline. Visitors walk outdoors on the</p><p>edge of the forest until they reach the entrance to</p><p>the Lascaux cave replica. Just like an open-air </p><p>tunnel, this landscaped path is designed to put the</p><p>general public in a setting similar to what caves</p><p>discoverers experienced in 1940. The tunnel goes</p><p>down and has retaining walls on either side against</p><p>the varied sloping land. The scene is set in the</p><p>space (atmosphere, narrative features etc.) to help</p><p>visitors to explore the replica. </p><p> Casson Mann</p><p> Casson Mann</p></li><li><p>The replica entrance has a contemporary look: </p><p>visitors know they are in the presence of a replica</p><p>despite the entire project being carried out by a</p><p>panel of prehistory experts to recreate a spatial </p><p>experience as close as possible to the original. </p><p>Inside the replica (zone 2), it is dark, damp and</p><p>sound is muffled, like in a real cave. This sequence</p><p>is above all dedicated to contemplation. </p><p>Upon leaving the replica, visitors enter a transition</p><p>space: a patio called the Cave Garden. The bond</p><p>with the sky, the vegetation and the bubbling water</p><p>characterise this setting which is meant to help visi-</p><p>tors adapt to the outdoor area after the moving and</p><p>emotional experience they had in the replica. </p><p>The next sequence, Understand Lascaux (zone 3),</p><p>is dedicated to deciphering the works in the cave </p><p>to help visitors realize and grasp the historical, </p><p>cultural and symbolic value. It is an informative and</p><p>educational exhibition area where digital devices</p><p>have a strong presence. Interactive tables provide</p><p>an opportunity to delve deeper into Lascaux.</p><p>The orientation area is an expansive central area.</p><p>It is the meeting point for the exhibitions different</p><p>zones and is thus essential to traffic flow. </p><p>The Centre International de lArt Parital Montignac-</p><p>Lascaux then offers visitors the chance to explore</p><p>different areas of expertise. The Cave Art Theatre</p><p>(zone 4) addresses historiography issues by looking</p><p>at the work of pre-historians from the 19th century</p><p>to the present day. The Cave Art World Tour gallery</p><p>(zone 5) has interlocking domes which screen</p><p>projections about painted caves all over the world. </p><p>The Two Avant-Gardes Area (zone 6) explores </p><p>the links between cave art and modern art in an </p><p>interactive digital gallery. </p><p>A seventh zone hosts temporary exhibitions.</p><p>Project data</p><p>Location : </p><p>Avenue de Lascaux, La Grande Bchade,</p><p>in Montignac (24290), France</p><p>Surface area : 53,065m2</p><p>Total floor area : 6307,70m2</p><p> SNOHETTA - Duncan Lewis</p></li><li><p>PARTNERS AND FUNDING</p><p>At the request of Dordogne Department, Europe, French State and Aquitaine Region joinedforces for the project. </p><p>They are committed to several goals:- sanctuarize Lascaux hill to improve the caves preservation conditions to secure its long-term longevity</p><p>- bring heritage to the masses as the general public no longer have access to this monument</p><p>- promote technological innovation and expertise</p><p>- draw on the most cutting-edge virtual and augmented reality technologies to understand Lascaux paintings</p><p>- create an incredible facility with a unique expert technique to reconstruct painted rock</p><p>- pursue the ambitious policy to showcase prehistoric heritage</p><p>- bridge the gap between cave and modern art</p><p>- boost the regions economic growth by focusing on high level cultural tourism in line with the natural and historical environment and contributing to the international reach of Lascaux and Vzre Valley.</p><p>PROJECT COSTS</p><p>The Centre International de lArt Parital Montignac-Lascaux costs 50 M (exc. VAT) + 7 M(exc. VAT) for outdoor work</p><p>Funding: Department (16.6 M), Region (16.6 M), Europe (12 M), State (4 M), Operator (2 M)</p><p>Financial support from individuals and companies is required for the remaining 5.8 M.</p><p>The Department has therefore joined forces with the Fondation du Patrimoine (non-profit organisation working</p><p>to protect and promote heritage) which has launched a subscription for the public and companies through the</p><p>Aquitaine Chamber of Commerce and Industry: www.fondation-patrimoine.org/don-lascaux4</p><p>The Department is also in contact with major national groups for patronage. </p><p>Agreements have been signed with:</p><p>- MASADOUR for a group contribution of up to 300,000 Euros</p><p>- The Crdit Agricole corporate foundation for a contribution of 700,000 Euros</p><p>- The EDF Foundation for 500 000 Euros (specifically for disabled facilities).</p><p> Semitour Prigord</p></li><li><p>PROGRESS ON THE PROJECT</p><p>- January 24th 2014: issue of the building and car park construction permits.</p><p>- April 10th 2014: notice of award of contract</p><p>- Late April 2014: work starts</p><p>- April 24th 2014: launch ceremony attended by Mrs Aurlie Filippetti, Minister for Culture and Communication.</p><p>- Autumn 2014: choice of public service delegat...</p></li></ul>

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