1
1181 which present serious complications&mdash;haemorrhage, signs of perforation, very intense bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, or intense meteorism, with severe diarrhcea. Fourthly, there are cases which are not bathed at first because the diagnosis seems doubtful. Two of the fatal cases fell into this group. Two advantages are claimed for hydro-therapy in typhoid fever-a mitigation of the general symptoms of the disease and a reduction in the mortality. From his experience Dr. Osler is of opinion that these claims are well based. He maintains that the cold bath treatment, rigidly enforced, ,appears to save from six to eight in each hundred patients suffering from typhoid fever admitted to the care of the ihospital physician. - MEDICAL EMERGENCIES IN THE NIGHT. How long will it be before society makes provision for the might emergencies of illness as it does for those of fire? At present it throws all the onus on the medical profession, and medical men are expected to turn out at any ring of the bell, perhaps when themselves ill or exhausted after a hard and ill-paid day’s work. The Bradford Obse?’ver publishes the particulars of such a case. A labourer attacked in the night with hagmatemesis sent for two or three medical men, who exercised their right of refusal. At last his messenger met a policeman, who sent him to the relieving officer, who gave him an order to Mr. White. When Mr. White’s assistant ,arrived about an hour and a half later-he would have been there sooner but for some misreading of the address-the patient was dead. The jury was satisfied with the assis- tant’s (Mr. Burnett’s) explanation, and returned a verdict of "Death from natural causes." The question of emergencies and the provision for them remains. It is unreasonable to throw the blame of non-attendance on medical men. Semper paratus is an excellent motto for the profession, and one generally acted on, but it implies some obligation on the part of society. And the reckless carelessness of society in the matter is to blame for instances in which the usual bene- volence of the profession seems to fail. LEPROSY IN NEW SOUTH WALES. THE total number of persons admitted to the New South Wales leper lazaret at Little Bay from April 19th, 1883, to Dec. 31st, 1893, was fifty, six of whom were females, all of European descent, five being natives of New South Wales and one a native of New Zealand. Of the forty-four males aine were natives of New South Wales, all of European descent, and one was English, the remainder being made ap of twenty-nine Chinese, one native of India, one West Indian, one Javanese, and two South Sea Islanders. During that period there were thirteen deaths, and the West Indian patient was discharged, his sores having healed and there being no law warranting his detention. On Jan. lst, 1894, there were, therefore, thirty-six persons at the dazaret. During 1894 twelve persons were reported in accord- ance with the Leprosy Act as suspected lepers, but on inves- tigation seven were found to be suffering from some other disease, and five who suffered from leprosy were placed in the lazaret ; of these one was a native of New South Wales, of European descent, one a native of Queensland, oi European descent, one a native of Saxony, one of New Caledonia, and one of India. The number remaining on Dec. 31st, 1894, was forty, one native of New South Wales having died during the year. The number of persons segregated during 1894 is considerably less than during any year since the notification of leprosy became com- pulsory ; the comparatively numerous admissions during 1891 and 1892 were no doubt owing to the newly created necessity of notifying cases. No application has been made to the Board of Health for the special isolation of any patient outside the lazaret, and at the present time all known E cases of leprosy are confined there. The accounts contain : entries of <&148 for drugs and .6168 for tobacco, cigars, and ; opium. The attendants and nurses at the lazaret are under ! the direct supervision of the medical superintendent and the . matron of the Coast Hospital. Elaborate descriptions of 1 the last five cases, written by Dr. J. Ashburton Thompson, have been printed by the Board of Health Office, 127, Macquarie-street, Sydney, and every facility is given to members of the medical profession to visit the lazaret for , the purpose of studying the disease. THE CASE OF SURGEON LEA. WE have referred to this case upon several previous occasions.1 We understand that several members of Parlia- ment have interested themselves in the question and that the subject will, doubtless, be referred to on the reassembling of Parliament. We notice that the Tme of Nov. 6th in its Naval and Military Intelligence contains the following announcement: "Captain W. L. H. Browne to the Ringa- rooma," and we shall be curious to see whether this has any bearing or not on the matter in question. "SUMMER AND WINTER WITHIN A MONTH." OUR chief rainfall authority, Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., writing to our contemporary the Times, gives under the above heading some interesting figures with regard to the temperatures in London duiing the last seven days of September and the corresponding dates of October. The mean of the maxima and minima in September from the 24th to the 30th was 65 0&deg;, 19&deg; warmer than the average warmest week during a long series of years. The mean of the maxima and minima in October during the period referred to was 359&deg;; the average temperature of the coldest week, also during a long period of years, is 379&deg;, thus making the week ending Oct. 30th, 1895, 2-0&deg; colder than the average coldest week in the year. The occurrence of second fruit crops and spring blossoms in winter comes upon us now with little or no surprise, but the above facts are little less than sensational. THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF CERTAIN PYRENEAN WATERS. IN some of the sulphurous springs in the Pyrenees the water is remarkable for producing very minute gaseous bubbles soon after it is drawn, the ebullition in a few instances continuing for hours. Many of these springs, which are called azoades by the Spaniards because they yield nitrogen, are to be found on the southern slopes of the range, at Panticosa, and elsewhere; but, as is well known, there are also several on the French side, the most celebrated being those of Salut de Bigorre, Cauterets, and La Ralli&egrave;re. During a sojourn at Cauterets MM. Bouchard and Troost occupied their leisure in analysing these gases, and the following are the conclusions which they communicated to the Acad&eacute;mie des Sciences : " We are not absolutely decided as to the origin of all the gases contained in these mineral waters, and’ it is possible that those with which we occupied ourselves may have owed their origin to the atmospheric air drawn down into the depths by the surface water. The latter, after undergoing alkalinisation in a sulphurous medium, would rise again to the upper stratum, deprived necessarily of oxygen and carbonic acid, and con- taining only nitrogen and argon. It would seem, never- theless, even at this stage of the investigation, that although a portion of the argon, and perhaps also of the helion, may be derived from atmospheric sources, the presence of both is likewise due in part to some subterranean action. In one of 1 THE LANCET, June 15th, 22nd, and 29th, and Aug. 17th, 1895.

THE CASE OF SURGEON LEA

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1181

which present serious complications&mdash;haemorrhage, signs ofperforation, very intense bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, orintense meteorism, with severe diarrhcea. Fourthly, thereare cases which are not bathed at first because the diagnosisseems doubtful. Two of the fatal cases fell into this group.Two advantages are claimed for hydro-therapy in typhoidfever-a mitigation of the general symptoms of the diseaseand a reduction in the mortality. From his experienceDr. Osler is of opinion that these claims are well based. He

maintains that the cold bath treatment, rigidly enforced,,appears to save from six to eight in each hundred patientssuffering from typhoid fever admitted to the care of theihospital physician.

-

MEDICAL EMERGENCIES IN THE NIGHT.

How long will it be before society makes provision for themight emergencies of illness as it does for those of fire? At

present it throws all the onus on the medical profession, andmedical men are expected to turn out at any ring of the bell,perhaps when themselves ill or exhausted after a hard and

ill-paid day’s work. The Bradford Obse?’ver publishes theparticulars of such a case. A labourer attacked in the nightwith hagmatemesis sent for two or three medical men, whoexercised their right of refusal. At last his messenger meta policeman, who sent him to the relieving officer, who gavehim an order to Mr. White. When Mr. White’s assistant,arrived about an hour and a half later-he would have beenthere sooner but for some misreading of the address-the

patient was dead. The jury was satisfied with the assis-tant’s (Mr. Burnett’s) explanation, and returned a verdict of"Death from natural causes." The question of emergenciesand the provision for them remains. It is unreasonable tothrow the blame of non-attendance on medical men. Semperparatus is an excellent motto for the profession, and onegenerally acted on, but it implies some obligation on the partof society. And the reckless carelessness of society in thematter is to blame for instances in which the usual bene-volence of the profession seems to fail.

LEPROSY IN NEW SOUTH WALES.

THE total number of persons admitted to the New SouthWales leper lazaret at Little Bay from April 19th, 1883, toDec. 31st, 1893, was fifty, six of whom were females, all ofEuropean descent, five being natives of New South Walesand one a native of New Zealand. Of the forty-four malesaine were natives of New South Wales, all of Europeandescent, and one was English, the remainder being madeap of twenty-nine Chinese, one native of India, one WestIndian, one Javanese, and two South Sea Islanders. Duringthat period there were thirteen deaths, and the WestIndian patient was discharged, his sores having healed

and there being no law warranting his detention. On

Jan. lst, 1894, there were, therefore, thirty-six persons at thedazaret. During 1894 twelve persons were reported in accord-ance with the Leprosy Act as suspected lepers, but on inves-tigation seven were found to be suffering from some otherdisease, and five who suffered from leprosy were placed inthe lazaret ; of these one was a native of New South

Wales, of European descent, one a native of Queensland,oi European descent, one a native of Saxony, one of NewCaledonia, and one of India. The number remaining onDec. 31st, 1894, was forty, one native of New South Waleshaving died during the year. The number of personssegregated during 1894 is considerably less than duringany year since the notification of leprosy became com-pulsory ; the comparatively numerous admissions during1891 and 1892 were no doubt owing to the newly creatednecessity of notifying cases. No application has been madeto the Board of Health for the special isolation of anypatient outside the lazaret, and at the present time all known

E cases of leprosy are confined there. The accounts contain: entries of <&148 for drugs and .6168 for tobacco, cigars, and; opium. The attendants and nurses at the lazaret are under! the direct supervision of the medical superintendent and the. matron of the Coast Hospital. Elaborate descriptions of1 the last five cases, written by Dr. J. Ashburton Thompson, have been printed by the Board of Health Office, 127,’ Macquarie-street, Sydney, and every facility is given to members of the medical profession to visit the lazaret for

, the purpose of studying the disease.

THE CASE OF SURGEON LEA.

WE have referred to this case upon several previousoccasions.1 We understand that several members of Parlia-ment have interested themselves in the question and that thesubject will, doubtless, be referred to on the reassembling ofParliament. We notice that the Tme of Nov. 6th in its

Naval and Military Intelligence contains the followingannouncement: "Captain W. L. H. Browne to the Ringa-rooma," and we shall be curious to see whether this has anybearing or not on the matter in question.

"SUMMER AND WINTER WITHIN A MONTH."

OUR chief rainfall authority, Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S.,writing to our contemporary the Times, gives under the aboveheading some interesting figures with regard to the

temperatures in London duiing the last seven days of

September and the corresponding dates of October. The

mean of the maxima and minima in September from the24th to the 30th was 65 0&deg;, 19&deg; warmer than the averagewarmest week during a long series of years. The mean of themaxima and minima in October during the period referred towas 359&deg;; the average temperature of the coldest week,also during a long period of years, is 379&deg;, thus makingthe week ending Oct. 30th, 1895, 2-0&deg; colder than the

average coldest week in the year. The occurrence ofsecond fruit crops and spring blossoms in winter comes uponus now with little or no surprise, but the above facts arelittle less than sensational.

___

THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF CERTAINPYRENEAN WATERS.

IN some of the sulphurous springs in the Pyrenees thewater is remarkable for producing very minute gaseousbubbles soon after it is drawn, the ebullition in a fewinstances continuing for hours. Many of these springs,which are called azoades by the Spaniards because they yieldnitrogen, are to be found on the southern slopes of therange, at Panticosa, and elsewhere; but, as is well known,there are also several on the French side, the most celebratedbeing those of Salut de Bigorre, Cauterets, and La Ralli&egrave;re.During a sojourn at Cauterets MM. Bouchard and Troostoccupied their leisure in analysing these gases, and the

following are the conclusions which they communicated tothe Acad&eacute;mie des Sciences : " We are not absolutelydecided as to the origin of all the gases contained in

these mineral waters, and’ it is possible that those withwhich we occupied ourselves may have owed their originto the atmospheric air drawn down into the depths by thesurface water. The latter, after undergoing alkalinisation ina sulphurous medium, would rise again to the upper stratum,deprived necessarily of oxygen and carbonic acid, and con-taining only nitrogen and argon. It would seem, never-

theless, even at this stage of the investigation, that althougha portion of the argon, and perhaps also of the helion, maybe derived from atmospheric sources, the presence of both islikewise due in part to some subterranean action. In one of

1 THE LANCET, June 15th, 22nd, and 29th, and Aug. 17th, 1895.