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The Captain's tower in Bihac Doc.dr. Maja Popovac dipl.ing.arh Faculty of Civil Engineering University “Dzemal Bijedic”, Mostar e mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT Kapetanova Kula is situated in Old city core of Bihac, and it is proclaimed National monument under governmental protection. Today’s condition of the monument is poor due to serious destruction of the façade by the atmospheric waters. The project covers repair of the walls from both sides, substitution of openings, amendment of roof covering, major changes in ground floor (pavement and partition). Currently, this monument is transformed into a museum. It is important to have perfect condition for artefacts as well as for the building itself. That is why, we proposed the system of ventilation and heating. Main source of energy would be water/water heat pump and ventilation unit would be placed under the roof. KEYWORDS Bihac, Captain’s, tower, reconstruction, historic, stone Figure 1. Captain’s tower in Austro-Hungarian period

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  • The Captain's tower in Bihac

    Doc.dr. Maja Popovac dipl.ing.arh Faculty of Civil Engineering

    University “Dzemal Bijedic”, Mostar e mail: [email protected]

    ABSTRACT

    Kapetanova Kula is situated in Old city core of Bihac, and it is proclaimed National monument under governmental protection. Today’s condition of the monument is poor due to serious destruction of the façade by the atmospheric waters. The project covers repair of the walls from both sides, substitution of openings, amendment of roof covering, major changes in ground floor (pavement and partition). Currently, this monument is transformed into a museum. It is important to have perfect condition for artefacts as well as for the building itself. That is why, we proposed the system of ventilation and heating. Main source of energy would be water/water heat pump and ventilation unit would be placed under the roof.

    KEYWORDS

    Bihac, Captain’s, tower, reconstruction, historic, stone

    Figure 1. Captain’s tower in Austro-Hungarian period

  • ABOUT THE MONUMET

    Status of property

    Fixed architectural property (together with Fethija mosque with harem (courtyard/burial ground), nine tombstones and epitaphs) The Captain's tower in Bihać was listed in the register of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina under serial no. 62. By Ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina no. 890/51 of 24 October1951 the property was placed under state protection. By Ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina no. 02-705-3 of 18 April 1962 the property was protected and registered as a cultural monument. This decision entered into force on 23 October 1962. The property is on the Provisional List of National Monuments of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments under serial no. 47.

    1012

    1011

    SENZOR

    RAMPA

    trotar-kamene ploce

    trotar-kamene ploce

    trotar-kamene ploce

    trotar

    kamene ploc

    e

    AS

    FA

    LTN

    I KO

    LOV

    OZ

    BE

    T.IV

    ICN

    JAK

    kame

    ne pl

    oce

    BET.IVICNJAK

    ASFALTNI KO

    LOVOZ

    RAIFFASEN BANKA

    ULICA KU

    LINA BAN

    A

    GROBNICA BIHACKOG PLEMSTVA

    KAPETANOVA KULA

    TURBE

    kota platoa

    kota ulaznog podesta

    kota trotoara

    kota zida

    A3Decembar 2009. god.

    U Mostaru

    BR. PROTOKOLA:

    Velicina papira

    BR. NACRTA:

    Saradnik projektanta: Rahimic Ðani, dipl.ing.grad.

    Voditelj projekta: Doc.dr. Maja Popovac, dipl.ing.arh.

    NACRT:

    01M.P.

    MJERILO:

    USRC ''Mithat Hujdur-Hujka''; 88104 Mostar; Bosna i Hercegovina;

    tel.: + 387 36 514 854; tel/fax.: + 387 36 514 856; e-mail: [email protected]

    Raiffeisen banka dd Mostar; Ţiro racun: 16102000030300184

    UNIVERZITET "DŢEMAL BIJEDIC"

    GRAÐEVINSKI FAKULTET

    ZAVOD ZA PROJEKTOVANJE I

    ISPITIVANJE MATERIJALA I

    KONSTRUKCIJA

    PREDMET:

    PROJEKTANT:

    OBJEKAT:

    INVESTITOR:

    1:200SITUACIJA

    Ovlašteni projektant: Ismet Hajduk, dipl.ing.grad.

    Tehnicka kontrola: Doc.dr. Armin Hadrovic, dipl.ing.grad.

    BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA

    FEDERACIJA BiH

    UNSKO-SANSKI KANTON

    J.U. ZAVOD ZA ZAŠTITU

    KULTURNOG NASLIJEÐA

    Ulica 5. korpusa broj 2. , 77000 Bihac, Bosna i Hercegovina

    Telefon/fax: 037 220 348

    Figure 2. Captain’s tower - location

    Location

    The Captain's tower in Bihac is situated in center of the city, GaziHusref Begova street, on the left bank of the river Una, within the former city walls. It is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 5120 in Land Register of City of Bihac. The tower is in complex of monuments together with St. Ante church tower and tomb of Bihac’s aristocracy. Entire complex is placed on three meters high base, surrounded by support walls from the front and beginning of the sides, while in the back they are partially demolished. Current situation of the walls is poor, due to soil pressure, aggressive tree roots and rain water. .

    Allocation

    This monument is currently used as a museum, with permanent exhibition of historical findings and documents from Bihac area.

    Area

    Courtyard 2377m² Monument 104m²

    http://www.kons.gov.ba/main.php?id_struct=50&lang=4&action=view&id=1335http://www.kons.gov.ba/main.php?id_struct=50&lang=4&action=view&id=1335

  • Historical information

    Toponym Bihac dates from 1260. from a charter of Hungary's King Bela IV. In mediaeval times the town developed as a free royal borough with a fortress and two monasteries, one Dominican and one Franciscan, several churches, a large number of commercial and residential buildings, and several defence towers. In the 16th century Bihac and its surrounding fortified towns became part of the so-called Military Frontier consisting of a defensive zone fortified against the increasingly frequent incursions by Ottoman troops. The Ottoman Army, led by the Bey of the Segedin Sanjak, Hasan Pasha Predojevic, occupied the town in June 1592. Over the next three centuries Bihac was to be an important fortress in the extreme west for the Ottoman Empire and the point of departure for Ottoman incursions and steady pressure on the borders of Croatia. The chronicler Ivan Tomasic is of the view, which he bases on H. Strauss and Bihačke kule i gradine (Bihac's Towers and Castle) (publ. Oblitelj, Zagreb 1923), that the Captain's tower was built around 1205 and that it was one of four towers in Bihac, three of which were destroyed in 1291/92. Kresevljakovic notes that there were three towers in Bihac, the remains of the Bihac fort referred to above. "The first of the towers was demolished in 1870, the second in 1889, and the third is still standing, being used as a prison. This tower was the headquarters of the Captains of Bihac. It was built before 1592." (Hamdija Kreševljaković, 1954, p. 71). With the arrival of the Austro-Hungarians, the tower was converted into a prison. From then on, until well after Bihac had spread beyond its ramparts, the Captain's tower was used solely as a prison. It remained in use as the district prison until 1959. In the 1970s the building was restored and converted for use as a museum.

    Figure 3. and 4. Captain’s tower today

  • Climate

    Bihac climate is moderately continental with warm summers and cold winters. The temperature varies from -22°C in winter to +35°C during the summer time., with average temperature of 12°C. Average precipitation is 1250 – 1500 mm. Variation in winter day/night temperatures are very unfavourable for the Captain’s Tower masonry. The ice on the structure surface is melting during the daily sun, and in the form of water it is getting deeper in the joints and cracks. During the night, with minus temperatures, the water froze – making further damage while it expands to ice.

    ± 0 '0 0

    + 6 '3 7

    + 6 '8 0

    + 9 '7 7

    + 1 0 '2 0

    + 1 3 '1 7

    + 1 3 '6 0

    + 1 6 '5 7

    + 1 7 '0 0

    + 1 9 '5 7

    + 2 0 '0 0

    + 2 7 '0 5

    -0 '1 0

    -1 '1 0kot a ul ice

    PRES JEK 1 -1

    POGLED 4 POGLED 2

    POGLED 1

    P 1 -1

    P 1 -1

    P 2 -2 P 2 -2

    PRESJEK C-C

    PRESJEK D-D

    PRESJEK C-C

    PRESJEK D-D

    PRESJEK A-APRESJEK B-B

    POGLED 3

    kamena obloga 5cm

    estrih 5cm

    H.I.+T.I.+H.I. 10cm

    nivelacioni beton 10cmtampon 10cm

    injekciona masa protiv

    kapilarne vlage

    5rupa /m²

    +21,55

    kota makaza 8/16

    +24,35

    kota podroţnjace

    makaze 8/16

    podroţnjaca 12/12

    kosnik 15/15

    kosnik 15/15

    stub 20/20

    +24,05

    kota kosnika

    stub 12/12

    makaze 8/16

    +20,00

    kota stropne grede

    +20,35

    kota oslonca vješaljke

    +20,65

    kota vjencanice grede

    +21,63

    kota makaza

    +36,65

    kota visulje

    visulja 12/12

    +40,05

    kota krova

    +40,05

    kota krova

    +36,65

    kota visulje

    +24,35

    kota podroţnjace

    +20,35

    kota oslonca vješaljke

    +20,00

    kota stropne grede

    +20,65

    kota vjencanice grede

    +21,63

    kota makaza

    postojece grede

    H.I.+T.I.

    drveni šišeti

    +36,53

    kota visulje

    +36,53

    kota visulje

    rog 10/14

    rog 10/14

    dašcana oplta

    dašcana oplta

    dašcana oplta

    asvaltna obloga/cesta

    tampon

    drenaţni tampon 16-30

    drenaţni tampon 30-60

    drenaţna cijev

    nivelacioni beton 10cmtampon 10cm

    kamena oblogatampon

    drenaţni tampon 16-30

    drenaţni tampon 30-60

    drenaţna cijev

    nivelacioni beton 10cmtampon 10cm

    INVESTITOR

    LOKALITET-OBJEKAT

    KAPETANOVA KULA U BIHACU

    VRSTAPROJEKTA

    GLAVNI

    NAZIV CRTEŢA PRESJEK 1-1

    FAZA Sanacija

    VODITELJPROJEKTA

    PROJEKTANTI

    TEHNICKAKONTROLA

    ISTRAŢIVACKITIM

    OBRADA NACRTA Kadic Amir

    BROJPROJEKTA DIREKTOR

    ZAVOD ZA ZAŠTITU KULTURNOG NASLIJE ÐA BIHAC

    R 1:75postojece stanje

    broj lista: 8Zavod za zaštitu kulturnog naslijeda Bihac

    JU Zavod za zaštiti kulturnog naslije da Bihac

    MIRZET MUJADŢIC, konzervator i restaurator

    mr. Amir Kadic, dia

    Šehic Sanda , d.i.a.

    MIRZET MUJADŢIC, konzervator i restaurator

    Zavod za zaštitu kulturnog naslijeda Bihac

    Toromanovic Ademir

    -šindra/dvoslojna/kesten

    -letva

    -pocincani lim

    -bit.ljepenka

    -dašcana oplata

    -H.I+T.I/izmedu rogova-rog

    ELEMENTI KOJI SE ZAMJENJUJU

    Iz razloga pucanja i pomijeranja krovnog

    pokrivaca dovelo je do vlaženja pojedinih

    greda i oplate krova, te njihovog propadanja.

    Prilikom skidanja krovnog pokrivaca i krovne

    oplate na licu mjesta ce se provjeriti

    stabilnost postojecih greda te ako je potrebno

    da se pojedine zamjene.

    Kod zamjene krovnog pokrivaca i greda

    izvršit ce se i promjena vrste pokrivaca, tj.

    neprimjerene tegole u šindru.

    Izmedu greda se planira postaviti

    termoizolacija.

    000 27703.07.2009.

    +21,55

    kota makaza 8/16

    +223,89

    kota makaza

    +23,89

    kota makaza

    ELEMENTI KOJI SE ZAMJENJUJU

    Prodor kapilarne vlage ulovio je pucanju

    podne obloge i pojavljivanje zine pljesni.

    projektom je prevideno da se skine sva podna

    obloga (min 50cm od sadašnje situacije), te

    injektira sredstvo sa sprecavanje prodora

    kapulara, postavi novi pod sa potrebnim

    slojevima termo i hidro izolacije.

    Figure 5. Captain’s tower – cross section

    Current condition of the monument

    Captain’s tower in Bihac is a monument that went through numerous reconstructions. Available documents shows that this tower was built at the beginning of the 13th century, but we find no records about its original appearance. It served for different purposes – from defence tower, Ottoman Captain headquarters, Austro-Hungarian and Yugoslav jail, until it became museum in mid of the 20th century. Different assignments led to numerous transformations – visible mainly on windows and interior arrangement. Small and irregularly placed medieval and Ottoman windows were enlarged and regularly aligned in Austro-Hungarian period, and then again in 1969 reconstruction returned to Ottoman-time scheme and shape. Current condition of the Captain’s Tower is very serious. Seemingly stiff and solid structure of the Tower is damaged initially by the rain water, and the by different vegetation (grass, moos, small bushes). Due to enormous quantity of water that residue in the walls, just by entering to the ground floor of the Tower, one can feel great humidity. This is effecting not just the structure of the walls, but also the condition of the artefacts, and health of the visitors and staff. Considering the fact that the Tower is situated at the highest spot of the plateau and that the most visible impairments are in the zone of the rain water affluence from the roof, the conclusion was unanimous – the water in the structure is coming from the cracks in the outer side of the walls. Long time exposure to the atmospheric water and humidity in the walls contributed to destruction of the mortar on the façade and inside of the structure. Thanks to the admirable thickness of the walls, the situation is currently not critical, but if this

  • exposure to damaging factor continues – the problem will shortly cause serious structural damage. Also, one of the problems is adverse ascent of the paved courtyard in front of the entrance to the Tower, which causes direct flow of the rain water to the structure. The roof structure is in good condition, except of one small hole in the roof cover. Previous interventions in the interior of the Tower were numerous an aggressive. Every single wall carries traces of the cement mortar, inadequate repairs, electric cables and also burn in the ground floor. Last floor shows very visible reinforced concrete beam. In the ground floor there are some partitions made of different materials, mostly wood, which are unsuitable.

    Project phases

    Considering the fact that the financial side of all reconstructions in BiH is poor, the project foresees four phases of the reconstruction ( dependant on the assured grant): Phase 1

    1. scaffolding 2. roof reconstruction ( shingle and roof window) 3. façade repair (cleaning, joints repair, protection layer) 4. injection works 5. window replacement (3 layer glass), repair of the stone frames, missing

    caging 6. repair of the plateau ascent in front of the Tower

    Phase 2 1. repair of the ground floor ( lower layers and pavemet) 2. toilette 3. electric installation 4. repair of the interior walls 5. glass partitions in the ground floor 6. entrance door and windshield

    Phase 3 1. protection layer smear for the interior walls 2. sandpapering and painting of the floor constructions 3. assemblage of the wooden ceiling in first three floors 4. carpets on floors 1 to 4

    Phase 4 1. ventilation system (including previous construction works on the attic for the

    air-conditioning unit, openings for 24 air throttles under the roof)

    Figure 6. Example of scaffolding Figure 7. Example of shingles

  • RECONSTRUCTION WORKS

    Scaffolding assembly

    The scaffolding would be mounted around the entire Tower and will be used for works on the roof, repair of the walls.

    Roof exchange

    Current roof covering is inappropriate and damaged. The roof construction is in good condition and needs no intervention except possible cleaning and protection coating. The roof will have no thermal insulation. On the roof construction it is necessary to mount wooden flooring, hydro insulation, vertical battens, longitudinal battens and wooden shingle made of chestnut three. Also, for the air-conditioning unit air throttles should be made under the crown of the wall, as well as some strengthening of the structure for the a-c unit weight. Thermal insulation will be added in the floor construction.

    Figure 8. and 9. Façade damage

    Façade repair

    This activity is the key for the longevity of the Captain’s tower. They will be performed in few phases:

    1. cleaning of the façade with metal and plastic brushes (joints and stone surface)

    2. removal of the cement mortar 3. removal of the damaged lime mortar 4. replacement of the damaged and missing stone blocks 5. repointing of the joints 6. injection works (lime hydraulic mortar Rofix 993) 7. covering stone protection coating

  • Earthworks

    In order to be able to perform injection works it will be necessary to excavate 80cm from inner and outer side of the walls, and 50cm on entire inside of the tower. For the repair of the adverse ascent it will be necessary to excavate average 20 cm on entire plateau in front of the Tower.

    Removal of the partitions in the ground floor

    Dismantle all wooden parts and pay special attention to the brick wall laying on the inside part of the stone wall.

    New flooring in the ground floor

    After the injection works two 20cm layers of tampon (up to 30mm) will be laid. After that, 5cm thick stone pavement will be laid onto a layer of sand (1-4mm).

    Walls repair from inner side

    Walls on ground, first and second floor will require same treatment as façade. Second floor masonry is not so representative, and the project specifies at least 3 layers of lime coating. Third floor was plastered and it went through recent reconstruction, and it will need no further interventions. Fourth floor shows reinforced concrete beams under the ceiling – it would require some minor removal of the concrete and same treatment as second floor.

    Figure 10. Ground floor today Figure 11. 4th floor today

    Floor construction

    This task will require just sandpapering and painting of the floor constructions, assemblage of the wooden ceiling in first three floors, and laying of the carpets in last 4 floors.

    Window replacement

    As this reconstruction is meant not only to preserve the monument, but also to improve the conditions in entire facility and save the energy, windows are very important part of the assignment. Although average reconstruction does not foresee three layer glass with insulation gas and Low e coating – this one is an exception. As I mentioned above, the windows on this monument were subject of constant change. That, and the fact that the walls are extremely thick - allows us to consider thicker window frames with three layer glass.

  • Before the windows are to be built in, it is necessary to change all damaged stone frames and caging.

    Electric installations

    Current installations are old, damaged and bad looking. New project implies telescopic column by the staircase through entire Tower. This column would also carry all switches an plug-inns. Other electric cables would be led under the ceiling. Lights foreseen by project are on trails, mounted on the wooden beams of the floor structure.

    Water and sewage

    Water and sewage will use existing connections.

    New partitions in ground floor

    Ground floor requires new space organization because of the museum. All walls accept toilette will be out of tempered glass, with one doors. This kind of structure is light and easy to assemble with minimum damage to historical structure. Water/water heat pump would be placed inside this new room for staff.

    Ventilation

    In order to provide longevity and good conditions within the Tower, it is important to provide perfect ventilation. As the flooring structure is not historical – it will be possible to place the pipes in corners on the tower. Main source of energy would be water-water heat pump.

    Figure 12. 2nd floor Figure 13. Detail - 1th floor

    CONCLUSION

    Captain’s Tower in Bihac requires serious reconstruction of stone walls. Current condition shows that damage is result of aggressive atmospheric water followed by vegetation. After the consolidation of the walls from both sides and injection works, it will be possible to prevent leaks into the structure. Air-conditioning unit will require air throttles made under the crown of the wall, as well as some strengthening of the structure for the main unit weight. Roof covering should be changed and replaced by traditional chestnut shingles. Thermal insulation should be placed in upper floor ceiling (fitted in roof construction). Widows should be made with three layer glass (Low e + argon filling). Electric installations should go through telescopic pipe by the staircase. Light should be adjustable and light weight.

  • Partition walls in the ground floor should be mostly made of tempered glass. Ventilation will be very important in this facility – because of assurance of its longevity as well as because of the valuable artefacts. Unit place under the roof will provide necessary air exchange in entire building. Main source of energy would de water-water heat pump situated in the ground floor.

    REFERENCES

    1. Lopašić, Radoslav, Bihać i Bihaćka krajina (Bihać and the Bihać Frontier Region), Zagreb, 1890,

    2. Truhelka, Ćiro, Sredovječni spomenici Bosanske Hrvatske (Mediaeval Monuments of Bosnian Croatia), Hrvatsko kolo XXIII, Zagreb, 1942,

    3. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Stari bosanski gradovi. (Old Bosnian Forts) Naše starine I, Sarajevo, 1953, 7-45.Erdas, G., Free Vibration Analysis of Beams and Plates Using Finite Element Method, M.Sc. Thesis, METU Mech. Eng. Dept., Ankara, 1983,

    4. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Kule i odžaci u BiH (Towers and Manors in BiH), Naše starine 1954, p. 71 – 86,

    5. Ančić Mladen, Bihaćki kraj od 1262. do početka XV. stoljeća (The Bihać Region from 1262 to the early 15th century), Jnl of the Archives and Archivists' Society of BiH, XXV, Sarajevo, 1985,

    6. „Official Gazette of BiH“ no. 90/07, Decision that The historic building of the Captain's tower in Bihać is designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2007,

    7. Popovac, Maja, Reconstruction of the Captain’s Tower in Bihac, Project, Faculty of Cvil Engineering, University “Dzemal Bijedic”, Mostar, 2009.