The Structure of a Campaign All campaigns have common characteristics. Each election campaign consists of several smaller campaigns that balance one another. Nomination Campaign General Election Campaign Personal Campaign Organizational Campaign Media Campaign
Nomination Campaign That part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election Candidates adjust to spotlight Seek the support of party leaders and interest groups, test themes, and slogan Critical time for gaining and maintaining support within the party and the broader electorate Candidate must be careful not to move too far to his/her partys extreme during the nomination campaign. Could be harmful during the general election.
General Election Campaign Part of a political campaign aimed at winning the general election Occurs after candidate has won partys nomination Focus on gaining support from groups and voters Decide on issues to emphasize Adopt a brief theme to serve as rallying cry A Stronger America 2004 Kerry/Edwards In Your Heart, You Know Hes Right 1964 Goldwater Candidate must also define his or her stance on other topics of interest to voters.
Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Bush Campaign Organization
The Personal Campaign That part of the political campaign concerned with presenting the candidates public image Candidates try to meet as many people as possible. Exhausting schedule Little time for family, reflection, or long- range planning
The Organizational Campaign That part of the political campaign involved in fund-raising, literature distribution, and all other activities not directly involving the candidate Organizational activity funds and supports the campaign Volunteers Voter canvas: process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone.
The Organizational Campaign GOTV a push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls Campaign manager the individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign Campaign consultant the private sector professionals and firms who sell to a candidate the technologies, services, and strategies required to get the candidate elected Finance chair a professional who coordinates the fund-raising efforts for the campaign.
The Organizational Campaign Finance chair A professional who coordinates the fund-raising efforts for the campaign Pollster A professional who takes public opinion surveys that guide political campaigns Direct Mailer A professional who supervises a political campaigns direct- mail fund-raising activities Do consultants strip the campaign of substance? Reduce them to a clever bag of tricks for sale? Can voters tell the difference between a good candidate versus a bad one?
The Media Campaign That part of the political campaign in which the candidate reaches out to the voters, in person or via the media, to create a positive impression and gain votes Communication director: develops the overall media strategy. Press secretary: interacts and communicates with journalists. Media consultant: produces candidates television, radio, and print ads.
The Media and Campaigns What voters hear and see of the candidate is primarily determined by Paid media Free media The amount, form, and content of paid media are dictated by the campaign. Free media consists of independent press coverage.
Paid Media Positive ad Advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidates qualifications, family, and issue positions, without reference to the opponent Negative ad Advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponents platform or character
Paid Media Contrast ad Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the sponsor Spot ad Television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in sixty-, thirty-, or ten-second duration Inoculation ad Advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched
Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Free Media Coverage of the campaign Newsworthy View candidates with suspicion Obsessed with the horserace Expectations and predictions
Campaign Media Strategies Isolate candidate from the press Campaign stages media events Spin Circumvent press with entertainment-oriented talk shows a less critical forum Take great care with debates
Technology and Campaign Strategy Technological advances impacted political campaigns Direct access to voters Can gather and disseminate information better than ever Rapid-response techniques The formation of prompt and informed responses to changing events on the campaign battlefield Internet Recorded phone messages
Campaign Finance Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act 2002 McConnell versus FEC Concluded that the governments interest in preventing political-party corruption overrides the free speech rights to which the parties would otherwise be entitled
Sources of Political Contributions Political money regulated by the federal government (FECA 1971). This money can come from Individual Contributions Political Action Committee Contributions Political Party Contributions Member-to-Candidate Contributions Candidates Personal Contributions Public Funds Independent Expenditures
Growth in Total Contributions by PACs
Expenditures by PACs in 2004 Election Cycle
Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 PACs
Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Internet Has the potential to alter the way money is raised for campaigns. McCain 2000 Dean 2004 Promises headaches for FEC Business links with campaign link? Are these in-kind contributions? Yes Can internet funds be matched by public funds during the presidential nomination campaign? No
Soft Money and Issue Advocacy Advertisements Soft Money The virtually unregulated money funneled by individuals and political committees through state and local parties Now prohibited under BCRA Result: Hard money fundraising increased and the emergence of 527s
How the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 Alters Money Flow
Are PACs Good or Bad for the Process? The Bad PACs are the embodiment of corrupt special interests that use their contributions to buy votes of legislators. Evidence is mixed Moreover, the less affluent and minority members of our society do not enjoy equal access to these political organizations.