The Arab World-subsaharan Africa Quiz Review

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<ul><li><p>7/30/2019 The Arab World-subsaharan Africa Quiz Review</p><p> 1/6</p><p>THE ARAB WORLD</p><p>Terms ID:</p><p> Qur an: the Holy Book in Islam, written in Arabic. Guides aspects of Muslim ritual andeveryday life, including those that relate to music</p><p> Mosque: Muslim place of worship. The azan can be heard five times a day here Minaret: tall spires on each side of a mosque. The muezzin usually shouts or bradcats the</p><p>azan (call to prayer) from the top of the minaret Muezzin: the callers or people who broadcast the azan. The muezzin is chosen for his</p><p>good character and vocal ability, but is not considered a cleric Azan: the Islamic call to prayer. It is broadcasted at five designated times each day by the</p><p>muezzin or callers Maqam: the musical mode or scale in Arabic music (cf. Indian raga, or Greek modes).</p><p>Many maqams feature half-flat pitches not found in European classical music Taqasim : improvisation, similar to the Indian alapana </p><p> Heterophonic Texture: music in which multiple performers/instruments play in near-unison Idiomatic Heterophony: multiple instruments play in near-unison with embellishments of </p><p>the rhythm or melody (such as omitting beats or altering rhythms, and melodic ornamentssuch as turns and trills)</p><p> Iqa /Additive Meter: the time cycle or rhythmic pattern in Arabic music, similar to theIndian tala additive meters </p><p> Sama i: meter 3+2+2+3 Ostinato: is a motif or phrase used repeatedly in the same musical voice. This repeating</p><p>idea may be a rhythmic patter or part of a melody. Tarab: the ecstasy or enchantment or blissful unification developed between the</p><p>audience and performer during a performance. This communal repore and performanceenergy is often created by audience participation such as shouts or exclamation of encouragement</p><p> Tutti: all voices together Concerto Grosso: rondo form (solo/tutti/solo/tutti) Daff: the Arab tambourine, it has an extremely sensitive skin head and heavy cymbals</p><p>which can make the instrument sound like an entire percussion section Dumbek: a single- headed goblet drum Santur:a trapezoid-shaped boz often made of walnut with 72 strings, or 18 sets of 4. A</p><p>trapezoidal zither with hammers, the ancestor of piano with finger picks. </p><p>Qanun: a zither with seventy-five strings in triple courses with a series of small tuninglevers that allow the strings to be returned in the course of performance Rebab: contemporary ancestor of rebec/guitar/violin family: North Africa, time of </p><p>Crusades ud: contemporary ancestor of Renaissance lute. A short necked lute Buzuq: a long-necked lute used in Arabic music with twenty-four frets and two sets of </p><p>strings. The frets are movable so they can produce minute differences in pitch, like thehalf-flats in many maqams</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 The Arab World-subsaharan Africa Quiz Review</p><p> 2/6</p><p> Nay: an end blown reed flute that is blown obliquely at an angle. Not like a recorder,which functions like a whistle; more similarly to blowing over the top of a coke bottle.Can shift its tone color from a breathy texture to the purer tone associated with thewestern silver flute</p><p> Sufi-s: imslamic mystics: union with Allah through song, music, dance, which often lead</p><p>to possession; comparable to the practices and beliefs of Christian Pentecostals, JewishChassids, AfroCuban Santeria Haj: pilgrimage in the Mecca Kaaba: the cube in the middle of the Mecca Quadrivium: a Latin concept which allies music with mathematics, geometry, and</p><p>astronomy. Influenced by Greek philosophies which were made known, in part, becauseof Arabic translations originating from Mesopotamia.</p><p> Ottoman Empire: The Ottoman Turks ruled from 1326 until 1918. Their musical legacystill provides the basis for the classical tradition, particularly in the nearby Arabcountries Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, and Egypt; championing culturalachievements such as the widespread distribution of many developments in music form</p><p>and style (modes and rhythm), the art of taqasim, the adaptation of Western musicalnotation, and development of modern instruments.</p><p> Andalusian Legacy: 711 AD, Arabs invade Spain, ultimately Islam spreads across NorthAfrica, Central Asia, parts of Southeast Asia; Turks conquer Arabs, spread Islam;Balkans incorporated into Ottoman Turkish empire. Turkish and Arab classical music arevery close.</p><p>Listening ID:</p><p>CD 4/19</p><p>1. Syria, but Pan-Islamic: done similarly by all Muslims2. Azan3. Muezzin, with male voice4. This call to prayer is performed five times a day and is not considered musical, merely</p><p>recitation or worship. Prayer time!5. In maqam Rast with microtones/quarter tones/ half -flat tones on 3 rd and 7 th scale</p><p>degrees, ascending and descending melodic contour, silences separating lines of text arepart of structure, uses melisma (singing multiple notes on one syllable) andornamentation, uses qafla cadential patterns.</p><p>CD 4/25</p><p>1. Israeli West Bank, but Pan-Arab art/classical music style2. Taqsim in maqam Rast3. Solo ud (short -necked lute)4. This piece illustrates taqsim as a building block of Middle Eastern music. Solo taqsim</p><p>can occur as a prelude to a composition or as a standalone performance</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 The Arab World-subsaharan Africa Quiz Review</p><p> 3/6</p><p>5. In maqam Rast with microtones/quarter tones/ half -flat tones on 3 rd and 7 th degrees of scale, ascending and descending melodic contour, silences influenced by text lines inQur an recitation are part of structure, uses melisma and ornamentation, uses qaflacadential patterns.</p><p>CD 4/18</p><p>1. Pan-Arab Takht art/classical music instrumental ensemble2. Composition Al -Shaghal/ Obsession 3. Buzuq long- necked lute, ud short necked lute, nay end -blown flute, qanun plucked</p><p>trapezoidal zither, violin, daff/riqq tambourine4. The title translates to obsession, referring to an obsession or a preoccupation with the</p><p>beloved, a common theme in Arabic language and poetry5. In maqam Bayyati, with microtones/quarter tones/half -flat tones on 2 nd and 6 th degrees</p><p>of scale, heterophonic texture, rondo/concerto grosso like composition in which tuttiplays rondo theme and soloists play taqsim (in this case on buzuq lute and nay flute)during which tutti ensemble plays an accompanying ostinato, expressions of tarab</p><p>participation by audience</p><p>CD 4/23</p><p>1. Palestinian folk wedding song/dance in additive folk meter2. Song El -Funoun (Initiation of Ecstasy) 3. Female and male voices, nay end-blown flute, qanun plucked trapezoidal zither, buzuq</p><p>long-necked lute, mijwiz clarinet, dumbek goblet-shaped drum4. The musical style draws on folk models, and the poetry contains metaphoric language as</p><p>in classical verse. The song expresses the pain of loss, a common theme in Arabic poetryand song</p><p>5. Additive eight-beat meter (iqa; cf. tala), zagareet (ululation), use of vocables</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 The Arab World-subsaharan Africa Quiz Review</p><p> 4/6</p><p>SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA</p><p>Terms ID:</p><p> Ostinato: is a motif or phrase used repeatedly in the same musical voice. This repeatingidea may be a rhythmic patter or part of a melody.</p><p> Kaleidophonic: the idea that music can be perceived several different ways depending onwhich aspect of the music is listened to. For example, in Sub-Saharan African music,there are often several different rhythmic patterns playing simultaneously, and the timesignature may sound different depending on which rhythmic pattern is focused on.</p><p> Tonal Languages: a language that uses tone to distinguish words. Most sub-saharanAfrican languages are tonal. In Akan society, the talking drum closely imitates thetones of the spoken language to convey meaning.</p><p> Speech Playing: Hocket: a performance practice in which the melody is divided between two or more</p><p>voices or instruments. Hocketing is a communal way of making music, as a performercan only complete a melody with one or more partners.</p><p> Hunter-gathers: (ie; BaAka pygmies) are groups live off the land and shift their locationaccording to the availability of food. They maintain a healthy diet through cooperativehunting and gathering, which allows them ample time for expressive activities like all-night sings</p><p> Mbria: a sub-saharan African instrument consisting of metal or wooden keys attached toa soundboard. Bottle caps and snail shells are attached to the soundboard to create abuzzing tone. In the performance, the mbria is placed within a large ground resonatorwhich amplifies the tone, though the resonator is often omitted when playing for personalpleasure.</p><p> Bira: an all-night, family-based, communal ritual where humans and spirits communicatethrough possession trances. Mbria music and dancing are significant elements in theseevents. The plural form of a bira is mapira.</p><p> Anthropomorphic: describes a non-human entity to which uniquely human characteristicsare attributed. For example, in Akan society, the talking drum is treated like a humanbeing; like a human being, the drum is baptized, fed, and sheltered, among other things.</p><p> Mother Drum: the talking drum used by the master drummer. The mother drum is thebiggest of the drums, and therefore has the biggest versatility of sound.</p><p> Master Drummer: the conductor and chief drum player of a drum orchestra in Akansociety. The master drummer is responsible for giving the necessary directives tosecondary drummers and fro giving the music its distinctive personality. The masterdrummer plays the talking drum and is seen as an intermediary between the human and</p><p>supernatural realms. Acculturation: the exchange of cultural features that occurs when two or more groupscome into contact. The original cultural patterns of the groups may be altered, but thegroups remain distinct</p><p> Syncretism: a form of acculturation in which slightly differing ideas from differentcultures are reconciled by melding the practices of both cultures. For example, theChristian hymn harmonies syncretize with indigenous African polyrhythms to formmusic that features characteristics from both cultures.</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 The Arab World-subsaharan Africa Quiz Review</p><p> 5/6</p><p> Afro-pop: contemporary African popular music which takes influences from Westernmusical traditions, Afro-pop often combines indigenous African polyrhythms withWestern harmonies and instrumentation.</p><p> nationalism vs tribalism : the power struggle between nation-states and the tribes thatcompose them. For example, Zimbabwe is composed of many different tribes, each of </p><p>which has its own governmental system or autonomy which may conflict with thegovernment at the national level.</p><p>Lecture terms</p><p> Neumes: a 9 th-century system of Western musical notation that preceded the invention of the modern 5-line staff. They are often indicated the geveral contour of a melody but notthe exact notes or rhythms</p><p> Rhythmic Modes: In early music notation, rhythmic modes were patterns of long andshort durations imposed on written notes. As part of a still-developing notation system,the rhythmic modes did not always specify exact rhythmic values for each note, andinterpretation was often based on context and the performer s taste. </p><p> Musica Ficta: Latin for false music. Chromatic alternations not wr itten in the score.Performers of Renaissance music were often expected to contribute to the score byinserting musica ficta according to their musical taste.</p><p> Figured Bass: a type of integer musical notation that indicates intervals and chords.Interpreters of figured bass notations were expected to embellish and improvise upon thescore.</p><p>Listening ID:</p><p>CD 1/15</p><p>1. Ewe of Ghana, West Africa2. Agbekor 3. Female and male voices, bell, drums in different sizes, rattle4. Inspired by hungers observations of monkeys in the forest. Played before combat to raise</p><p>morale of after combat to communicate what had happened5. Polymetric ensemble, call/response, fixed (ostinato) and free components, kaleidophnoic,</p><p>mother drum lowest and most variable sound, some indigenous harmony, speech playing</p><p>CD 1/19</p><p>1. </p><p>Shona of Zimbabwe, East Africa2. Nhemusasa 3. Mbira linguaphone, lamellophone, or thumb piano plus hosho rattle 4. The song title translates to cutting branches for shelter, referring to a Shona warrior </p><p>practice in which they cut branches to make shelters while marching to war. The songevokes the power of Chaminuka, a powerful spirit which protects the entire Shona nation</p><p>5. Kaleidophonic, fixed (ostinato) plus free components, interlocking parts</p></li><li><p>7/30/2019 The Arab World-subsaharan Africa Quiz Review</p><p> 6/6</p><p>CD 1/20</p><p>1. Shona of Zimbabwe, East Africa2. Nyarai, Afro -Pop3. Male vocal, lead guitar, bass guitar, drum set, cymbals, horn track 4. A song that praises warriors, leaders, their families, and their supporters. The lyrics</p><p>celebrate Mugabe s role in the war of black liberation and chide people who have n otmade way for change</p><p>5. European meter + African call/response, fixed versus free, ostinato</p><p>CD 1/21</p><p>1. BaAka Pgymies of Central Africa/Congo2. Makala (net hunting song) 3. Female and male voices, drums, sticks, body percussion4. Part of a performance event associated with net hunting, which not only provides food</p><p>but is a key cultural institution. To prepare novice hunters, men, women, and children</p><p>sing and dance together.5. Hocketing, yodel, simultaneous improvisation, kaleidophonic</p></li></ul>