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898 E. Biological Oceanography OLR(1984) 31 (12) increases, especially at night, a ban on driving between dusk and dawn on the foreshore may be needed to protect this species. Dept. of Mar., Earth and Atmos. Sci., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, N.C. 27650, USA. (ahm) E340. Aquaculture (commercial) 84:6291 Baqueiro Cardenas, Erik, 1984. Status of molluscan aquaculture on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):83-93. Only 29 of the 67 identified mollusc species which inhabit the 2.3 million acres of coastal lagoons and estuaries along Mexico's Pacific coastline are inten- sively exploited. Efforts to establish commercial aquaculture have been hampered by a lack of 'knowledge of molluscan biology and inappropriate regulation'; the result has been overexploitation and depletion of some species. Centro de Invest. y Exper. en Maricult., AP 580, CancOn, Quintana Roo, Mexico. (msg) 84:6292 Bordner, C.E. et al., 1983. [Selected papers from the World Aquaculture Conference, Washington, D.C., 1983.] J. Wld Maricult. Soc., 14:720pp; 50 papers. Conference papers are devoted to shrimp, lobster, prawn, mollusc, finfish and algal culture. Discus- sions center on pathology, reproduction and genetic manipulation, aquaculture engineering, and man- aging systems and resources. Specific topics include an economic analysis of stocking strategies for shrimp culture; rearing larval California mussels; an overview of molluscan culture in the United States; kelp bed management in southern California; the New York marine biomass program (Laminaria culture); and ecological aquaculture emphasizing new culture approaches in North America. Loui- siana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La., USA. (msg) 84:6293 Castagna, Michael, 1984. Methods of growing Mercenarla mercenaria from postlarvai- to pre- ferred-size seed for field planting. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):355-359. Virginia Inst. of Mar. Sci., Wachapreague, Va. 23480, USA. 84:6294 Chen, Hon-Cheng, 1984. Recent innovations in cultivation of edible molluscs in Taiwan, with special reference to the small abalone HMiotis diversicolor and the hard clam Meretrix lusoria. Aquaculture, 39(1/4): 11-27. The numerous factors contributing to the recent increase in annual production of cultivated small abalones and hard clams are elucidated. Major constraints on mollusc cultivation include water pollution, limited suitable areas, strict regulations and limited export markets. Other mollusc species suitable for cultivation are suggested. Dept. of Zool. and Inst. of Fishery Biol., Natl. Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan. (ahm) 84:6295 Chew, K.K., 1984. Recent advances in the cultivation of molluscs in the Pacific United States and Canada. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):69-81. The commercial exploitation of and latest culture techniques for oysters, clams, scallops, abalones, and mussels are overviewed. Included are a new method for oyster seed production in which farmers catch their own seed using hatchery-reared eyed larvae and a technique to increase Venerupis japonica production on beaches. Sociopolitical problems associated with the implementation of off-bottom culture are addressed. Sch. of Fish., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195, USA. (msg) 84:6296 Coeroli, M. et al., 1984. Recent innovations in cultivation of molluscs in French Polynesia, Aquaculture, 39(1/4):45-67. Fishing was able to supply enough molluscs for both local consumption and pearl-oyster shell export until parasite problems occurred. A mollusc culture program developed hatchery techniques for the introduced species Saccostrea echinata and Perna viridis. The problem of supplying enough 'young, implantable pearl oysters' is discussed. Office de Rech. et d'Exploit, des Res. Ocean., Papcete, Tahiti, French Polynesia. (ahm) 84:6297 Ebert, E.E. and J.L. Houk, 1984. Elements and innovations in the cultivation of red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):375-392. Mar. Res. Branch, California Dept. of Fish and Game, Monterey, Calif. 93940, USA. 84:6298 Glude, J.B., 1984. The applicability of recent inno- vations to mollusc culture in the western Pacific islands. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):29-43. Site selection is critical since nutrient level deter- mines the amount of phytoplankton available as a mollusc food source. Selection of species that are

The applicability of recent innovations to mollusc culture in the western Pacific islands

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898 E. Biological Oceanography OLR (1984) 31 (12)

increases, especially at night, a ban on driving between dusk and dawn on the foreshore may be needed to protect this species. Dept. of Mar., Earth and Atmos. Sci., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, N.C. 27650, USA. (ahm)

E340. Aquaculture (commercial)

84:6291 Baqueiro Cardenas, Erik, 1984. Status of molluscan

aquaculture on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):83-93.

Only 29 of the 67 identified mollusc species which inhabit the 2.3 million acres of coastal lagoons and estuaries along Mexico's Pacific coastline are inten- sively exploited. Efforts to establish commercial aquaculture have been hampered by a lack of 'knowledge of molluscan biology and inappropriate regulation'; the result has been overexploitation and depletion of some species. Centro de Invest. y Exper. en Maricult., AP 580, CancOn, Quintana Roo, Mexico. (msg)

84:6292 Bordner, C.E. et al., 1983. [Selected papers from the

World Aquaculture Conference, Washington, D.C., 1983.] J. Wld Maricult. Soc., 14:720pp; 50 papers.

Conference papers are devoted to shrimp, lobster, prawn, mollusc, finfish and algal culture. Discus- sions center on pathology, reproduction and genetic manipulation, aquaculture engineering, and man- aging systems and resources. Specific topics include an economic analysis of stocking strategies for shrimp culture; rearing larval California mussels; an overview of molluscan culture in the United States; kelp bed management in southern California; the New York marine biomass program (Laminaria culture); and ecological aquaculture emphasizing new culture approaches in North America. Loui- siana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La., USA. (msg)

84:6293 Castagna, Michael, 1984. Methods of growing

Mercenarla mercenaria from postlarvai- to pre- ferred-size seed for field planting. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):355-359. Virginia Inst. of Mar. Sci., Wachapreague, Va. 23480, USA.

84:6294 Chen, Hon-Cheng, 1984. Recent innovations in

cultivation of edible molluscs in Taiwan, with special reference to the small abalone HMiotis

diversicolor and the hard clam Meretrix lusoria. Aquaculture, 39(1/4): 11-27.

The numerous factors contributing to the recent increase in annual production of cultivated small abalones and hard clams are elucidated. Major constraints on mollusc cultivation include water pollution, limited suitable areas, strict regulations and limited export markets. Other mollusc species suitable for cultivation are suggested. Dept. of Zool. and Inst. of Fishery Biol., Natl. Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan. (ahm)

84:6295 Chew, K.K., 1984. Recent advances in the cultivation

of molluscs in the Pacific United States and Canada. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):69-81.

The commercial exploitation of and latest culture techniques for oysters, clams, scallops, abalones, and mussels are overviewed. Included are a new method for oyster seed production in which farmers catch their own seed using hatchery-reared eyed larvae and a technique to increase Venerupis japonica production on beaches. Sociopolitical problems associated with the implementation of off-bottom culture are addressed. Sch. of Fish., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195, USA. (msg)

84:6296 Coeroli, M. et al., 1984. Recent innovations in

cultivation of molluscs in French Polynesia, Aquaculture, 39(1/4):45-67.

Fishing was able to supply enough molluscs for both local consumption and pearl-oyster shell export until parasite problems occurred. A mollusc culture program developed hatchery techniques for the introduced species Saccostrea echinata and Perna viridis. The problem of supplying enough 'young, implantable pearl oysters' is discussed. Office de Rech. et d'Exploit, des Res. Ocean., Papcete, Tahiti, French Polynesia. (ahm)

84:6297 Ebert, E.E. and J.L. Houk, 1984. Elements and

innovations in the cultivation of red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):375-392. Mar. Res. Branch, California Dept. of Fish and Game, Monterey, Calif. 93940, USA.

84:6298 Glude, J.B., 1984. The applicability of recent inno-

vations to mollusc culture in the western Pacific islands. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):29-43.

Site selection is critical since nutrient level deter- mines the amount of phytoplankton available as a mollusc food source. Selection of species that are

OLR (1984) 31 (12) E. Biological Oceanography 899

adapted to nutrient-poor waters, or pumping nutri- ent-rich deep water to the surface, may result in successful cultures. Recent data from transplanted temperate species, and materials, culture techniques and processing procedures borrowed from other areas, may aid aquaculture in tropical waters. Glude Aquaculture Consultants, Inc., Seattle, Wash. 98199, USA. (ahm)

84:6299 Goldstein, B.B., 1984. The commercial cultivation of

Crassostrea gigas in a land-based, tropical, managed food chain. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):393- 402.

Since 1976, Systemculture Seafood Plantations has operated an aquaculture venture on 165 acres along Oahu's northern coast. With 'intensive, scientific management,' oysters have been raised to market size (80 mm shell length; 20% meat) in ~ 9 months and ~100,000-150,000 oysters have been sold monthly. Discussed are the facilities, 'overwhelming' market acceptance, reasons for the lack of economic success, phytoplankton culture, and the need for interdisciplinary cooperation among engineers, bi- ologists, electricians, financiers, marketing special- ists, etc. Systemculture Seafood Plantations, Hono- lulu, Hawaii 96813, USA. (ihz)

84:6300 Mann, Roger, 1984. On the selection of aquaculture

species: a case study of marine molluscs. Aqua- culture, 39(I/4):345-353.

The selection of species for culture is overviewed beginning with Fan Lee's criteria written around 500 B.C.--species should be hardy, fast-growing, tasty, non-cannibalistic and 'inexpensive to culture.' To these have been added an adequate supply of seed and good market value. Due to the 'active intro- duction of breeding stock' and advances in con- trolling and manipulating hatchery environments, it is now possible to culture organisms that Fan Lee would have considered only marginally acceptable. The author foresees and considers the implications of 'a dichotomy in future development' wherein the primary stimulus will be either economic or large volume production for consumption. Dept. of Biol., WHOI, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (ihz)

84:6301 Morse, D.E., K.K. Chew and R. Mann (eds.), 1984.

Special issue. Recent innovations in cultivation of Pacific molluscs. Proceedings of an International Symposium sponsored by the California Sea Grant College Program and the Pacific Sea Grant College Programs in Alaska, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. Held at La Jolla,

California, U.S.A., 1-3 December 1982. Aqua- culture, 39(1/4):404pp; 28 papers.

Major topics addressed in the 28 symposium papers were selection of suitable species, genetics and genetic engineering, toxins, viruses, nutrition, hatch- cry production and ocean ranching. Regional sur- veys considered the status of and recent advances in mollusc culture in Taiwan, China, French Polynesia, the western Pacific islands, and North and South America. Specific papers included discussions of China's successful mussel culture program that utilizes hatchery-produced larvae; the introduction of Crassostrea gigas, a temperate species, to the northwest U.S. and its replacement in warmer climates by presently underutilized species; criteria for selecting cultivars from the global species pool; recent developments in paralytic shellfish poisoning research; and settlement requirements of molluscan larvae. (msg)

84:6302 Saito, Katsuo, 1984. Ocean ranching of abalones and

scallops in northern Japan. Aquaculture, 39(1/4): 361-373. Hokkaido Inst. of Mariculture, Shikabe, Hokkaido 041-14, Japan.

84:6303 Sleeter, T.D. (ed.), 1984. Assessment of the potential

for aquaculture in Bermuda. Proceedings of a scientific workshop hosted by the Bermuda Biological Station, October 11-15, 1983. Spec. Pubis Bermuda biol. Stn Res., 27:187pp; 25 papers.

Workshop participants discussed the potential of cultivating several indigenous species (conch, scal- lop, oyster, clam, snapper, grouper, dolphin-fish) and imported species (spiny and American lobster, eastern oyster, calico, Atlantic bay and zigzag scallops). Socio-political implications of mariculture were addressed especially in regard to multiple-use conflicts, legislating commercial operations, and preserving the independence of fishermen. The economic advantages and disadvantages of encour- aging aquaculture were detailed. (msg)

84:6304 Winter, J.E., J.E. Toro, J.M. Navarro, G.S. Valen-

zuela and O.R. Chaparro, 1984. Recent devel- opments, status, and prospects of molluscan aquaculture on the Pacific coast of South Amer- ica. Aquaculture, 39(1/4):95-134.

'A detailed review' of the status and prospects of molluscan aquaculture is presented. In Ecuador, Peru and the Pacific coast of Columbia, aquaculture is still experimental with production efforts largely