The Adaptive Immune Response Chapter 16. Strategy of Adaptive Immune Response First response to particular antigen called primary response May take a

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Adaptive Immune Response Chapter 16 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Strategy of Adaptive Immune Response First response to particular antigen called primary response May take a week or more to develop Immune systems remembers pathogen on subsequent exposure Termed secondary response Adaptive immunity divided into Humoral immunity Eliminates extracellular pathogens Cellular immunity Eliminates intracellular pathogens </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Strategy of Adaptive Immune Response Overview of humoral immunity Mediated by B lymphocytes A.k.a B cells Develops in bone marrow B cells may be triggered to proliferate into plasma cells Plasma cells produce antibodies Antibodies produces when antigen bonds B cell receptor Some B cells produce memory cells </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Strategy of Adaptive Immune Response Overview of cellular immunity Mediated by T lymphocytes A.k.a T cells Matures in thymus Divided into 2 subsets Cytotoxic T cells Helper T cells T cell receptors help with antigen recognition </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Anatomy of the Lymphoid System Lymphoid system collection of tissues and organs designed to bring B and T cells in contact with antigens In order for body to mount appropriate response immune cells must encounter antigen Lymphoid system includes Lymphatic vessels Secondary lymphoid organs Primary lymphoid organs </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Lymphatic vessels Carry lymph to body tissues Lymph formed as result of bodys circulatory system Lymph travels through vessels to lymph nodes Material such as protein is removes Fluid portion empties back into blood stream Anatomy of the Lymphoid System </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Secondary lymphoid organs Sites where lymphocytes gather to encounter antigens, organs include Lymph nodes Spleen Tonsils Adenoids Appendix Organs situated strategically Allows for initiation of immune response from nearly any place in body Anatomy of the Lymphoid System </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Primary lymphoid organs Bone marrow and thymus are primary lymphoid organs Location where stem cells destined to become B and T cell mature B cells mature in bone marrow T cells mature in thymus Once mature, cells leave primary lymphoid organs and migrate to secondary lymphoid organs Anatomy of the Lymphoid System </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Nature of Antigens Coined from compounds that elicit antibody production Antibody generator Includes an enormous variety of materials Today term used to describe any compound that elicits and immune response Antigen that causes immune response termed immunogen Proteins and polysaccharides induce swong response Lipids and nucleic acids often do not Recognition of antigen directed at antigenic determinant or epitope </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Nature of Antibody Structure of the Ab Basic unit is the monomer Made of four chains of amino acids held together by disulfides bonds Two chains are heavy Two chains are light Each heavy and light chain has a constant region The constant region is known as Fc regions Each heavy and light chain has a variable region Variable region is unique to each Ab This region binds to a specific Ag and is know as Fab region </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Nature of Antibody Protective outcomes of antibody- antigen binding Neutralization Prevents virus or toxin from interacting with cell Immobilization and prevention of adherence Antibody bonding to cellular structures to interfere with function Agglutination and precipitation Clumping of bacterial cells by specific antibody Bacteria more easily phagocytized </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Protective outcomes of antibody- antigen binding Opsonization Coating of bacteria with antibody to enhance phagocytosis Complement activation Antibody bonding triggers classical pathway Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity Multiple antibodies bind a cell which becomes target for certain cells Nature of Antibody </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Ab divided into five classes Class is based on constant region of the Ab Classes include: IgG IgA IgM IgD IgE </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Five classes of antibody IgM First Ab to respond to infection 5 13% of Ab in circulation Structure: pentamer Five monomer units joined together at the constant region Found on the surface of b lymphocytes as a monomer Only Ab that can be formed by the fetus Nature of Antibody </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Five classes of antibody IgG Dominant Ab in circulation 80 85% Ab in circulation Structure = monomer Only Ab that can cross the placenta The antibody of memory!!!!! IgA Found in secretions 10 - 13 % of Ab in circulation Structure Monomer in serum Dimer in secreations Breast milk, mucous, tears and saliva Nature of Antibody </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Five classes of Ab IgD </li></ul>