Textile Properties of Tussah Silk Fabric by Eco-Friendly Crosslinking Agents Modification

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  • Textile Properties of Tussah Silk Fabric by Eco-friendly Crosslinking

    Agents Modification

    Zhimei Liua, Gang Lib, Dehong Chengc*, Yanhua Lud*

    1Functional Textile Material Key Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering and Material Science,

    Eastern Liaoning University, Dandong, 118001, P. R. China

    aemail: liuzhimei2@126.com,

    bemail: ligang0708@sina.com,

    cemail:chengdehongldxy@qq.com,

    demail: yanhualu@aliyun.com,

    Keywords: tussah silk, eco-friendly crosslinking agents, wrinkle resistant property, mechanical property

    Abstract. To increase the wrinkle resistant property of tussah silk fabric, the eco-friendly

    crosslinking agents of citric acid (CA) was applied to tussah silk wrinkle resistant finishing process.

    Tussah silk fabric was treated with a conventional pad-dry-cure method. The finishing effects of

    tussah silk fabric including wrinkle recovery angle, whiteness and mechanical properties were

    characterized. The finishing agents CA in the presence of catalyst of sodium monophosphate (SHP) as

    well as the treatment conditions significantly affected the anti-wrinkle effects of treated tussah silk

    fabrics. The treated fabric samples showed increased wrinkle resistant property. The retention rate of

    breaking strength and whiteness of CA treatment tussah silk meet to the demands of the fabric

    treatment.

    Introduction

    Tussah silk, as a very excellent natural protein fiber, can absorb ultraviolet light and has the property

    of resistant to sunlight[1]. It is comfortable to humans skin and has porosity which formed the

    textured porosity in tussah fiber[2,3]. However, Tussah silk fiber has inferior properties similar to

    those of mulberry silk, such as low wrinkle resistance and deformation for its poor crystallinity and

    orientation degree. In order to overcome inferior textile properties, considerable interest in the

    improvement of the such as anti-yellowing, wash and wear properties, and crease proofing of the silk

    with some kinds of chemicals have been attempted[4-6]. So far, chemical modifications of tussah silk

    fibroin are including epoxide-based modifications, polycarboxylic acids, organic silicone,

    polyurethane treatment and di-methylol di-hydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU) treatment for textile

    applications.

    These chemical finishing agents do improve the durable press of the tussah silk fabric. The

    modification result of some treatment agents such as DMDHEU is good, but the agents produced

    formaldehyde in the process of finishing and wearing. Therefore, the ecological problems limited its

    application in textile [7-9].

    In this work, the eco-friendly crosslinking agents of CA agent were applied to tussah silk finishing.

    The effects of the technique factors on the results of wrinkle resistant property, retention rate of

    breaking strength and whiteness were analysized.

    Experimental

    Materials. Tussah silk fabric(Type 5023), CA, sodium monophosphate(SHP), triethanolamine

    (TEA), nonionic and softener were chemicals pure agents and purchased from

    Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co. Ltd.

    Preparation of CA treatment solutions. CA treatment solution were prepared according the

    following formula. The formula of CA treatment solution

    Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 685 (2014) pp 68-71 Submitted: 26.09.2014Online available since 2014/Oct/27 at www.scientific.net Accepted: 27.09.2014 (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerlanddoi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.685.68

    All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP,www.ttp.net. (ID: 130.207.50.37, Georgia Tech Library, Atlanta, USA-17/11/14,15:53:40)

    http://www.scientific.nethttp://www.ttp.net

  • CA 6%~8%

    SHP 3%~6%

    TEA 1%~2%

    In the formula, TEA was added into the treatment agents of CA and SHP. The reason was that the

    CA treatment is often caused yellowing of the tussah silk fabric. On the other hand, TEA could

    increase the wet wrinkle resistance angles and maintain the strength of the silk fabric in the CA

    treatment process. The reason is that the basic property of TEA neutralize the acidic property, the -OH

    of TEA could react with COOH of CA. As a result, the crosslinking degree and branched degree

    increase a lot. Therefore, the strength decrease was limited. As we all know, the treatment with resin

    and CA anti-wrinkle treatment have serious loss of strength. It is very important of application of

    TEA for CA treatment.

    Tussah silk fabric treatment process with CA. First, the silk samples were dipped into the solution

    of BTCA and CA, then treated with above treatment solutions by pad-dry-cure method[10].

    Tussah silk samples were treated with double dip double pad process:

    Dipping 5min (90% pick up)

    Drying (80 oC, 5min)

    Curing (130~170 oC, 1~4min)

    Washing40 oC, 10min Dry (80

    oC)

    Wrinkle-resistant properties of tussah silk fabrics treated with CA. Dry wrinkle-recovery angles

    of tussah silk fabrics samples were measured according to AATCC Test Method 66-1998 using

    YG541A wrinkle-recovery tester (Darong Standard Textile Apparatus Co. Ltd., Wenzhou, China).

    The results were characterized by calculated by averaging 10 wrap and 10 weft samples, respectively.

    Breaking strength retention rate of tussah silk fabrics treated with CA. The samples were put in

    the room (20C, a relative humidity of 65%) for 48 h before measurement. The breaking strength

    before and after treatment with CA was tested using Instron 3365 universal testing machine. The

    results were obtained by averaging 10 wrap and 5 weft samples, respectively. The retention rate was

    calculated according to the following formula.

    Breaking strength before treatment Retention rate = 100%

    Breaking strength after treatment

    Whiteness of tussah silk fabrics treated with CA. Whiteness index of tussah silk fabrics before and

    after treatment were measured on a Gretag-Macbeth ColorEye 7000A Spectrophotometer according

    to AATCC Test Method 110-1995. Each silk fabrics sample was folded 8 layers, and the results were

    obtained by averaging 10 samples.

    Result and discussion

    Effects of CA finishing on the properties of tussah silk fabric. There are three adjacent carboxyl

    groups in each CA molecule. Under the condition of curing temperature, CA becomes anhydride by

    dehydration. Then the ester generated by reacting the anhydride with hydroxyl groups of tussah silk

    fiber. The carboxyl groups of CA reacts not only the hydroxyl of tussah silk fiber, but also the

    hydroxyl triethanolamine. Bridging effect of TEA makes several citric acid molecules connected with

    each other, each link of citric acid molecule can react with the hydroxyl, amino and carboxyl groups

    of tussah silk molecular, thus forming a three-dimensional crosslinking structure in the fiber, which

    will increase the anti-wrinkle effect. The effect of process factors on the properties of CA finishing

    tussah silk fabric is shown in Table 1.

    Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 685 69

  • Table 1 Effects of the process factors on the properties of CA finishing tussah silk fabric

    Sample CA

    (%)

    SHP

    (%)

    TEA

    (%)

    Curing

    Temp.

    ()

    Curing

    time

    (min)

    Wrinkle

    recovery

    angle()

    Retention

    rate of

    breaking

    strength

    %

    White-

    ness

    % Dry immediate

    Dry

    delay

    Untreated 131.6 168.8 82.69

    Treated 1 8 4 2 130 4 125.7 156.5 90.95 78.94

    Treated 2 7 3 1 140 3 129.1 155.8 92.53 80.24

    Treated 3 6 5 1 150 2 133.2 165.0 88.88 77.21

    Treated 4 7 5 2 160 1 138.3 189.0 90.72 79.68

    Treated 5 8 5 2 160 1 129.1 181.3 87.25 74.19

    Treated 6 7 5 1 170 1 135.4 176.8 83.77 72.51

    From Table 1 we can obtain the follow three analysis.

    (1) the wrinkle recovery angle of the treated tussah fabric increases when the concentration of CA

    is from 6% to 7%, and decreases when the concentration of CA is 8%. While the wrinkle recovery

    angle of the treated tussah fabric increases with the SHP concentration increasing. The breaking

    strength and whiteness of the treated tussah fabric decrease with the increasing concentration of CA.

    The retention rate of breaking strength decreases to 83.77, the whiteness decreases by 8.5% when the

    concentration of CA and SHP reaches the maximum. (2) the wrinkle recovery angle of the treated

    tussah fabric increases when the curing temperature is less than and equal to 160oC, and decreases

    when the curing temperature is more than 160 oC. The breaking strength and whiteness of the treated

    tussah fabric decrease with the increasing of the curing temperature. The retention rate of the breaking

    strength decreases by about 7.2% and the whiteness of 10.2%, when the curing temperature is up to

    170 oC. (3) the wrinkle recovery angle of the treated tussah fabric reaches to the maximum, and the

    breaking strength changes a little from treatment 1 to 5. The breaking strength decreases more when

    the concentration is under treatment 6.

    The optimum process conditions are determined as follows:

    CA concentration 7%

    SHP concentration 5%

    TEA concentration 2%

    Curing temperature 160 oC

    Curing time 1 min

    Based on the above process condition, the wrinkle recovery angle increases by 20.17o, the retention

    rate of breaking strength is 83.77%, whiteness decreases by 3.0%.

    CH2 COOH

    CH COOH

    CH2 COOH

    Silk OH

    SHP

    HeatHO

    CH2 CO

    CH COOH

    CH2 CO

    HO

    OSilk

    OSilk

    Scheme 1 Esterification reaction between tussah silk fiber and CA

    70 Machine, Industry and Manufacturing Based on Applied-InformationTechnology IV

  • CH2 COOH

    CH COOH

    CH2 COOH

    Silk NH2

    SHP

    HeatHO

    CH2 CO

    CH COOH

    CH2 CO

    HO

    NHSilk

    NHSilk

    Scheme 2 Amidization reaction between tussah silk fiber and CA

    The decrease of breaking strength came from the acid action of CA and BTCA[11,12]. The

    whiteness of treated tussah silk fabric is attributed to the side reaction of CA, BTCA and tussah

    silk[13].

    Conclusion

    The optimum process conditions are as follows: the CA concentration is 7%, SHP concentration is

    5%, TEA concentration is 2%, curing temperature is 160 oC, curing time is 1 min. The wrinkle

    recovery angle increases by 20.17o, the retention rate of breaking strength is 83.77%, whiteness

    decreases by 3.0%.

    Acknowledgements

    This work was financially supported by Chinese Nature Science Foundation [grant number

    51343002], Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province [grant number 201202081], and the

    Project of Functional Textile Materials Laboratory of Eastern Liaoning University.

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    Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 685 71

  • Machine, Industry and Manufacturing Based on Applied-Information Technology IV 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.685 Textile Properties of Tussah Silk Fabric by Eco-Friendly Crosslinking Agents Modification 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.685.68

    http://dx.doi.org/www.scientific.net/AMM.685http://dx.doi.org/www.scientific.net/AMM.685.68

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