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T T e e m m p p e e r r a a t t u u r r e e

TemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperature. Temperature Plant processes influenced: –Photosynthesis –Respiration –Enzyme activity –Transpiration –Stomatal

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Text of TemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperature. Temperature Plant processes influenced:...

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TemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperature Slide 2 Temperature Plant processes influenced: Photosynthesis Respiration Enzyme activity Transpiration Stomatal opening Pollination Seed germination Slide 3 Temperature This factor, more than any other, determines what plants can be grown in a particular areaThis factor, more than any other, determines what plants can be grown in a particular area Slide 4 Temperature Temperature affects the maturity rate of garden productsTemperature affects the maturity rate of garden products Slide 5 Slide 6 Temperature Temperature can influence some diseases and insect problemsTemperature can influence some diseases and insect problems Temperature influences quality of most fruits and vegetablesTemperature influences quality of most fruits and vegetables Most plants will not grow below 40F or above 96FMost plants will not grow below 40F or above 96F Slide 7 Temperature Cool season cropsCool season crops Day temperatures 60 - 75FDay temperatures 60 - 75F Night temperatures 50 - 60FNight temperatures 50 - 60F Tolerate some frostTolerate some frost Spinach Radish Carrots Cabbage Beets Onions Lettuce Peas Slide 8 Temperature Warm season cropsWarm season crops Day temperatures 70 - 85FDay temperatures 70 - 85F Night temperatures 60 - 70FNight temperatures 60 - 70F Usually do not tolerate frostUsually do not tolerate frost Should not be planted until the ground warmsShould not be planted until the ground warms Corn Tomatoes Beans Vine crops Slide 9 Temperature PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 RespirationRespiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Therefore:Therefore: Photosynthesis leads to an increase in growth and storage Respiration leads to a decrease in storage and reduced growth Slide 10 Temperature Growth and plant yield = P - RGrowth and plant yield = P - R During the day, both photosynthesis & respiration take place but at night, only respiration takes placeDuring the day, both photosynthesis & respiration take place but at night, only respiration takes place Best to keep temperatures warm during the day and cool at night!Best to keep temperatures warm during the day and cool at night! Respiration increases more than photosynthesis at high temperaturesRespiration increases more than photosynthesis at high temperatures Slide 11 Relative rates 40F96 F Too cold for growth Sugars burned up as fast as made. No net growth photosynthesis respiration Slide 12 Temperature Heat unitsHeat units Growing Degree Unit =Growing Degree Unit = Mean temperature - Base temperature Base = either 40 or 50 depending on cropBase = either 40 or 50 depending on crop Slide 13 Heat units (example) * if mean is less than base, enter 0 Slide 14 Temperature Uses of Heat Units:Uses of Heat Units: Predict time to harvest PeasPeas Accord takes 1150 GDUAccord takes 1150 GDU Nugget takes 1570 GDUNugget takes 1570 GDU Alderman takes 1700 GDUAlderman takes 1700 GDU CornCorn Aztec takes 1330 GDUAztec takes 1330 GDU Butter and Sugar takes 1570 GDUButter and Sugar takes 1570 GDU Slide 15 Temperature Uses of Heat Units: (continued)Uses of Heat Units: (continued) Predict flowering date Predict certain pest problems Determine if a crop will grow in a certain area! Slide 16 Phenology PhenologyPhenology Relating the development of one plant to some aspect of another Greek for the science of appearances Slide 17 Phenology Lilac When in flower, time to plant tomatoes Slide 18 Phenology Forsythia Rose When in flower, time to prune your roses! Slide 19 Winter temperatures Winter injury often occurs from:Winter injury often occurs from: Intercellular ice formation (between cells) Intracellular ice formation (within cells) Slide 20 Winter temperatures Factors that influence hardiness:Factors that influence hardiness: Kind of plant (ex: apple vs. peach) Temperature during autumn Soil moisture Light Nutrition Slide 21 Hardiness curve (degree of hardiness attained) A S O N D J F M A M J J Hardiness attained Low High Months Slide 22 Winter temperatures Minimum temperature and when it occursMinimum temperature and when it occurs Rate of freezingRate of freezing Length of time frozenLength of time frozen Number of times frozenNumber of times frozen Amount of snow coverAmount of snow cover WindWind Slide 23 Winter temperatures Symptoms of winter injurySymptoms of winter injury Dead flower buds Dieback of shoots Brown needles Bark splits (common on Norway maple) Sunscald Root injury/low vigor Frost heaving Slide 24 Winter damage catfacing Slide 25 Bark split Fungi Slide 26 Winter injury Winter injury is often associated with a particular set of conditions:Winter injury is often associated with a particular set of conditions: Plants grow too late in the fall (Japanese maple) Slide 27 Winter injury Extreme cold too early in fall or winter Drying winds Mid-winter warm period followed by severe cold Lack of snow cover Slide 28 Winter damage Snow line Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34