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For me technology will always be a passion and I am therefore delighted to have the opportunity to welcome you to the second edition of ‘Tomorrow’, Technip’s technology magazine.
I started my career in the energy industry as a process engi-neer and enjoyed immensely the challenge of designing safe and effi cient production systems. In those days, technology acted as a clear differentiator between companies, and it is
just the same, if not more important, today. As my career progressed I became more involved in project delivery and regional ma-
nagement, but my interest in technology has never dwindled. As newly appointed Senior Vice President for the Offshore activity of Technip, I have multiple roles to cover; among which project delivery (on time, on budget and to high QHSE standards), and promotion of new technologies through our R&D initiatives.
Within Technip, Offshore covers the engineering, procure-ment, construction and installation, hook-up and commis-sioning of fi xed and fl oating platforms. In this area, within the past few years, there have been some truly transformational technologies that have changed the way in which our industry is able to develop new fi elds. One example is Floating LNG production (FLNG) that enables stranded gas to be brought to market. Technip is well positioned in FLNG, being involved in the fi rst two projects to be sanctioned worldwide (Shell Prelude and Petronas LNG1) but needs to maintain its leader-ship, by continuing to invest in new and innovative solutions through its R&D efforts. An article on FLNG in this issue covers the development of this exciting technology within Technip.
While some technological advances are transformational, some are incremental and occur over an extended period of time. A good example of a technology that has developed over time is the Spar fl oating platform. This platform can now accommodate drilling, production from dry or wet trees, and product storage with options designed for Arctic conditions. Spars are only one type of fl oating platform that Technip can deliver to its customers, and an article, in this issue, is dedi-cated to Technip’s diversity of fl oating production facilities.
As we look to the future we foresee oil & gas developments in deeper water and harsher environments such as the Arctic. Our investment in new technologies through R&D will help Technip and its clients to get there safely and in an environ-mentally responsible manner.
Regardless of your interests in technology, I do hope you enjoy reading this issue of ‘Tomorrow’.
“We foresee oil & gas developments in deeper water and harsher environments as illustra-ted by our leadership in FLNG. Our investment in new technologies will help Technip and its clients get there safely and in an en-vironmentally responsible manner.”
Arturo GrimaldiSenior Vice President Offshore
Technip has recently established a new business line within the Subsea segment, referred to as Asset Integrity Management (AIM) Services. Asset Integrity Management is an emerging focus area for the subsea industry which incorporates technology development for monitoring products, as well as integrated service models for harvesting, processing and reporting of condition data relating to subsea assets. Technip AIM Services is well placed to contribute to the defi ni-tion of this exciting new fi eld of activi-ty in conjunc-tion with our clients and other suppliers and contractors, all of whom are acti-vely engaged understanding and defi ning their requirements. This article presents two products used for the integrity monitoring of subsea risers. The fi rst is known as a Vibrating Wire Gauge (VWG) for the monitoring of steel catenery hybrid risers and riser towers. The second product uses the Acoustic Emission technology of AETech to monitor the integrity of tensile armour wires in fl exible pipes.
Vibrating Wire Gauges for Riser Load Monitoring
An electrical coil fi xed to the centre of the wire measures the natural frequency of the wire, which changes as the wire, and parent structure are subjected to micro-displacements. The frequency signal can then be transmitted over long cables and displayed by a portable readout or monitored by a data acquisition system.
This type of measurement is recognized for its long-term accuracy and its stability, especially when dealing with temperature variation, which makes it very suitable for appli-cation in subsea environments. The linearity of the response following numerous iterations with different sensors over short and long time periods confi rms the repeatability of the results and behaviour.
Vibrating wire gauges (VWG)
The operating principle of VWG relies on the guitar string principle whereby the natural frequency of a fi xed length of wire changes as the wire is stretched or relaxed.
Asset Integrity Management Technologies
For further information, please visit http://www.technip.com/en/our-busi-ness/subsea/fl exible-pipeor contact [email protected]
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Riser Integrity Monitoring by Acoustic Emission
This section outlines the implementation of Acoustic Emission technology for con-tinuous monitoring of tensile armour rupture in fl exible risers.
This technology is based on the use of non-intrusive clamps installed on in-service risers or new installations. The funda-mental principle of Acoustic Emission relies on the fact that any object or structure has an “acoustic signature” which is unique. Any changes to the state of that structure modifi es its signature, as do sudden or transient changes to the state of the structure or object.
The resulting monitoring solution consists of a real-time armour wire detection evalu-ation by an expert algorithm, which sends an alarm message to the control room of the platform. The information can be immediately assessed by AIM experts to confi rm if it is indeed representative of a wire rupture, or some other form of breakage or change of state.
The current Acoustic Emission technology developments have achieved the technology readi-ness level 6 (TRL 6), according to Technip Group Operating Principles and Standards which is equivalent to offshore prototype level. They have been used in qualifi cation testing of fl exible pipes, most notably the fi nal qualifi cation of Carbon Fibre Armour (CFA) fl exible pipes in Le Trait (France)last year. They are now deemed qualifi ed for implementation in fl exible pipes during service.
An example of riser integrity monitoring by acoustic emission
Technip’s track record in fl oating production platforms started in the mid-80s with the basic engineering for Total’s Weizhou FPSO offshore China.
This vessel, the world’s fi rst FPSO, had a production rate of only 20,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) which is considered small by today’s standards.
Within the next ten years, Technip was to embark on a series of major fl oating produc-tion projects offshore West Africa starting with Elf’s Nkossa project, where LPG is fraction-ated, stored and offl oaded with a topside weight of 30,000 tons and followed by Elf’s Girassol FPSO (32,000t), Total’s Dalia FPSO (24,800t) and Akpo with the world’s largest FPSO topsides (37,000t) that has a production rate of 250,000 bopd, over 12 times that of the
Weizhou FPSO. The latest in this series of projects include the P-58 and P-62 FPSOs for Petrobras offshore Brazil and the Ichtys FPSO for Inpex offshore Western Australia, awarded in 2012.
During the same time, Technip embarked on a series of proj-ects that would deliver 14 out of the world’s 17 Spar platforms. This track record started with Classic Spars, which were fol-lowed by an evolving design to include Truss Spars, Cell Spars and with the most recent Spar (Statoil’s Aasta Hansteen) incor-porating product storage. While the majority of Spar platforms to date have been installed
in the US Gulf of Mexico and fabricated at Technip’s yard in Pori Finland, the Spar platform footprint has been expanded over time to cover a Malaysian application (Murphy’s Kikeh Spar with Malaysian fabrication) and a harsh environment North Sea application (Statoil’s Aasta Hansteen Spar with Korean fabrication), which will be the world’s fi rst Spar to be installed within the Arctic Circle.
In parallel with these world record breaking FPSO and Spar projects, Technip has been busy developing the capability to deliver other fl oating produc-tion concepts.
For further information, please visit http://www.technip.com/en/our-busi-ness/offshore/fl oating-platforms or contact [email protected]
Technip’s leadership in Spars
Several years ago, Technip would have been viewed by most industry observers as a company whose offshore fl oating platform expertise was limited to Spars and large spread-moored FPSOs for West Africa.Much has changed over the last ten years to the extent that Technip can now offer its clients all major types of fl oating platforms including Spars, TLPs, semi-submersible platforms, FPSOs and FLNGs: a diversifi ed portfolio that clearly cannot be understated.
Floating Platform Diversity
A History of Platform Diversity
Since 2003, Technip embarked on a series of three major production semi-submersible platform projects for Petrobras (P-52, P-51 & P-56), each with topside weights in excess of 30,000 tons. Technip’s works-cope included topsides design and the mating of the topsides onto the semi-submersible hull by the fl oatover method. The last semi-submersible of this series, P-56, went into produc-tion in 2011.
In the same year, Technip received approval in principle from classifi cation society ABS for its own semi-submersible hull design. The Heave and Vortex-induced motion Sup-pressed semi (HVS) has a novel hull design that dampens motions and reduces fatigue on connected riser systems. The design has been proven by model testing and is being further evaluated for its ability
to support dry trees. By the end of 2012, the HVS was being considered for a specifi c Gulf of Mexico application through a client funded study.
Over the last couple of years, Technip has also developed the capability to design and model test Tension Leg Platforms (TLPs) in Malaysia. Several TLP model test programs have already been executed at local test basins. By creating a joint hull design company TMH (between Technip and MMHE), the Group now has the capac-ity to perform conceptual and detailed design of a TLP. TMH has completed the FEED for Shell’s Malikai TLP and is con-tinuing with the EPC execution of this ground-breaking project (the fi rst TLP offshore Malaysia).
However, all these major projects have been eclipsed, at least in scale, by recent
Floating Liquefi ed Natural Gas (FLNG) platforms. Technip is in the unique position of being involved in the world’s fi rst two FLNG projects, Shell’s mighty Prelude platform and Petronas’ LNG1 platform. Both these plat-forms dwarf Akpo, one of the world’s largest FPSO topside facility, and when completed the Shell Prelude FLNG vessel will become the largest fl oating offshore facility in the world, with a length of 488 meters. With the increasing scale of these offshore developments it has become necessary for Technip to be able to execute major projects by sharing the workload between multiple operating centers.
To do so, Technip utilizes a suite of common project stan-dards and engineering tools. It has also become essential to be able to transfer technology to other operating centers to
meet national content require-ments as well as resource sharing. To achieve this, Technip has developed two in-house software based design systems Integrated Platform for Analysis & Design (IPAD) and Integrated Riser Analysis & Design (IRAD). IPAD enables a trained user in any of Technip’s operating centers to perform designs for Spar, Semi and TLP platforms (up to scantling level for Class approval) and is currently being developed to include ship-shaped hulls. IRAD enables to perform riser designs associ-ated with an IPAD fl oating platform design.
These tools, together with the transfer of key personnel, are enabling Technip to execute fl oating production platform designs within operating near centers local to our client’s fi eld developments.
Successes in Brazil
This broadening of Technip’s fl oating production portfo-lio, and its ability to execute sophisticated projects means that Technip is able to review and recommend offshore fi eld development options for any type of fl oating platform solution based on a global delivery capability and experience.
For the offshore oil and gas industry, the Floating Liquefi ed Natural Gas (FLNG) concept has become a game-changer, enabling operators to produce remote stranded gas accumulations in a cost effective manner. The sheer scale of these new units, with twice the topsides equipment of the largest FPSO, stretches the ima-gination of many people, dwarfi ng aircraft carriers and are set to be the largest fl oating structures on the planet. The fact that Technip is involved in the fi rst two FLNG projects to be sanctioned is testament to its track-record in large FPSOs, LNG plants, subsea gas gathering systems and LNG transfer tech-nologies. The size of these FLNG projects has also contributed to a record backlog for Technip’s Offshore business and is perfectly suited to a large delivery organiza-tion that is able to execute complex projects in multiple operating centers.
The FLNG story within Technip started as long ago as the 1980’s when visionaries within the company foresaw that one day the LNG process would move offshore onto fl oating facilities, just as oil and gas production had done the previous decade.
Just as product oil is exported from Floating Production Storage and Offl oading (FPSO) units through a hose system,
an analogous arrangement was envisaged for LNG, and Technip started to develop a cryogenic fl exible hose product. In 2007, the Mark 1 hose underwent full scale testing and was subse-quently certifi ed fi t for service by DNV. This product effec-tively helped close one of the missing links for FLNG of how to safely transfer the cryogenic liquid product from an LNG production vessel at sea to an export LNG carrier.
FLNG really gained traction in early 2008 when Technip took the bold move to sponsor a large internal study to investi-gate in detail how the onshore LNG process could be modi-fi ed and transferred offshore. The study considered how the plant could be made more compact, modularized, marin-ized and how specifi c technical concerns, such as vessel mo-tions, could be overcome. The study was based on a nitrogen
cooling cycle using spiral wound cryogenic heat exchangers from Air Products, with whom Technip had established a strong relation-ship. Technip already had a track record of designing sophisticated processes on fl oating platforms ever since the mid 90’s with the Nkossa project offshore Congo, where LPG is fractionated, stored and offl oaded. FLNG was a fur-ther extension with an increased degree of complexity.
Shell’s FLNG Prelude project
The FLNG Revolution
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Discover a video of the FLNG vessel http://www.technip.com/media-center/video
In 2008, Shell issued market enquiries for FLNG design and construction services to partnerships of major engineer-ing contractors with shipyards equipped with module fabrication facilities. There is little doubt that the matu-rity of Technip’s FLNG design, achieved through this internal study, coupled with our capa-bility to execute large offshore projects, and the credentials of our partner Samsung Heavy Industries, persuaded Shell to sign the fi rst agreements with us in July 2009.
The subsequent contract awards are well documented, but it was the strength of the relationship with Technip and Samsung that enabled Shell to develop the FLNG concept that would ultimately result in Prelude, the world’s fi rst FLNG project, which was sanctioned in 2011. It is anticipated that Pre-lude will be the fi rst of several Shell FLNG units in the future through the master agreement with the Technip/Samsung Heavy Industries Consortium.During 2012, the world’s sec-ond FLNG was sanctioned by Petronas, based on the FEED developed by Technip using Air Products technology. While the Prelude topsides are primarily
engineered in Paris (France), the Petronas FLNG engineer-ing and project management directorate is led from Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) with some support from Paris. This ability to execute major projects in multiple centres is one of Technip’s great strengths, enabling it to cope with the demand for several complex developments concurrently. On these fi rst two projects, LNG is transferred from the FLNG vessel to the LNG carrier using articulated arms adapted for marine use. The carrier is moored side-by-side with the FLNG vessel, using the technol-ogy traditionally used for LNG transfer at onshore terminals
where the carrier is able to berth alongside a quay. How-ever, as future FLNG vessels are located in harsher environ-ments, berth availability, or the fraction of time when side-by-side offl oading can be done safely, will be reduced. For this reason, we can anticipate that Technip’s high amplitude sea state offl oading system based on cryogenic fl exible pipe will be eventually adopted.In 2013, Technip expects to fi nish the qualifi cation of an immersible fl exible LNG pipe that will allow tandem offl oad-ing (stern-to-bow), as is the norm for FPSO oil product transfers.
Technip: a leader in FLNG
For further information, please visit http://www.technip.com/en/our-business/offshore/fl ng or contact [email protected]
Perhaps the FLNG story best illustrates how new markets are captured. Vision, technological diversity and management support are Technip’ sources of differentiation.
Refi ners looking to improve operating performance, profi tabi-lity and on-stream reliability over a wide range of feedstocks continue to turn to the most successful technology alliance in the history of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) for assistance. Technip is a member of this alliance, through its 2012 acquisition of Stone & Webster process technologies.
In the 1980’s Total Petroleum, Stone & Webster, and IFP (now IFPEN) emerged as world leaders in FCC with the joint development of a unique, two-stage regeneration pro-cess for producing higher val-ued products from crude oil. This development occurred in response to a spike in crude oil prices, which generated interest in improving “bottom of the barrel” economics.
The story of how the three companies joined forces has many twists and turns and many contributors. It begins with Total’s North American operations, a group focused on improving the profi tability of their refi nery operations in Arkansas City, Kansas (US).
Initial improvement concepts were directed to an existing FCC unit in the refi nery. A team of four Total Petroleum technologists (Robert Dean, Jean-Louis Mauleon, Warren Letzsch and Robert Pfeiffer) developed a prototype design that was boldly implemented in this industrial unit in 1981. The design included a fi rst-of-its-kind feed injection system and a novel two-stage regeneration system with cold wall refractory design to simplify construction.
Other innovative approaches were applied to the grassroots resid FCC design at Total’s refi nery in Ardmore, Oklahoma a year later. Stone & Webster was the engineering contractor for both locations, and later purchased patent rights from Total to license the technology worldwide.
About the same time and using similar concepts, IFPEN and Total developed a resid FCC technology that included a two-stage regeneration design with one reactor and two regenerators. This unique, two-stage regeneration con-cept, referred to as “R2R” and now offered by two licensors, started getting the attention of refi ners around the world. Stone & Webster and IFPEN separately licensed grassroots units for companies such as BP, Shell, Sinopec and Idemitsu while also revamping existing non-resid FCC designs utilizing elements of the technology. The success of the process meant “the cat was out of the bag” as additional units were licensed by both companies through the early 1990’s. At that time, they agreed to join forces with Total to further develop and market the technology as alliance partners.
The Story of a New Fluid CatalyticCracking Technology
In 1993, an FCC alliance agreement was signed by this diverse, but complimentary, group of companies:
Total, the technology devel-oper and operator, focusing on safety, ease of operation, reliability and process economics
IFP, a fi rm with strong technology research and development capabilities utiliz-ing catalyst testing, pilot plants, and cold fl ow modeling
Stone & Webster, a licensing and engineering fi rm focused on providing safe, reliable and cost-effective plant designs and project execution.
Axens, an IFPEN subsidiary formed in 2001, joined the alliance to support basic engi-neering and licensing activities.
First RFCC unit for BP in Kwinana, Australia
FCC Alliance Marks 30th Anniversary
For further information, please visit http://www.technip.com/en/our-busi-ness/onshore/refi ning or contact [email protected]
“The alliance is unique in that the four parties co-own the technology. We are a part-nership of diverse cultures, and our success stems from mutual trust formed through a common goal to succeed. Of course, offering a world-class technology always helps!” explained Gary Jackson, VP of Refi ning Technology for Technip Stone & Webster Process Technology.
“This alliance gathers strong R&D capabilities, basic design and detailed engineering expertise and industrial opera-tion skills, a mixture suited to bring the best solutions quickly operational for the benefi t of refi nery and petrochemical company owners,” said Jean-Paul Gouzard, Axens EVP of Process Licensing.
“Multiply the potential of the Total R&D program as part of the alliance with our experience gained as fi rst adaptors and the result is key elements for the optimization of our FCC units,” adds Jean-Marc Sohier, Total’s VP Manufacturing, Methods & Performance.
In recent years, the alliance’s work has revolutionized the traditional fuels-based FCC pro-cess into petrochemical appli-cations, as worldwide product demand shifts from gasoline to olefi ns including propylene. An example is the next-generation High Severity FCC (HS-FCC)
technology developed by JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corpora-tion, Saudi Aramco, and Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. The developers selected the FCC alliance to promote and license HS-FCC, which features a down fl ow reaction system to maxi-mize propylene selectivity and utilizes catalyst regeneration and fl uidization/transfer tech-nology expertise developed by Technip and Axens.
During the process, heavy oil and catalyst are contacted in a down fl ow reactor at high temperature to crack the heavy oil. This breakthrough technol-ogy produces a higher yield of propylene and high-octane gasoline compared to a con-ventional FCC unit.
The alliance will update its licensees on the latest technol-ogy developments via its 10th FCC Forum scheduled for this spring in San Francisco, Califor-nia (US).
The agenda includes topics such as profi tability and mechanical reliability, industry changes stemming from shale oil and gas, and a glimpse of development efforts for the future. With San Francisco as the host city, the famous bridges in the Bay Area inspired an appropriate theme: Bridge to the Future.
‘‘We are a partnership of diverse cultures, and our success stems from mutual trust formed through a common goal to succeed.’’ Gary Jackson
While 20 years have passed since the contractual agree-ment was signed, the alliance partners are celebrating their 30-year business relationship that began in Kansas.
Today that relationship is highlighted by the achievement of being selected for more grassroots resid FCC units than any other licensor. During three decades, the alliance has pro-vided licenses for 55 grassroots FCC units totaling more than two million barrels per day of feedstock capacity. In addition, it has upgraded existing FCC units in more than 220 revamp projects including units origi-nally designed by every major licensor of FCC designs.
A 30-Year Business Relationship
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FCC alliance team leaders
WHAT IS FLUID
Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is a refi ning technology that enhances the produc-tion of gasoline. Since it fi rst emerged during World War II, FCC has evolved into a well-esta-blished conversion techno-logy that enables refi ners to optimize the refi ned product slate and maximize profi tabi-lity from a barrel of crude. In today’s modern refi nery, the FCC unit processes predominantly heavier feed-stock such as atmospheric residue to produce gasoline, and propylene, a feedstock for petrochemical plants.
Infl uence positive behavioursInspire others to be safeReduce the likelihood of accidentsPractice HSE excellenceBecome good role models
These are children of Technip employees in St John’s (Canada), learning their life lessons in the best place in the world. By combining a good attitude with the right equipment, they can enjoy playing hard and being safe at the same time. Just like their parents also know how to work hard and be safe. In this way they all get to go home to the people they love every day.