Documentaries for the classroomPresented by
The Montgomery County Intermediate unit
Presenter Michael C Whisted
The three steps to producing a video
Pre-productionProductionPost-productionPre-ProductionTeam AssignmentsStory Outlining / storyboardResearchArranging interviewsScouting locations
Post ProductionVideo captureVideo conversionVideo editingAudio editingPublicationRule of Thirds
When you look through your viewfinder to frame a scene, tryto visualize the grid and put the most important features on theintersections of the lines. In other words, the middle of the frameis not the most visually interesting. Newscasters, for instance, arealways framed in the center of the television screen for a stable butdull visual image. A more dynamic framing sets objects or peopleon the intersections of the grid lines,
Two basic concepts in good videography are headroom and nose room. Headroom refers to the amount of space above a subjectshead. The shot is visually distracting if the subject is either crammed against the top of the frame or placed too low in it, withtoo much space above his or her head. Try to position the subjects eyes on the top line of the rule of thirds grid.Head Room and Nose room
Nose room is also called look space, and it refers to composing a shot so that there is some space in front of the subjects nose.
Shooting Dos and Donts* Try not to move the camera too much.Footage is much more watchable when the camera is still and the subjects are moving. * Try not to zoom in and out.Zooming in and out renders the shots hard to watch and hard to edit. * Use a tripod or train your self to hold the camera still.
* If a person enters the view allow them to walk past rather then panning the camera.
* If a person is walking away from the camera allow them to get smaller rather then zooming in.Shots
Close-upA close-up positions a person or object as the most important element in the frame. A head-and-shoulders framing of one person is often used in documentary interviews. Close-ups of objects allow the audience to see them clearly without other visual distractions.Interviewing Check list* Always use a tripod, set camera at eye level.* Keep the subjects gaze consistent, looking at the interviewer is better than staring into the camera. * Position the camera and the subject so as to create a sense of depth.
Have Jackie and Karthick relocate11Interview Check listTake carful note of the background, remove distracting items or clutter.
A white or light background, such as a bright window, will turn the subject into a dark silhouette, because many cameras will set the exposure for the brightly lit scene outside the window and compensate by darkening what is in front of the window. Move your subject away from a window or other bright background.
(Unless you are interviewing someone in the witness protection program)LightingThe Broader the light source the softer the light
lessons shadowsReduces contrastSuppresses textureIncreases shadowsIncreases contrastShows textureLightingThe closer the light source the softer the light.The farther away the more harsh the light.
Diffusion scatters lightFewer shadows softer skin toneLightingKey LightEvery subject should have a key light
Back LightDistinguishes subject from back ground. Smaller than the Key Light
Fill LightsTheses lights remove shadows created by the Key light and back light.Questions Ask short, open-ended questions that require more than a yes or no answer. Rather than asking a recent immigrant, When did you first come to the United States? which would give you a brief answer such as 1998, you might ask, How did you decide to come here?
Allow the person to finish their answer and pause briefly between questions so that the interview is not rushed.
Remain silent when the person is speaking.
(Asking questions that start with How such as How did you come to be a member of . . . tend to work better than questions that start with Why such as Why did you become a member of . . . )
Use of a question board?
Always end by asking if they have anything to add.
Always record about thirty seconds of room tone to provide you with extra silent moments to match the ambient sound; this will allow for seamless editing. Every space, indoors or out, has its own audio characterroom tone is simply the sound of the room with no one talking. Youll use the matching room tone when editing so that we wont hear a disconcerting audio emptiness if you cut out a cough or other audio glitch.
Turn off T.V.s and radios anything recorded may be under copyright and not usable.
Take a moment and listen for detracting noises like traffic or people passing by, just closing a window or door can help.
If your outside and it is windy it will be pick up on the recording. Capturing Audio
Any Audio ConverterConverting an iPod file for your background music
1. Open Any Audio converter.2. Click on Add Media Files.3. Navigate to your iTunes folder.4. Select a song.
Select the format you want to convert to, MP3
Click the output folder and your converted files will be displayedCreating your own background music
Any Video Converterhttp://www.any-video-converter.com/products/for_video_free/
About MPEG File Formats
MPEG1 lossy compression is a data compression method which discards (loses) some of the data, in order to achieve its goal, with the result that decompressing the data yields content that is different from the original, though similar enough to be useful in some way.Generally used for the Internet and CDROM, providing picture quality comparable with VHS quality at quarter-screen frame size. MPEG2 Delivers higher quality video than MPEG1. A specific form of MPEG2 was chosen as the standard for compressing video for DVD video. MPEG4 MPEG-3 was launched as an effort to address the need of an HDTV standard while work on MPEG-2 was underway, but it was soon discovered that MPEG-2, at high data rates, would accommodate HDTV. Thus, in 1992 HDTV was included as a separate profile in the MPEG-2 standard and MPEG-3 was rolled into MPEG-2'Moving Picture Experts Group'Includes many of the features of MPEG1 and MPEG2, and adds support for interactivity. It offers better compression and reduces file size while maintaining the same perceptual quality level as MPEG2H.264 is used in such applications as Blu-ray Disc, videos from YouTube and the iTunes Store, DVB broadcast, direct-broadcast satellite television service, cable television services, and real-time videoconferencingMPEG4 part 10 (H.264)What happened to MPEG3?About Digital VideoImages are captured using CCD (Charged Coupled Device)Images captured with this device are recorded on tape , DVDs, or various types of digital cards.Consumer products have one CCDHigher grade professional series have 3CCDs each dedicated one of the three RGB colors.
Video StandardsNTSC National Television Standards Committee 29.97 fpsNorth America / Japan / PhilippinesPAL Phase Alternating Line 25fpsWestern Europe / Australia / SE Asia / South America
SECAM Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire 25fpsFrance / Russia / Africa
All 3 are interlaced horizontal lines are drawn in 2 passes Progressive scan displays are non interlaced 29Capturing Video Importing video directly from your camera is called capturing.First turn on your camera and connect to the computer using the USB 2.0 A to 5-Pin Mini B Cable.
USB 2.0 a to 5 pin mini b cablePlug the USB end into your computer, then plug the 5 pin mini male into the 5 pin mini female located on the camera. Capturing Video
If your Camcorder does not have a USB port than it will have a Fire wire port.Capturing Video If you have a Camcorder that records to an SD card or internal storage, connect using your USB cable shown in the previous slide.
From the Start menu select My Computer.Capturing Video
Your camera may appear as a removable hard drive or you may see a picture of a camera.
Double click to open the camera.
Double click on the Video folder.
There may be another sub folder, double click to open that as well.
These are your video files, each time you start and stop recording a new video file is created.Now just copy the files to a folder on your hard drive.Windows Movie MakerImporting Video
From the File menu select New Project.
Windows Movie MakerUnder Movie Task , Select Import Video.
The Import File window will open, use this to navigate to your video file.Windows Movie Maker
Your video will be imported to the Collection window as a series of Video clips.Windows Movie Maker
Drag the video clips to the bottom of the window where the Time line is located.Windows Movie MakerUsing Video Effects
Again under Movie Task / Edit Movie.Select View Video Effects.
To use a Video effect just drag it to the Time Line and drop it on the Video clip.Using Video Effects
To remove a video effect just right click on the icon in the lower left portion of the slide.Using Video Transitions
Again under Movie Task / Edit Movie.Select View Video Transitions.
To use a Transition just drag it to the Time Line and drop it between the Video clip.Titles and Credits
Again under Movie Task / Edit Movie.Select Make Titles and Credits.