Teaching Strategies: Activity-Based Learning Teaching strategies

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Activity-Based Learning Teaching Strategies

Text of Teaching Strategies: Activity-Based Learning Teaching strategies

Teaching Strategies:Activity-Based Teaching StrategiesCreated by: Dominique Lim YaezActivity-based Teaching Points toward the learners active learning role. nvolves strategies as: Cooperative learning Simulations and Games Case studies Problem-based learning Self-learning Modules (elements) Makes the learner do more than just listening and studying. Learners implicate creating and storing knowledge. Greater knowledge retention and high level performance.Cooperative Learning (CL) (Lindauer & Petrie, 1997) based on the principle that learners work with each other and are responsible for not only their own knowledge but as well as their group members.Types of Cooperative learning Formal Cooperative learning group Are more useful in academic setting rather than in-service or patient education situation (e.g., assigning groups of students to develop a proposal for a clinical research study). nformal Cooperative learning group Can be used in any setting (e.g., teaching about the childbirth experience to a group of parents-to-be).Types of Cooperative learning Base Cooperative learning group Could be applied easily to new staff orientation or teacher-ship programs (e.g., new registered nurses being oriented to a new HC facility). Summary of types of CL groups.Advantages of Cooperative Learning Group members learn to function as part of a team. Working in a group for any length of time can teach or enhance social skills. Cooperative learning groups can help to address individual learning needs and learning styles (Huff, 1997). Critical thinking is promoted (Zafuto, 1997).* There is really no disadvantage to CL.#esearch on CL Cooperative learning produces higher achievement levels than do individualistic or competitive learning approaches. Outcome measures of achievement are knowledge gain, retention of knowledge, problem-solving, reading, mathematics and procedural tasks, all of which show increases with CL. Other outcomes found are increased self-esteem, improved attitude toward learning, social competence, and decreased anxiety in learning.#esearch on CL Cooperative learning has been found to be a cost-effective strategy. Effectiveness of cooperative learning has been found in all age groups and levels of education, both sexes, all nationalities studied, and all economic groups. Effects have been equally good for learners at all ability levels. CL has a level of validity and generalizabilitybeyond that seen in most educational research. Why is CL so effective?Natasi and Clements (1991) suggests 3 reasons: To learn something is to try to teach it to someone else. As learners listen to each other, they work to make sense of what each is saying and then they build on these ideas, thus adding to their cognitive schemata. As learners within a group disagree with each other, they seek to reduce cognitive dissonance and, therefore, end up synthesizing divergent ideas.Simulations Are controlled representations of reality. Are exercises that learners engage in to learn about the real world without the risks of the real world.Simulations 4 types of simulations: Simulation exercises A controlled representation of a piece of reality that learners manipulate to better understand the corresponding real situation. Simulation game A game that represents real-life situations in which learners compete according to a set of rules in order to win or achieve an objective.Simulations #ole playing A form of drama in which learners spontaneously act out roles on an interaction involving problems or challenges in human relations. Case studies An analysis of an incident or situation in which characters and relationships are described, factual or hypothetical events transpire, and problems need to be resolved or solved.Simulation types continued....Facts about Simulations Simulations have been a teaching strategy for centuries. War games were used in ancient China and ndia and more recently in eighteenth-century Germany. Chess, a simulation game, is thought to have been developed around 800 B.C. Simulations more recent use in education began in the 1960s, when business, law, educational administration and medicine all began to use various simulation formats.Purpose and Uses of Simulations Simulation techniques can be used to achieve learning objectives. Simulation is also an avenue for attitude change. Decision-making can be fostered by simulation. Simulation strategies can be applied to the teaching of psychomotor skills. Simulations can be used to evaluate learning and competence.#ole of the Educator 3 facets: Planning Choosing or developing an appropriate simulation that will meet learning objectives.#ole of the Educator Facilitating Debriefing Should occur immediately following the simulation when everything's still fresh. Steps to debriefing: Briefly summarize what has taken place. Have the learners explain what they did and why. Point out how principles and concepts have been applied and how the experience ties into the learning objectives.Four Types of Simulation Simulation Exercise Simulation Games #ole-playing Case studiesFour Types of SimulationSimulation Exercise (SE) Focuses on process learning. Partakers of the simulation exercise learns how to make decisions or solve problem or apply theory. Examples of SE: Babic and Crangle (1987) Undergraduate students simulated the aging process in themselves by choosing a decrement associated with aging and simulating the resulting lifestyle for 24 hrs. Helmuth (1994) developed "mock convention, a simulation which is very involved and lengthy one in which students simulate a portion of a professional nursing organization convention, to aid NS to apply leadership skills.Four Types of SimulationSimulation Exercise (SE) Examples of SE: Lev (1998) Conducted an exercise in which nursing students, acting as if they were from a variety of community agencies, competed for community grant monies designed to assist chronically ill people across their lifespan (learned resource allocation). Wildman and #eeves (1997) Used a simulation technique to teach nursing students how to apply management theory to organizing the work of a hospital clinical unit.Four Types of SimulationSimulation Exercise (SE) Examples of SE designed to help learners apply and master psychomotor and clinical skills: Aronson and colleagues (1997) Arranged a lab simulation in dressing, V lines, and the like that simulated emergencies, complications and urgent scenarios that the students had to assess and to which they had to respond. Johnson and colleagues (1999) Described the use of live simulated patients as an adjunct to clinical teaching.Four Types of SimulationSimulation Exercise (SE) Examples of SE designed to help learners apply and master psychomotor and clinical skills: Eaves and Flagg (2001) U.S. Air Force members who developed an entire simulated hospital unit in which new graduates spent 4 hours providing care to 9 mannequins and 2 live actor patients (learning about delegation, decision making, and 15 psychomotor skills).Four Types of SimulationSimulation Games (SG) Focuses on either content or process learning. Content games focus on teaching or reinforcing factual information (e.g., crossword puzzles that aim to teach terminology or bingo games that reinforce previously learned facts). Process games are those that emphasize problem solving or application of information (e.g., SimCity).Four Types of SimulationSimulation Games (SG) Frame games Games that follow the format of established board games, television games, and word games (Bloom and Trice, 1994) because they provide a frame on which you can build new game applications. List of gamesAdvantages of SG t is fun!Disadvantages of SG Games considered by others not to be simulations are things like word games; thus, some educators feel those games are a waste of time. Games are unprofessional Disliking competition that games promote Time consuming to play Very labour intensive to developFactors to Consider in making a SG Validity of the games (Peter and colleagues, 1998) Careful planning (Greunding, Fenty& Hogan, 1991)Four Types of Simulation#ole-Playing (#P) A form of drama in which learners spontaneouslyact out roles in an interaction involving problems or challenges in human relations. Helpful to gain skill in interpersonal therapeutic relationships. Develop the quality of empathy.Four Types of Simulation#ole-Playing (#P) Examples of #P: "Land of Suria By Dahl (1984) simulation designed to give learners experience in communicating with people from culture previously unknown to them. Halloran and Dean (1994) Developed a role-playing simulation combined with a game format. Johnson (1997) Used role-playing to teach home care nurses to assess patients, communicate with families and professionals, and to fill out paperwork accurately.Four Types of SimulationCase Studies (CS) An analysis of an incident or situation in which characters and relationships are described, factual or hypothetical events, transpire, and problems need to be resolved or solved. Harvard Law School in the 1870's (Wade, 1999). 100 years before enjoyment.Four Types of SimulationCase Studies (CS) Steps to make a Case Study for a group of learners: Develop objectives. Select a situation. Develop the characters. Develop the discussion questions. Lead the group discussion.Problem-Based Learning (PBL) An approach to learning that involves confronting students with real-life problems that provide a stimulus for critical thinking and self-taught content. Based on a principle that students, working together in small groups, will analyze a case, identify their own needs for information, and then solve problems like those that occur in everyday life.Differences between PBL and Case Method: PBL, c