Teaching speaking

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  • 1. Teaching Speaking Chapter 17 Somayeh Bagheri Kangani

2. Are listening and speaking skills related to each other? Example: conversation In classroom there is interaction between listening and speaking Example: lectures, speeches, etc. Activation limbic system in speaking 1. Talk shows 2. Film shows 3. Watching movies 4. Listening to news 5. Choosing specific topic etc. 3. Oral communication skills in pedagogical research Types of spoken language Characteristics which makes speaking difficult Microskills of oral communication Types of classroom speaking performance Principles for designing speaking skills Teaching conversation Teaching pronunciation A model for correction of speech errors 4. Oral communication skills in pedagogical research 1. Conversational discourse Do you speak English? 2. Teaching pronunciation 3. Accuracy and fluency How can we organize the speaker goals of accurate and fluent language? Example: Playing tennis Message oriented (teaching language use) Language oriented (teaching language usage) supporting role 5. 4. Affective factors Anxiety afraid of speaking reactions of hearers you are what you speak (Language ego)learners are judged by hearers Teachers job 5. The interaction effect What to say? Or How to say? Or When to speak? David Nunan Interlocutor effect (leanerss performance related to the person he/she is talking with) Interlocutor: a person who is having conversation with others Example: For responding to a comment there are lots of possible sentences 6. Types of spoken language Intermediate levels students use conversation (dialogue) Later, they can have both interpersonal and transactional dialogue 7. Characteristics which make speaking difficult 1. Clustering grouping of number of similar words 2. Redundancy words, phrase that repeats something which is unnecessary 3. Reduced forms contractions, elision, reduce vowel 4. Performance variables process of thinking thinking time in English is not silent use fillers uh, um, well, you know, I mean, like It shows the difference between native and nonnative speakers 8. 5. Colloquial Language using informal styles learners are familiar with informal words idioms and phrases 6. Rate of delivery learners should have acceptable speed 7. Stress, rhythm and intonation different messages Example: You kill the man. 8. Interaction if there is no interlocutor learners lost their creativity in conversation 9. Microskills of oral communication The Focus is on both Forms and Functions of Language Example: Picture and its small parts Microskills 1. Produce chunks of language of different lengths 2. Orally produce differences among the English phonemes and allophonic variants. 3. Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonational contours. 4. Produce reduced forms of words and phrases. 5. Use an adequate number of lexical units (words) in order to accomplish pragmatic purposes. 6. Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery 7. Monitor your own oral production and use various strategic devices-pauses, fillers, self- corrections, backtracking- to enhance the clarity of the message. 8. Use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.), systems (e.g., tense, agreement, pluralization), word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms. 9. Produce speech in natural constituents-in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentences. 10. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms 10. 11. Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse 12. Accomplish appropriately communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals 13. Use appropriate registers, implicature, pragmatic conventions, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conventions. 14. Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification. 15. Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meanings. 16. Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you. 11. Types of classroom speaking performance 1. Imitative: human tape recorder The focus is on element of language form It is very limited portion of classroom speaking time Example: When learners practice an intonation contour or try to understand vowel sound Is drilling part of the communicative language classroom? focus on one element of lg offer limited practice through repetition Guidelines for successful drill: Keep them short Keep them simple Keep them snappy Make sure students know why they are going the drill Limit them to phonology or grammar points Make sure they ultimately lead to communicative goals Dont overuse them 12. 2. Intensive: Speaking performance t0 practice phonological or grammatical aspect of language It can be self-initiated or pair work activity 3. Responsive: Short replies to teacher or student initiated questions Example: T: How are you today? S: Pretty good, and you? S1: Did you do your homework last night? S2: No, I was busy. 13. 4. Transactional (dialogue) Exchanging some information T: What is the main idea in this essay? S: The United Nation should have more authority. T: More authority than what? S: Than it does right now T: What do you mean? S: Well, the UN should keep all kids safe during wars T: You dont think the UN try to do it know? S: Obviously not. Lots of kids still are going to be death. 14. For example: Rick: So, what did you do last weekend, Meg? Meg: Oh, I had a great time. I went to a karaoke bar and sang with some friends on Saturday. Rick: That sounds like fun. Did you go to Luckys? Meg: No, we didnt. We went to that new place downtown. How about you? Did you go anywhere? Rick: No, I didnt go anywhere all weekend. I just stayed home and studied for todays Spanish test. Meg: Our Spanish test is today? I forget all about that! Rick: Dont worry. You always got an A. 15. 5. Interpersonal (dialogue) Social relationship rather than information 1. A causal register 2. Colloquial language 3. Emotionally charged language 4. Slang 5. Ellipsis 6. Sarcasm 7. A covert agenda 16. 6. Extensive (monologue): Students at intermediate to advanced levels are called to give monologues in form of oral reports, summaries, short speeches 17. Principles for designing speaking techniques 1. Focus on both fluency and accuracy, depending on your objectives 2. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques 3. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts 4. Provide appropriate feedbacks and correction 5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening 6. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication 7. Encourage the development of speaking strategies Asking for clarification (What?) Asking someone to repeat something (Huh? Excuse me?) Using fillers (Uh, I mean, Well) in order to gain time to process Using conversation maintenance cues (Uh-huh, Right, Yeah, Okay, Hm) 18. Getting someones attention (Hey, Say, So) Using paraphrases for structures one cant produce Appealing for assistance from the interlocutor (to get a word or phrase, for example) Using formulaic expressions (at the survival stage) (How much does -------- cost? How do you get to the --------? Using mime and nonverbal expressions to convey meaning. 19. Teaching Conversation Two major approaches (Richards, 1990) indirect, direct Direct: Involves planning a conversation Indirect: engaging in meaningful tasks Example of task-based instruction: Willis (1996) framework Sample tasks that illustrate teaching various aspects of conversation 20. A. Conversation-indirect (strategy consciousness-raising) Adapted From Nolasco & Arthur (1987: 105-6) 21. B. Conversation-Direct (gambits) Adapted from Nolasco & Arthur 1987: 40-41 22. C. Conversation-Transactional (ordering from a catalog) From Brown, New Vistas 2, 1999: 131 23. From Brown, New Vistas 2, 1999: 132 24. D. Meaningful oral grammar practice (modal auxiliary would) Adapted from Nolasco & Arthur 1987: 45-46 25. E. Individual practice: using oral dialogue journals Students express themselves orally to practice speaking, get feedback from teacher F. Other interactive technique: Interviews, Guessing games, Jigsaw tasks, Ranking exercises, Discussions, Values clarification, Problem solving activities, Role play, Simulations 26. Teaching Pronunciation Views on teaching pronunciation: 1. 1970s 1. Experience a revolution of sorts, 2. pronunciation instruction became incidental 2. 1980s 1. Attention was on grammatical structures, 2. There was balance between fluency and accuracy, 3. Pronunciation was a key to gaining full communicative competence 3. Current approaches contrasts with early approaches 1. Top- down approach is taken in which the most relevant features of pronunciation; stress, rhythm and intonation are given high priority 27. Features of pronunciation Factors: 1. Native Language Most influent factor 2. Age 1. Children has a chance to speak like a native 2. Adults maintain a foreign accent 3. The younger the better is myth 3. Exposure If the class focus on pronunciation, attention and interest of leaners reaching goals 4. Innate phonetic ability manifest a phonetic coding ability 5. Identity and language ego importance of positive attitudes towards speakers of the lg 6. Motivation and concern for good pronunciation concerning about the pronunciation 28. Three techniques for teaching different aspects of English pronunciation A. Intonation-listening for pitch changes Adapted from Wong 1987: 61 29. B. Stress-contrasting Nouns Adapted from Nolasc