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Teaching Reading Welcome, students!

Teaching reading (1)

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  1. 1. Teaching Reading Welcome, students!
  2. 2. Five Components of Reading Instruction Phonological Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
  3. 3. Phonological Awareness Training Phonological awareness- manipulating and identifying parts of spoken language (i.e. words, syllables, onsets and rimes, and phonemes) Phonemic awareness- conscious awareness that spoken language is made up of individual sounds (i.e. phonemes)
  4. 4. Enhancing effectiveness Focus first on auditory features of words Move from explicit, natural segments of language to the more implicit and complex. Use of phonological properties and dimensions of words to enhance performance. Scaffold, blending and segmenting through explicit modeling. Integrate letter-sound correspondence once learners are proficient with auditory tasks.
  5. 5. Phonemic Awareness Activity
  6. 6. Phonics Introduce print (letters and words) paired with corresponding sounds Teaches students the alphabetic principle
  7. 7. Alphabetic Principle Letter-Sound Correspondence: Teacher points to letter /m/ on board. "The sound of this letter is /mmm/. Tell me the sound of this letter." Use consistent and brief wording Sounding Out Words: Teacher points to the word /mop/ on the board, touches under each sound as the students sound it out, and slashes finger under the word as students say it fast. "Sound it out." (/mmm o p/) "Say it fast." (mop) start by having students sound letters/words out in their heads, then as a class produce the word orally
  8. 8. Alphabetic Principle cont... Reading Connected Text: Once students have mastered CVC (mom) and VC (at) words, short controlled sentences (mom is at home) should be introduced. Prompts and procedures should be used for this, as it is sometimes difficult for students to move quickly from lists of words to passages.
  9. 9. Alphabetic Principal Activity
  10. 10. Fluency The ability to read quickly and accurately Covered in phonemic awareness, letter naming, sound-letter associations, sight words, and oral reading of connected text Fluency in: letter recognition --> letter sounds -->word recognition --> improved comprehension
  11. 11. Fluency, cont.. Letter-Sound Fluency: Given a set of letters, the student can produce the associated sound within one second. Target goal = 50 letter sounds per minute by mid first grade Irregular Word Fluency: Given a set of irregular words in a set or in a passage, can identify words in 1 second or less. Oral Reading Fluency: By the end of grade 2, students should read 90-100 words per minute fluently.It mirrors spoken language fluency
  12. 12. Even more about Fluency! Promotes memory and applications (generalization) Fluency in reading text is highly correlated to reading comprehension There are six stages of fluency and reading development: pre-reading, decoding, confirmation and fluency, reading to learn, reading for multiple viewpoints, and reading to construct new knowledge.
  13. 13. Fluency Activity
  14. 14. Vocabulary Words a person has learned and uses to communicate effectively Divided into Oral and Reading Most words are learned indirectly, but some need to be taught directly (i.e. difficult words that represent complex concepts) Students typically add 3,000 new words yearly after 3rd grade
  15. 15. A little about Direct Instruction specific word instruction and word learning strategies includes: teaching modeling, guided practice, and instructional feedback Specific word instruction Words prioritized into three categories: important words, difficult words, and useful words
  16. 16. Vocabulary Activity
  17. 17. Comprehension Ability to understand what is being read Reason for reading Requires purposeful and thoughtful interaction with text There are seven instructional strategies for comprehension that will be discussed on the next slide
  18. 18. Reading Comprehension Strategies Comprehension monitoring Cooperative learning Use of graphic and semantic organizers Question answering Generating questions Recognizing story starters Summarizing
  19. 19. Comprehension Activity
  20. 20. Six Core Developmental Reading Approaches Basal Reading Literature-Based Reading Whole Language Language Experience Phonics Linguistic: Word Families & Onset-Rime
  21. 21. Basal Reading Approach Commonly used as a core for teachers Begins with pre-primary readers and goes to eighth grade readers Examples in a series (workbooks, flash cards, skill packets, wall charts, related activities, placement and achievement tests, and computer software) Directed Reading Activity Procedure 1. Motivate the student to learn the material 2. Prepare the student by presenting to concepts and vocab 3. Guide the student in reading the story with asking questions that have a purpose or a goal. 4.Develop or strengthen skills relating to the material through drills or activities. 5. Assign work to apply the skills acquired during the lesson. 6.Evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson.
  22. 22. Literature-Based Reading Approach Teacher reading aloud to children Oral reading variation Shared reading Sustained silent reading Word recognition strategies Comprehension strategies
  23. 23. Whole Language Approach Uses students languages and Experiences Makes meaning out of what you read and express Students are taught to read for meaning not to break the code in reading. Curriculum is organized around themes and units to increase language and reading skills All language arts are related and should not be taught as if they were separate Not the best approach for those with learning problems but there are ways to adapt the approach.
  24. 24. Research has indicated that this approach may produce weaker effects with people with special needs. Modified version for those struggling in reading with more structure and practice. Language Experience Approach Integrates development of reading skills with, listening, speaking, and writing skills Based on students oral and written expression Similar to whole language: both emphasize the importance of literature, treat reading as a personal act, and advocate many books written by young children about their own lives. Different from whole language: Language experience says written language is secondary system taken from oral language and whole language sees them separately related.
  25. 25. Phonics Approach Teaches word recognition through learning the relation to the letters (graphemes), to the sounds (phonemes) they represent to teach reading. Most languages have consistent phoneme to grapheme correlation. Once a learner has learned the relationships of letters to sounds, they can pronounce printed words by blending the sounds together.
  26. 26. Guidelines for Teaching Phonics Use lowercase letters for beginning instruction. Introduce most useful skills first Introduce easy sounds and letters first Introduce new letter-sound associations at a reasonable pace. Introduce vowels early, but teach consonants first Emphasize the common sounds of letters first Teach continuous sounds prior to stop sounds Teach sound blending early Introduce consonant blends Introduce consonant digraphs Introduce regular words prior to irregular ones. Read connected text that reinforces phonics patterns.
  27. 27. Some commercial materials: Lets Read, Basic Reading, and Merrill Reading Program Linguistic Approach: Word Families & Onset-Rime Designed for students not succeeding with the basal approach. Words are taught in word families, around rimes & onsets Ex: Kindergarten rimes involving /a/ and onsets /c/,/b/,/h/ are added gradually to create a word family cat, bat, & hat word families grow as readers make progress. Alternative for young children struggling with phoneme-level segmentation and blending.
  28. 28. Reading Instructional Methods Multi-sensory Reading Method Oral Reading Fluency Methods Peer-Assisted Reading Method Keyword Method Reciprocal Teaching Mapping Strategies High Interest-Low Vocabulary Method Life Skills Reading
  29. 29. Multi-sensory Reading Method "Some students learn best when content is presented in several modalities." This is frequently kinesthetic and tactile stimulation along with the traditional visual and auditory experience. These are often called VAKT (visual-auditory-kinesthetic-tactile).
  30. 30. Oral Reading Fluency Methods 1. Select an age appropriate book or story. 2. Introduce the book or story to student and review potentially new and difficult words. 3. Read the story to the student. 4. Have two students paired together taking turns reading the book or story. 5. Have students review difficult words. 6. Use a fluency measure to monitor the progress of each student frequently. This method uses neurological impress method through repeated readings.
  31. 31. Peer-Assisted ReadingMethod Studentsarepairedwithonelowachievingreaderand onehighachievingreaderandthereadingmaterial shouldbeatthelowerlevel. Peer-assistedreadingisespeciallyforEnglishLanguage Learners,studentsfromlowsocioeconomicbackgrounds, learningdisabilities,emotionaldisabilities,andmental disabilities.
  32. 32. KeywordMethod Thismethodreliesonmemorizationbasedonvisual imagery: 1. Recoding:changingthevocabularywordintoa keywordthatgoeswithavisualimage(ex.apefor apex). 2. Relating:integratingthekeywordwiththedefinition(ex. apesittingatthehighestpoint[apex]ofarock) 3. Retrieving:recallingthedefinitionbythinkingofthe keywordandthepicture.
  33. 33. ReciprocalTeaching Thismethodisaninteractiveteachingstrategythat promotestextcomprehension: 1. Predicting:drawinginferencesfromcluesinthetextor priorknowledge. 2. Questiongenerating:mainideaquestionsaboutthe texttolearntoidentifyinformation. 3. Summarizing:differentwaystoexplorethetext(ie. creatingtopicsentences,listcontent,anddiscard unimpportantorrepeatedinformation. 4. Clarifying:consideringwhyatextwasdifficultand teachingrereadingasastrategy.
  34. 34. MappingStrategies Thisisaschema-buildingtechniqueusinga pictorialstoryboardmapforagraphicorganized. Studentsfillinthemapastheyread,including thingslike:setting,problem,goal,action,and outcome.
  35. 35. HighInterest-Low VocabularyMethod Thesereadersofferolderstudentsmoreengaging storieswhilekeepingarelativelyeasyvocabulary. Theseincludemysteries,sports,adventure, scienceandclassicliteratureandarepublishedby avarietyofdistributers.
  36. 36. LifeSkillsReading Lifeskillsreadingfocusesonwordsandphrasesthat studentsmustknowtofunctionwhileshopping, employed,enjoyingrecreationandathome. Examples:danger,men,woman,restroom,up,down, exit,telephone,poison,police,firstaid,stop,walk,do notenteretc.
  37. 37. DrillandPracticeActivities Pre-readingActivities: o ConceptsaboutPrint o PhonologicalAwareness Word-AttackActivities FluencyActivities VocabularyActivities ComprehensionActivities
  38. 38. ComputerSoftwareProgramsfor Reading Let'sGoRead o Incorporatesphonicsandwholelanguage(PreK-FirstGrade) MyReadingCoach o Phonemicawareness,phonicssounds/rules,vocabulary,syntactic processing,readingcomprehension(6yrsandup) ReadingBlaster o (4-6,5-7,6-8,9-12yrs) WorkingPhonics o 84phonicsactivities,900basicreadingwords,400sightwords(K-8th grade)
  39. 39. DesigningaReadingProgram Useeffectiveteachingprinciples Providepre-readingexperiences Considerthenatureofreading development Provideexplicitandimplicitreading instruction
  40. 40. Let's play fun games! WOOOO!