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658 TEACHING INSTITUTIONS IN DENTISTRY.
cloak-room and lavatories, is placed in the mezzanine imme-diately below the conservation (filling) room, and provisionis made in the basement for cvcles. The whole of thebuilding is heated by hot-water-pipes and radiators, andspecially ventilated and lighted throughout by electricity.The laboratory is in charge of a skilled dental mechanicunder the supervision of the Warden, and students are
able to undertake at the hospital the whole of their trainingin Mechanical Dentistry. The times of the lectures at theUniversity are arranged to meet the convenience of students,thus allowing the maximum time for attendance upon DentalHospital practice. The staff of the hospital includes 12honorary Dental Surgeons, a Demonstrator, six Anxsthetists,two House Surgeons, and a Curator. Fees : The compositionfees are as follows : Diploma course (L.D.S.): Compositionfee £ 58 10s., for diploma course of other licensing bodies61 10., payable in two equal instalments, the first on entry,the second 12 months later. Two years’ instruction inMechanical Dentistry (pupilage) and two years’ Dental
Hospital Practice (combined) .6100. Degree course (B.D.S.) :Z67 10s. for all lectures (including Chemistry, Physics, andZoology) in three instalments. Two years’ dental hospital,- R21; general hospital practice, .B1O 10s. ; three years’mechanical instruction (pupilage), .f.105. Further in-formation may be had from the Warden, Mr. W. H.’Gilmour.
Urcvers2ty of 1llaehestar.-In the University of Man-chester the Dental Department forms an integral part of theFaculty of Medicine. This contains a series of laboratories,lecture rooms, and museums which will bear comparisonwith those of any other school in the kingdom, and the fullestopportunities for study are offered to students preparing forany of the professional examinations. Instruction adaptedto the requirements of students preparing for the B.D.S.Degree and the Dental Diplomas of the University, the RoyalCollege of Surgeons of England, and of other licensingbodies is given during the Winter and Summer Sessions bothat the University and at the Dental Hospital of Manchesterin Oxford-street. The required general hospital practice is’taken at the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Women students-are admitted to the classes in the Dental Department, and forthem a separate laboratory for Practical Anatomy andcommon rooms are provided. The composition fee forcandidates for the University degree of Bachelor ofDental Surgery is 60 guineas, payable in two equalinstalments at the beginning of the first and thirdyears of studentship. The composition fee for candidatesfor the University Diploma in Dentistry is 55 guineas,payable in two equal instalments at the beginning ofthe first and third years of studentship. The composi- ’,tion fee for candidates for the L.D.S. of England is 60 Iguineas, payable in two equal instalments at the beginningof the first and third years of studentship. Students whohave already served their apprenticeship with a privatepractitioner, and who propose to complete the final portion oftheir attendance at the University and at an approved dentalhospital, will be required to pay the composition fee in twoequal instalments at the commencement of the first andsecond years of studentship. The payment of any of theabove composition fees will entitle the student to attend allthe classes in the following list which are required for theirrespective examinations. The composition fee does notinclude the hospital fees, the examination fees, the fee forthe conferment of the degree or the diploma, the registrationfee, nor the fees for chemicals and chemical apparatus(1 1.).National University of Ireland.-This University grants
the degrees of Bachelor of Dental Surgery and a degreeof Master of Dental Surgery. A student may not beadmitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Dental Surgeryunless a period of not less than four years shall have elapsedfrom the date of his matriculation, during which period hemust have pursued an approved course of study of not lessthan nine terms. For the degree of Bachelor of DentalSurgery candidates must pass four examinations, the firsttwo being the same as those for the first and secondexamination in Medicine. The subjects of the third examina-tion are Dental and Practical Pathology, Dental Surgery,and Dental Medicine, the subjects of the fourth being’Dental Surgery and Pathology, Dental Mechanics, OperativeDentistry, Orthodontia, and Dental Materia Medica. Acandidate for the degree of B.D.S. must produce evidenceof apprenticeship to a registered dentist for a period of two- years. A portion of or the entire period may be served
before commencing study for the degree of B.D.S., but noportion so taken prior to commencement of study shallcount as part of the four yjars of Dental Study. The degreeof Master of Dental Surgery will not be granted until threeyears after the B.D.S. has been obtained.
TEACHING INSTITUTIONS IN DENTISTRY.
See also under Universities of Birmingham, Leeds, Liver-pool, and Manchester above.
Royal Dental Hospital of London, School of DentalSurgery, Leiaester-sq1lare.-A school of the University ofLondon.-The school provides the special dental edu-cation required by the Royal College of Surgeons forthe Licence in Dental Surgery. The general part of thecurriculum may be taken at any general hospital. The
hospital is open from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M., there beingone staff for the morning and another for the after-noon of each day. Pupils are received for the trainingin dental mechanics recognised by the curriculum. Thedemonstrators at the commencement of each sessiongive a course of lectures on Operative Dental Surgery.The five house surgeoncies are held for six monthseach and are open to all qualified students. The lecturers,in addition to their lectures, give special demonstrationson the Microscopy of Dental Anatomy and DentalSurgery. The lecturer on Dental Mechanics also givespractical demonstrations in the laboratory. There are
two Entrance Scholarships in Chemistry and Physics ofthe value of .650 and .625 respectively. One Entrance
Scholarship in Dental Mechanics and Metallurgy valueR25, open to pupils of the Hospital only. One EntranceScholarship of <E25 in Dental Mechanics, open to pupilsof private practitioners. The Saunders Scholarship of20 awarded to second year students. The Storer BennettResearch Scholarship for Scientific Research in any branchof Dental Surgery, value .650, is awarded triennially. TheAlfred Woodhouse Scholarship of .S35 and the RobertWoodhouse Prize of B10 for Practical Dental Surgery.Prizes and certificates are awarded by the lecturers forthe best examinations in the subjects of their respectivecourses, at the end of the summer and winter sessions.
Consulting Physician: Sir Richard Douglas Powell, Bart.Consulting Dental Surgeons: Mr. T. Arnold Rogers, Mr.Morton Smale, and Mr. C. S. Tomes. F.R.S. Dental
Surgeons: Mr. J. F. Colyer, Mr. W. H. Dolamore, Mr.Mr. J. G. Turner, Mr. N. G. Bennett, Mr. D. P. Gabell,Mr. A. Hopewell Smith, and Mr. H. Austen. Assistant DentalSurgeons: Mr. R. McKay, Mr. W. W. James, Mr. F. Cole-man, and Mr. Landon Whitehouse. Anaesthetists : Dr. DudleyBuxton, Dr. R. J. Probyn-Williams, and Mr. H. Hilliard.Demonstrators: Mr. A. T. Pitts, Mr. L. A. Harwood, Mr.R. M. Fickling, Mr. W. D. Southern, Mr. J. F. Gow, andMr. G. J. Harborow. Lecturers :-Dental Anatomy andPhysiology (Human and Comparative): Mr. A. HopewellSmith. Dental Surgery and Pathology : Mr. J. G. Turner.Operative Dental Surgery: Mr. W. H. Dolamore. DentalMechanics : Mr. D. P. Gabell. Metallurgy in its applica-tion to Dental Purposes : Mr. P. Ellis Richards. DentalBacteriology : Mr. Hamilton Tebbutt. Dental MateriaMedica: Mr. H. A. Austen. Chemistry : Mr. P. EllisRichards. Physics : Mr. John C. Carpenter. Anaesthetics:Dr. Dudley Buxton. During the sessions the surgeons ofthe day will give demonstrations at stated hours. Thehouse surgeons attend daily while the hospital is open. Fee
for two years’ hospital practice required by the curriculum,including lectures, E53 3s. in one payment, or E55 13s. in
two yearly instalments. The curriculum requires two yearsto be passed at a General Hospital ; the fee for this isabout 60. Both hospitals can be attended simultaneously.For the lectures in Chemistry and Physics for the Pre-liminary Science Examination 10 10s. The fee for theinstruction in Dental Mechanics and the two years’ hospitalpractice required by the curriculum is L150 if paid in oneinstalment, or 150 guineas if paid in three equal instal-ments. The fee for tuition in Dental Mechanics is 50 guineasper annum ; for one year’s hospital practice .f.21. The Deanattends at the hospital every Thursday morning from 9.45 to11 o’clock, or he can be seen at other times by appointment.Letters to be addressed-The Dean, 32, Leicester-square.The Winter Session opens on Oct. lst.
659TEACHING INSTITUTIONS IN DENTISTRY.
National Dental Hospital and College.-Corner ofGreat Portland and Devonshire-streets, W.-ConsultingSurgeon : Sir Victor Horsley. Consulting Dental Surgeon :Mr. Sidney Spokes. Visiting Physician : Dr. James Maughan.Visiting Surgeon : Mr. E. W. Roughton. Dental Surgeons :Mr. K. W. Goadby, Mr. H. R. Pring, Mr. A. E. Relph, Mr.H. Creemer Cooper, Mr. H. W. Turner, and Mr. E. C.
Sprawson. Assistant Dental Surgeons : Mr. F. St. J.Steadman and Mr. F. R. Smyth. Assistant Dental Sur-
geon for Radiology : Mr. C. A. Clark. Anaesthetists: Mr.H. P. Noble, Mr. C. J. Ogle, Mr. Vivian B. Orr,Dr. J. Maughan, Mr. P. H. Parsons, and Mr. R. E.Delbruck. Lecturers :-Dental Anatomy and Physiology :Dr. J. W. Pare, Tuesdays and Thursdays, 5 P.M., in
October, November, and December. Dental Metallurgy :Tuesdays, 5 P.M., in January, February, and March, andMay, June, and July. Dental Mechanics: Mr. S. HollowayOlver, Wednesdays, 5.30 P.M., in May, June, and July,and October, November, and December. Dental MateriaMedica: Mr. F. R. Smyth, Tuesdays, 6 P.M., October,November, and December. Dental Surgery and Patho-
logy : Mr. H. J. Relph, Thursdays, 5 P.m., duringJanuary, February, and March. Bacteriology of the Mouth :Mr. K. W. Goad by, Tuesdays, 4 P.M., during May,June, and July. Practical courses to comply with theR.C.S. curriculum are also held. The hospital is lightedthroughout by electricity and warmed and ventilatedby approved methods. Clinical Lectures and Demonstra-tions are given from time to time, and each studenton entering passes through a preliminary course under ademonstrator. The stopping rooms have accommodationfor 50 chairs. Dresserships in the extraction and stop-ping rooms are re-arranged every three months. TwoEntrance Exhibitions, of the value of 40 and 20,are open for competition. Prizes are open for competitionat the end of each course of lectures. Certificates of honourare also open in each class. The Rymer Medal for GeneralProficiency, value 5, is awarded annually to the mostmeritorious student ; and the Ash Prize, value 3 3s., fora Thesis on a subject in Dental Surgery. Total fee for theLectures and Hospital Practice required is 100. For
qualified medical men a composition fee covering the twoyears’ mechanical pupilage and the two years’ dentalhospital practice required by the Royal College of Surgeons,.6120. Single Courses : Dental Anatomy and Physiology,Dental Surgery and Pathology, Dental Mechanics, DentalMetallurgy, Bacteriology of the Mouth, Dental MateriaMedica, Demonstration of Dental Mechanics, E5 5s. each.Hospital Practice to registered practitioners by special per-mission of Committee, 12 months, f.15 15s. Information
respecting the Hospital Practice and the College may beobtained from the Dean, Mr. Sidney Spokes, who attendsat the Hospital, Great Portland-street, on Tuesdaymornings.6’M Hospital.-The work of the Dental Department
begins daily at 9 A.M. both in the extraction rooms and inthe conservation room. The Extraction Room A newDental Out-patient Department has been provided. Thereis ample accommodation for ordinary extractions and anses-thetic extractions, together with waiting- and retiring-rooms.Patients are admitted between 8.45 and 9.30 A.M., and areseen by the dental surgeon for the day, the dental housesurgeon, the assistant dental house surgeon, and the dressers.Such patients as are suitable for conservative treatmentare transferred to the conservation room, taking with thema chart to indicate the treatment required. The eConserwtion Room: This room is open from 9 A.M. till5 P.M. It has been entirely remodelled during the pastyear and generally enlarged, giving a floor space of6000 square feet. It affords accommodation for upwards of100 dental chairs, with the necessary equipment of themost modern type, for the use of the Dressers, who,under the supervision of the Staff, perform thevarious operations of Dental Surgery. The membersof the staff attend every morning and afternoon to givedemonstrations and otherwise assist students in their workin the Conservation Room and Mechanical Laboratory. TheProbationers’ Laboratory is supervised by two of the staffdemonstrators, and instruction is given in operative dentistryon a " mannikin" " to students during their first three months ofstudy. Pupils in Dental Mechanics are received, and a graded,systematic, and full course of instruction, extending overtwo years, is carried out. The control and supervision of thePupils’ Laboratory is in the hands of the following staff
The Demonstrator of Dental Mechanics, Two Staff Demon--strators of Prosthetic Dentistry, Two Skilled Mechanics andtheir Assistants. Dental students have the opportunity ofattending at this hospital the whole course of instructionrequired by the examining board for the L.D.S. Eng., viz.,two years’ pupilage in dental mechanics, the special lecturesand practice of the Dental Department and the general lectures -and practice of the Medical School. The fees for these twocourses may be paid separately or together, or they may becombined with the fees required to be paid for the cour: e.for a medical diploma. Students who enter for a medical aswell as a dental diploma are allowed to pursue their studyof Dentistry during any period of their medical course
most convenient to themselves without further charge. FourEntrance Scholarships in Dental Mechanics of the value of20 each are offered for competition annually, two inSeptember and two in April, and prizes of the aggregatevalue of C47 are awarded for general proficiency and forskill in Practical Dentistry. A Dental Travelling Scholar-ship of the value of E100 is awarded every second year.The next award will be made in 1913. Dental students areeligible for admission to the Residential College and enjoythe privileges of students in the Medical School.
Staff.-Consulting Dental Surgeons : Mr. F. Newland-Pedley and Mr. W. A. Maggs. Dental Surgeons : Mr. Wynne-Rouw, Mr. H. L. Pillin, Mr. M. F. Hopson, and Mr.J. B. Parfitt. Assistant Dental Surgeons: Mr. J. L.
Payne, Mr. E. B. Dowsett, Mr. J. F. Pearce, and Mr.H. P. Aubrey. Demonstrators of Practical Dentistry:Mr. H. C. Malleson, Mr. F. N. Doubleday, Mr. C. A.
Hodgson, Mr. W. H. Wotton, Mr. F. B. Bull, and Mr. W. L.Stranach. Demonstrators of Prosthetic Dentistry : Mr.E. A. Tomes and Mr. H. D. Shore. Anaesthetists: Dr. H. F.Lancaster, Mr. C. J. Ogle, Dr. F. E. Shipway, Mr. H. M.Page, H. Gardiner, M.B., B.S., G. T. Mullally, M.B., B S.-Lecturers :-Dental’Anatomy and Physiology : Mr. Hop, on.Dental Surgery and Pathology: Mr. Wynne Rouw. Opera-tive Dental Surgery: Mr. Parfitt. Dental Mechanics : Mr.Payne. Practical Dental Mechanics: Mr. Pillin. DentalMateria Medica : Dr. A. P. Beddard. Dental Bacteriology > -Dr. Eyre. Dental Microscopy: Mr. Dowsett and Dr.Kennaway. Metallurgy : Dr. J. Wade. Practical Dental
Metallurgy: Mr. Pearce. Curator of Dental Museum: Mr.Dowsett. For Lecturers on the general subjects of DentalCurriculum vide Guy’s Medical School. Dean : Dr. Cameron.London Hospital.-This school is a part of the London
Hospital and Medical College, and is fully equipped on themost modern lines and with the latest appliances. It
provides a complete curriculum in all subjects for the L.D.S.and is admirably adapted for the purpose of teaching. TheConservation Room is well lighted and ventilated and fittedwith pump chairs of the latest pattern ; the fountain spittoonat every chair has been specially designed and has attachedto it a saliva ejector, hot and cold water, compressed air,gas and electric current, also a swing bracket to carry thestudents’ cabinet fitted to comply with modern asepticprinciples. Electric sterilisers are supplied in each depart-ment and motor engines where required. The Schoolpossesses in addition to the Theatres, Laboratories andMuseums of the College, a special Museum of DertalAnatomy and Surgery, Operative Dentistry, Prosthetic andExtraction Rooms, and Laboratories for Practical DentalMetallurgy and Dental Prosthesis. A systematic course ofinstruction in Dental Prosthesis is arranged for pupils. The
up-to-date Laboratory contains every modern apparatus andis in charge of a skilled curator and his assistants. Con-nected with the Medical College and Dental School are aLibrary, Athenaeum, Clubs’ Union, Dining Hall withmoderate tariff, Students’ Hostel, and an Athletic Ground.Lecturers :-Chemistry and Dental Metallurgy : Hugh.Candy, B.A., B.Sc. Physics: A. H. Fison, D.Sc. HumanAnatomy : Professor William Wright, M.B., D.Sc., F.R.C.S.Physiology: Professor Leonard Hill, M.B., F.R S. Dental
Surgery and Pathology: F. M. Farmer. L.D.S. OperativeDental Surgery: George Northcroft, L.D.S., D.D.S.Penn. Dental Prosthesis : Wilton Thew, L.D.S. OperativeDental Prosthesis: G. Paton Pollitt, L.D.S., D.D.S. Penn.Odonto-phosopic Orthopaedics: Harold Chapman, L.D.S.,D.D.S. Penn. Dental Anatomy: Professor William Wright,M.B., D.S.C., F.R.C.S. Dental Microscopy : Evelyn Spraw-son, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., L.D.S. Dental Bacteriology:Professor William Bulloch, M.D., C.M. Dental MateriaMedica: Otto Grunbaum, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.C.P. Dental’Anesthetics: R. J. Probyn-Williams, M.D. For full
660 ANCILLARY SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS.
particulars as to fees and course of study advised applyto the Dean (Professor William Wright, M.B., D.Sc.,F.R.C.S.), who will be glad to make arrangements foranyone wishing to see over the Dental School and MedicalCollege.
PROVINCIAL.Devon and Exeter Dental Hospital, 24, So?itAernAay, West,
Exeter.-Established 1880.-The hospital is open daily(Sundays excepted) and patients are admitted between thehours of 9 and 11 A.M. Students attending the practice ofthe hospital must consider themselves strictly under thecontrol of the medical officers and must not undertake anyoperation without the consent of the dental surgeon for theday. Hon. treasurer, Mr. J. M, Ackland; secretary, Mr.W. Alfred Hooker. -
SCOTLAND.The Incorporated Edinburgh Dental Hospital and Sc7tool.-
The Edinburgh Dental Hospital and School is located ina spacious and well-equipped building at 31, Chambers-street and offers special advantages to dental students.The General Courses required for the Dental Diplomamay be taken in the Medical School of the RoyalColleges of Physicians and Surgeons or in the Universityschools. The hospital attendance and clinical instructionare taken at the Royal Infirmary. The University, MedicalSchools, and Royal Infirmary are within three minutes’walk of the Dental Hospital. The special courses are takenin the hospital. The Dental Hospital practice, extendingover two years, affords a student ample opportunity fora full acquaintance with every branch of dentistry. The
hospital admits a limited number of indentured pupils. Theyreceive their instruction in Mechanical Dentistry concurrentlywith the general and special courses. A premium of 60guineas is payable with each such pupil. The practice andlectures of the hospital are recognised by, and qualify for,all the Licensing Boards. For the special classes, boththeoretical and practical, required by dental students thedirectors have secured the services of an efficient staff ofdental officers and lecturers. There will also be a course ofdemonstrations in Mechanical Dentistry. Students willreceive instruction in Practical Dental Mechanics under themechanician. The cost of the hospital outfit of instrumentsis included in the Dental Hospital fee of .f.31 10s. Theminimum cost of classes and Diploma for the whole courseof dental instruction amounts to 90 7s. Those studentswho desire to take a Medical and Surgical Diplomain addition to the L.D.S. have in this school admirablefacilities for so doing. The triple qualification of theRoyal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Edinburghand the Royal Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgowis recommended. The minimum cost of the ProfessionalEducation Triple Qualification and Licence in Dental
Surgery amounts to f.169 7s. The mechanical depart-ment is large and airy and furnished with all moderntools and appliances. The Museum is open to students for
study. Further particulars can be obtained from the Dean,Mr. W. Guy.
Ineopporateti Glasgow Dental Hospital and School,158, Remfrew-street and 15, Dalhousie-street, Cfczraet7ailZ,Glasgow.-The winter session will begin in October andthe lectures will be delivered as follows. In DentalMechanics on Tuesday and Thursday at 7 P.M., by Dr. HughMcKay, and in Dental Metallurgy on Monday and Wednesdayat 7, by Mr. W. Bruce Hepburn, L.D.S. Fee for each ofthe above courses of lectures, 3 3s. Lectures will alsobe delivered on the following subjects: Dental Surgeryand Pathology, by Mr. J. Mason Noble ; Dental
Anatomy and Physiology, by Dr. W. Wallace; Dental
Bacteriology, by Mr. J. F. Webster ; Anaesthetics, byDr. R. Home Henderson; Operative Technique, by Mr.Adam Cubie. The lectures and instruction at the
Glasgow Dental Hospital and School are recognised byall the licensing bodies in the United Kingdom. Thefees for two years’ hospital practice are .f.15 15s. In-
tending students before commencing to attend the lecturesor hospital practice must produee evidence of havingpassed the preliminary examination prescribed by the
regulations of the General Medical Council for registrationof dental students. The hospital is opened daily from5 to 7 P.M. (Saturdays excepted). Students may only enrolduring the months of April or October. Summer session
begins in April. Winter session begins in October.
Glasgow Royal Infirmary (Dental Department).-Mr.W. Taylor attends at the Royal Infirmary at 3.30 P.M.
on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and gives a
course of instruction in Dental Surgery on these days.The following course in the curriculum can be taken atSt. Mungo’s College: Anatomy, six months; PracticalAnatomy, nine months ; Physiology, six months ; Chemistry,six months; Practical Chemistry with Metallurgy, threemonths ; Surgery, six months; Medicine, six months; MateriaMedica. three months; Clinical Surgery, six months ; DentalSurgery, six months, and attendance for two years on thedental department of the hospital. The attendance on theDental Clinic is free to students of the hospital.
ANCILLARY SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS.
IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,London (including as integral parts the ROYAL COLLEGE OFSCIED1CES, the ROYAL SCHOOL OF MINES, and the CITY ANDGUILDS COLLEGE).-Mechanics and Mathematics: ProfessorJ. Perry, F.R.S., Mr. J. Harrison, M.I.M.E., Mr. A. R.Richardson, B.Sc., and Mr. H. Klugh, B.A. Biology:(Zoology) Professor A. Sedgwick, F.R.S., Professor J. B.Farmer, M.A., F.R.S. (Botany), Professor V. H. Blackman,M.A., Sc. D. (Plant Physiology and Pathology), ProfessorPercy Groom, M.A.. D.Sc. (Technology of Woods andFibres). Chemistry (including Fuel and Refractory Materialsand Chemical Engineering) : Professor H. Brereton Baker,F.R.S., Professor H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S., Professor W. A.Bone, F.R.S., Dr. M. 0. Forster, F.R.S., and Dr. J. C.
Philip, M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc. Physics: Professors H. L.Callendar, F.R.S., and the Honourable R. J. Strutt, F.R.S.Dr. W. Watson, F.R.S., Mr. A. Fowler, F.R.S., and Dr.S. W. J. Smith. Geology : Professor W. W. Watts, F.R.S.,and Dr. Cullis. Metallurgy: Professor W. A. Carlyle,B.A. Sc., Ma.E., A.R.S.M., M.I.M.M. Mr. W. H. Merrett,A.R.S.M., F.I.C., M.I.M.M. Mining : Professor W.Frecheville, A.R.S.M., M.I.M.M. Mr. L. H. Cooke, A.R.S.M.,M.I.M.M. Civil and Mechanical Engineering: ProfessorW. E. Dalby, M.A. Electrical Engineering: Professor T.Mather, F.R.S. Mr. G. W. 0. Howe, Wh.Sc., M.Sc. The
College reopens on Tuesday, Oct. lst, 1912. Communicationsshould be addressed to the Secretary, Imperial College,South Kensington, S.W.
ELECTRICAL STANDARDIZING, TESTING, AND TRAININGINSTITUTio,,;, Faraday House, 62-70, Southampton-row, W.C.principal, Alexander Russell, M.A. Cantab, D.Sc. Glasg.,M.LE.E. Instructor in Electrical Machine Design: F. T.Chapman, B.Sc., A.M.Inst.C.E. Instructor in Chemistry:J. Thomas, B.Sc. Lond. Instructor in Mechanical Engi-neering : Walter H. Bell, A.M.Inst.C.E. This institution
provides a complete education in mechanical and electricalengineering, including a practical training in works andfactories associated with the College for the purpose. Thefull diploma course occupies four years, but special coursescan be arranged. There are Entrance Scholarships of the valueof 150 and 100 guineas. Particulars may be obtained on
application to the Secretary, Faraday House, Southampton-row, W.C.
SCHOOL OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREATBRITAIN.-In order to qualify as a pharmacist in GreatBritain it is necessary to be 21 years of age, to have passedan approved preliminary examination, to have been for threeyears practically engaged in the translation and dispensingof prescriptions, and to have passed the minor examinationof the Pharmaceutical Society. The subjects which mustb.e included in the approved preliminary examination areEnglish, Latin, a modern foreign language, arithmetic,algebra, and Euclid. No certificate can be accepted unlessit has been granted for the whole of these subjects. Tobecome eligible to enter for the minor examination the can-didate must be registered as an I apprentice or student,"and such registration may be secured through the Registrarof the Pharmaceutical Society, to whom a certificate ofthe preliminary examination must be sent. The subjects ofthe minor examinations are botany, chemistry and physics,practical chemistry, materia medica, pharmacy, practicalpharmacy and dispensing, and prescription reading. Thefee for the examination is 10 guineas, but a candidate whohas attended and failed to pass may re-enter for the exami-nation on payment of a reduced fee of 3 guineas. Personswho pass this examination are registered as chemists anddruggists. The advanced or major examination entitlesthose who pass it to registration as " pharmaceutical
661THE BRITISH MEDICAL MAN ABROAD.
chemists." The subjects of the examination are botany,chemistry and physics, practical chemistry, and materiamedica, and the entrance fee is 3 guineas. Lecturers.-
Chemistry and Physics: Professor Arthur W. Crossley,F.R.S. Botany : Mr. C. H. Warner, B.Sc. Pharmaceutics:Professor Greenish. The session commences on Wednesday,Oct. 2nd, on which day the inaugural address will bedelivered. Medical students, or pupils intending to enterthe medical profession, are admitted to the lectures and
laboratory work in any or all the courses. Certificates ofinstruction in this school are received by the Conjoint Boardof the Royal Colleges. Application for admission to theschool, or for further information, may be made to theDean, Professor Greenish, 17, Bloomsbury-square, London,W.C.ROYAL SANITARY INSTITUTE (WITH WHICH IS IN-
CORPORATED THE PARKES MUSEUM), 90, Buckingham. Palace-road, S.W.-The objects of the Royal Sanitary
Institute are to promote the advancement of sanitaryscience in all or any of its branches and to diffuseknowledge relating thereto. It was founded in 1876 andincorporated in 1888. Sessional meetings are held inLondon and in various provincial centres from time totime for the reading of papers and for discussions uponsubjects connected with sanitary science, and lectures anddemonstrations are arranged for sanitary officers ; for armyofficers and professional men on food and meat inspection ;for meat inspectors; for women health visitors and schoolnurses; and for school teachers. Examinations are held inLondon, and in provincial and colonial centres, and certifi-cates of competency in sanitary knowledge are granted. TheParkes Museum, which is maintained by the institute, con-tains a great variety of the most approved forms ofapparatus and appliances relating to health and domesticcomfort. Professors and teachers of hygiene are allowedthe use of the museum for demonstrations to their studentson application to the committee. The museum is open dailyfree of charge from 9.30 A.M. to 5.30 P.M. and on Mondaysto 8 P.M. There are also a large library of sanitary literaturewhich contains, in addition to standard works on sanitaryscience, a collection of reports of medical officers of healthover the whole country, and a reading room supplied withthe principal sanitary periodicals, both home and foreign.The institute is under the patronage of the King, and theofficers are: President, the Duke of Northumberland; chair-man of council, Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, M.Inst.C.E. ;treasurer, Colonel J. Lane Notter, R.A.M.O., M.A., M.D.;registrar, Mr. A. Wynter Blyth, M.R C.S. ; and secretary anddirector, Mr. E. White Wallis, F.S.S. The lecturers areDr. C. Porter, Dr. J. A. Priestley, Dr. E. Petronell Manby,Professor H. R. Kenwood, M.B., Dr. C. J. Thomas, Mr. J.Osborne Smith, F.R.I.B.A.. Alan E. Munby, A.R.I.B.A.,Edward Willis, A.M.Inst.C.E., Henry C. Adams, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E., Mr. T. Dunlop Young, M.R.C.V.S., Mr.W. G. Barnes, M.R.C.V.S., Mr. W. Hunting, M.R.C.V.S.,Dr. Eric C. Pritchard, Dr. A. Beresford Kingsford, Dr.Marian Hunter-Vaughan, Colonel J. Lane Notter, R.A.M.C.,Dr. E. H. T. Nash, and Miss Constance Barker, Formembers the annual subscription is E2 2s. and for associatesEl ls., but members and associates holding certain qualifica-tions only pay half the ordinary rate of subscription.THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH.-The
Royal Institute of Public Health, 37, Russell-square, W.C.,was founded in the year 1886 with the object of obtainingthe registration of public health diplomas and the furtherstatutory requirement that all medical officers of healthshould possess such a qualification. In 1905 the Fellowsand members of the Institute, now numbering 2000,decided to create a central public health institution inLondon and have erected bacteriological, serological, andchemical laboratories in which researches of a public-health character are undertaken for municipal and otherauthorities and for private medical practitioners and the neces-sary training for obtaining public health diplomas is provided,together with a library, museum, lecture room, and commonroom. The Royal Institute of Public Health is recognised bythe University of London as a public educational institution,and its course of instruction for the diploma by the univer-sities and other examining bodies of the United Kingdom.The council appointed four medical practitioners yearly whopossess a Diploma in Public Health as Assistant Demon-strators. and who are desirous of obtaining a more extendedknowledge of laboratory work in connexion with the dutiesof a medical officer of health. The Royal Institute of Public
Health is a recognised place of research in connexionwith the Beit Memorial Fellowships for Medical Research.The Institute is under the patronage of His Majesty theKing, and the Right Hon. the Earl Beauchamp, K.C.M.G.,is President. The teaching staff consists of-the Principal,Professor William R. Smith, M.D., F.R.S.Ed. ; demonstratorsof chemistry, Ernest Garratt, M.Sc., and Alan Stewart,D.Sc. ; demonstrators of bacteriology, Dr. L. Rajchmanand Dr. A. Distaso. Occasional lectures are given byeminent sanitarians. The Harben lecturer for 1912 wasProfessor Simon Flexner, M.D. New York, and the Harbenlecturer for 1913 is Professor J. Bordet, M.D. Brussells.The Harben Gold Medallist, 1912, is Professor Emil Roux,M.D Paris. The Annual Congress of the Institute will beheld in Paris in 1913.
THE BRITISH MEDICAL MAN ABROAD.
THE conditions of medical practice have much altered inthis country of late, and professional incomes in manyplaces have been lowered seriously. Improvement hastaken place, but recent developments of legislation seemlikely to increase the severe struggle ahead. Again,the expenses of living have gone up for medicalmen as they have for all the middle and upper middleclasses of this country, while more money is requiredto secure the necessary medical degrees and diplomasowing to the lengthy curriculum and the more expensiveequipment. These facts account, though only partially,for the increased number of medical men who havingobtained British medical qualifications desire to settleabroad. Other factors at work are the spirit of adventure,the feeling that in a new country there is more elbow-roomand more chances of getting out of the ruck, and theincreased facilities of transport. Newspapers and books
galore nowadays make us familiar with life in other lands,while trains and steamers will take us all over the world ina short time and at a comparatively small expense. Forthis reason or that, the number of medical men who makeinquiry from us as to their legal and professional position ina foreign country continues to be large, and in the followingcolumns we attempt to summarise the information whichthey seek.
Speaking generally, our colonies make it easy for medicalmen from home to practise there, but the same is not thecase on the continent, where there is an obvious tendencytowards protection. But in the colonies there are not manyopenings for practice except for those who are willing to" rough " it and work hard. In Canada there are outlyingdistricts where a good start might, perhaps, be obtained; but itmust be remembered that Canada possesses advanced medicalschools and is a sparsely populated country as yet, despitethe enormous increase of inhabitants recently recorded.In Australia and New Zealand the prospect for the Britishpractitioner is not greater than that which faces him inGreat Britain. The medical profession is, in fact, crowdedin all places at home and abroad where the circumstances ofpractice are favourable, and many practitioners who havegone out from the mother country have had to leave thecolonies unsuccessful, or have been very hard pushed to makeboth ends meet. The graduates of the colonial universitiesevery year tend to more than meet the usual vacancies. Itused to be generally believed that, even where there was alarge supply of general practitioners in the big colonialtowns, there would still be good openings for men who havespecialised in such branches of practice as the treatment ofeye and ear diseases. This is partially true. There are
openings of which good men can take advantage. But asa rule the openings in the colonies for newcomers arein country districts where the medical man, besides beingproficient in every branch of the profession, must be readyto lead a hard life. It is desirable that every colonialpractitioner, intending to start in a country district, shouldbe of good physique and not only able to ride but able totake care of his horses, for the motor-car has not goteverywhere yet.There are, of course, certain colonial appointments made
in this country, particulars of which will be found in ourcolumns. These appointments are sometimes made with
permission to practise privately, and sometimes this is notpermitted. Candidates for the post should apply to the