Teaching English Through Drama

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British Council Hong KongProfessional Development for Teachers

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<ul><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 1/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>EDB Professional Development for Teachers</p><p>British Council Hong Kong</p><p>Teaching English through Drama</p><p>1 EDB 2008 / 2009</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 2/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>1 Teaching Drama</p><p>In part 2 of the workshops we experienced two demonstrations. In this sectionwe review the two teachin se!"ences and consider the staes# aims andrane of activities avai$a%$e for deve$opin En$ish ski$$s thro"h drama.</p><p>1.1 A Structure Approach to Teaching Drama</p><p>&amp;eachin Drama to $are ro"ps p$aces a n"m%er of demands on the teacher.'hen teachin drama we can expect(</p><p> a fair$) hih $eve$ of conversationa$ noise different ro"pins# with st"dents standin# movin# sittin# and "sin</p><p>space to express themse$ves different ro"ps workin at different paces towards different oa$s</p><p>In the workshop we addressed the fact that $earners ma) not %e confidenta%o"t their En$ish# or ma) think that drama is *"st f"n and ames.+s teachers we are aware that the main aim of this mod"$e is to deve$opst"dents, $an"ae ski$$s - not prod"ce actors or actresses. or this reasonwe need to caref"$$) str"ct"re o"r $essons so that the) have c$ear $in"isticand ski$$sdeve$opment aims# and to comm"nicate these aims c$ear$) tost"dents so that are c$ear on what is expected of them.</p><p>In Demonstration 1 we saw that it was important to have c$ear $an"ae aimsfor $essons. 'e a$so saw that a eneric str"ct"re for a $esson sho"$d contain afoc"s on aims and expectations# warm "p activities which taret $an"ae aswe$$ as performance aims# a context - s"ch as a stor) - within which todeve$op the drama# a rane of drama conventions which foc"s on ski$$s s"chas character %"i$din# expressin emotion thro"h voice and movement and#of co"rse# creativit) and confidence with $an"ae. essons# or series of$essons# sho"$d provide opport"nities for st"dents to ref$ect on their proressand to identif) areas for f"rther deve$opment.</p><p>Demonstration 2 i$$"strated the process of movin from stor) to script and wesaw how a n"m%er of different performance%ased activities co"$d %eincorporated into $essons. &amp;he EDB scheme of work offers man) options for</p><p>teachers in terms of the t)pe of performance%ased work the) do within thedrama mod"$e. choo$s co"$d# for examp$e# adapt their c$ass reader or "se aprepared script that st"dents can then persona$ise %) editin and addin. e)drama ski$$s deve$oped in this process invo$ve characterisation and stainconventions. In the workshop# we worked thro"h a series of tasks whichfoc"ssed on these ski$$s# whi$e sti$$ %ein foc"ssed on $an"ae ski$$sdeve$opment.</p><p>3art two of the scheme of work a$$ows st"dents to deve$op# amonst others#their writin ski$$s. cript writin has a n"m%er of conventions which st"dentsneed to %e aware of. B"t the fact that writin dia$o"e is often easier than# for</p><p>examp$e# writin a stor)# even $ower $eve$ st"dents wi$$ %e a%$e to achievesomethin the) can fee$ pro"d of# iven the riht s"pport from the teacher.</p><p>2 EDB 2008 / 2009</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 3/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>1.! Demonstration 1 " Lesson Plan an #esources</p><p>Lesson plan: A Structured Drama Class</p><p>1 Esta$lishing the focus</p><p>Aims% To ensure stuents are clear on the learning o$&amp;ectives an 'hatis e(pecte in terms of $ehaviour an participation.</p><p>&amp; oranises startin circ$e and arees on the aims of the $esson. E$icit words%einnin with 4# e.. comm"nication# cooperation# creativit)# content#co$$a%oration.. 4heck spe$$in and write on the %oard.</p><p>2 )i(ing space</p><p>Aims% To encourage learner autonom* an responsi$ilit*. To ensurestuents have a efine 'or+ area.et "p ro"ps and assin performance space.</p><p>5 ,arm-p/aterials%1 set of word cards / 6 or 7 st"dents</p><p>Aims% To introuce an provie practice 'ith +e* voca$ular*. To eveloprange of e(pression through movement an encourage colla$oration 0 co-operation</p><p>Introd"ce the voca%"$ar) %) showin the word cards and checkin st"dents"nderstand the words.</p><p>Human SculpturesIntrod"ce %) demonstratin with a st"dent. o" are a sc"$ptor the st"dent is thesc"$ptin materia$s. :ove the st"dent to make the o%*ect ;chair&lt; written on thecard. 4heck st"dents "nderstand what to do( if necessar)# et a pair of st"dentsto demonstrate for the ro"p.</p><p>t"dents work in ro"ps of 7 or =# the word cards are face down. &gt;ne st"dentse$ects a card and sc"$pts their partner to form the o%*ect. &amp;he) co"$d "se so"ndeffects and movement as we$$. &amp;he rest of the ro"p watch and tr) to "ess thecorrect word on the card.</p><p>Teacher Lift Door </p><p>Bottle of 'ater Chair /o$ile phone</p><p>Scissors Train )irefighter </p><p>E(ample A% ,or Cars for Human Sculptures</p><p>5 EDB 2008 / 2009</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 4/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>6 sing Stimuli/aterials%1 set of pict"re cards / 6 or 7 st"dents</p><p>Aims% To further evelop language s+ills in the conte(t of a narrative. Toencourage creativit* an confience 'ith English through eveloping a</p><p>group narrative.</p><p>Exp$ain that a$$ the words in the $ast activit) re$ate to a tr"e stor) a%o"t a teacher.how %i pict"res on the %oard.</p><p>t"dents work in ro"ps to match words to pict"res. &amp; checks answers# stickinthe word cards next to the correct pict"re</p><p>In ro"ps# st"dents ora$$) create a %asic stor) in ro"ps# "sin the pict"res. &amp;he)te$$ the c$ass. 4heck ideas %) reorderin the pict"res and words on the %oard.+sk other ro"ps to sa) if their stor) is the same or different - if time a$$ows# askanother ro"p to te$$ their stor).</p><p>7 oice 'or+/aterials%entence word cards ;*"m%$ed order on the %oard @rchestra Kse an orchestra $a)o"t on the3ower3oint# or on the %oard#and have st"dents stand incertain sections. Kse theme$od) )o" have devised ear$ierand orchestrate the ro"p in thefo$$owin wa)(;1&lt; 3erc"ssion ;c$aps# stampska)# then. I,$$ do m) %est tonot et st"ck in the traffic. B)e.</p><p>$ood$iht/norma$ $iht res"mes.</p><p>)igure 1=% Sample lighting cue sheet</p><p>&amp;here wo"$d %e a simi$ar sheet for ?o"nd effects, and c"es.</p><p>Sound eectsCere,s a $ist of common$)"sed so"nd effects. ometimes the so"nd effect is"sed to show the res"$t of an action# sometimes it is "sed to show the innerstate and fee$ins of a person. Examp$es are iven.</p><p>Soun effect E(ternal action 4nternal state</p><p>o"nd of app$a"se &amp;o show a crowd c$appin &amp;o show that a characterfee$s that s/he has donewe$$ and the wor$dapproves.</p><p>+ $ass %reakin &amp;o show a minor accident &amp;o show that someone hasmade a mistake</p><p>ootsteps on rave$;cr"nch) noise% Common soun effects an 'hat the* can represent</p><p>26 EDB 2008 / 2009</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 25/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>1.=.! Activit* Ban+% Theatre Conventions</p><p>O"st as in En$ish c$asses we "se activit) t)pes s"ch as apfi$$s or sentencecomp$etion# in Drama there are man) esta%$ished activities# which are known</p><p>as conventions.</p><p>In this section we $ist some of the most wide$) "sed drama conventions# in theorder that )o" ma) do them in c$ass. &amp;hese sho"$d %e interated into a $essonstr"ct"re simi$ar to demonstration $esson 1.</p><p>27 EDB 2008 / 2009</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 26/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>ti$$ Imae a$so a component of ?freeeframin,'orkin definition;a&lt; + st"dent# or st"dents in ro"ps form the static imae of a scene</p><p>;%&lt; 4an %e "sed as a means of foc"sin the a"dience on a moment in thedrama when the performers ?freee, in position whi$e action either contin"es ona different part of the stae ;ca$$ed ?sp$it stain,</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 27/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>&amp;ho"httrackin</p><p>'orkin definition</p><p>Ksin freeeframin or sti$$ imae# the teacher taps a character on a sho"$der andasks her/him to ive =0 seconds of tho"ht from that character,s perspective. &amp;hiscan %e repeated with other characters.</p><p>tim"$"s &amp;he stim"$"s comes from the importance of the moment in thedrama to each character.</p><p>Aro"pin Done whi$e in sma$$ ro"ps</p><p>3roced"re &amp;he freeeframin or sti$$ imae sho"$d %e we$$ esta%$ished %eforeoin into tho"httrackin %) tappin someone on the sho"$der.&amp;here sho"$d a$so %e an a"dience to hear what the character sa)sso that s/he fee$s that s/he,s speakin a$o"d for a reason# and notsimp$) for the teacher.</p><p>Ksed for 1 +ccessin a character,s interior tho"hts# emotions# responses#motivations</p><p>2 Ksef"$ when different characters ma) %e experiencindifferent reactions to the co"rse of events# e..# if someonewins a prie# character + ma) %e de$ihted# character B ma)%e disappointed# 4 ma) %e pro"d# and D ma) %e *ea$o"s.&amp;his wi$$ %e in response to the dramatic moment of the priewinnin.</p><p>5 ;&amp;E&lt; Ksef"$ to enco"rae spontaneo"s speakin# f$"enc) andconfidence%"i$din</p><p>6 4o"$d %e "sed in a $ive performance accompanied %)specific co$o"red spot$ihts for effect# e..# 4haracter 4speaks pro"d$) and is $it %) a %riht white $iht# 4haracter Dhas *ea$o"s words and is $it %) a movin reen $iht.</p><p>+daptations +n adaptation for inc$ass improvisation is to freee the character%ein foc"sed on# and have the peop$e aro"nd him/her sa) thecharacter,s tho"hts for him/her. or examp$e# 4haracter + winsthe prie# and characters aro"nd him revea$ different aspects of histho"hts and fee$ins thro"h speakin whi$e 4haracter + sta)sfroen and !"iet. Ce$ps others to %"i$d "p an "nderstandin of theinterior of a character. &amp;his techni!"e is ca$$ed# ?his tho"hts# hertho"hts, %) Brian :cA"ire.</p><p>2G EDB 2008 / 2009</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 28/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>'ritin in o$e</p><p>'orkin definition</p><p>t"dents are iven the opport"nit) to write somethin whi$st in character and thereforeexpress themse$ves in writin from this perspective.</p><p>tim"$"s &amp;his can take p$ace after some improvisation work has taken p$acewith sti$$ imae# freeeframin# or ro$ep$a).</p><p>Aro"pin &amp;his is an individ"a$ activit).</p><p>3roced"re +fter havin had some time to %e in ro$e# and perhaps afterexperiencin an event or an exchane with another character#st"dents are iven a choice of written tasks# e..# to write apostcard# a diar) entr)# a $etter# an emai$# a text messae# to"pdate a %$o# to write on ?parchment,# to raffiti on aprepared wa$$. If takin part in a thri$$er or histor)# st"dents</p><p>ma) wish to reco"nt what the) witnessed in a po$ice report orfor a historian,s doc"ment.</p><p>Ksed for 1 &amp;o deve$op the fee$ins and tho"hts of a character</p><p>2 &amp;o he$p a st"dent ;a&lt; "nderstand and ;%&lt; create the perspective acharacter has towards a set of events or towards another character</p><p>5 ;&amp;E&lt; &amp;o create a %a$ance %etween the ora$ ski$$s "sin in ro$ep$a) and written ski$$s. Ens"re that st"dents have a c$ear mode$ ofthe format the) miht %e "sin.</p><p>6 +dd the writin to the portfo$io %"i$d"p for that character#e..# it co"$d accompan) ro$eonthewa$$ diarams.</p><p>3ro%$ems 1 t"dents ma) draw a %$ank so it is important that the writin is inresponse to somethin that has %een experienced or witnessed.</p><p>2 ;&amp;E&lt; ome s"pport with ke) words and spe$$in wi$$ %eneeded. eep the writin short at first and enco"rae st"dents toadd to it.</p><p>28 EDB 2008 / 2009</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 29/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>29 EDB 2008 / 2009</p><p>o$eonthe'a$$</p><p>'orkin definition</p><p>+ wa) to exp$ore a character creative$)</p><p>tim"$"s + character from a p$a) or sti$$ imae s"ch as a paintin</p><p>Aro"pin ma$$ ro"ps enco"rae co$$a%orative thinkin individ"a$ workcan promote concentration and depth.</p><p>3roced"re+n o"t$ine of a character is created on a piece of paper. &amp;hiscan either %e $ifesie# or sma$$ so that it can fit into a fo$der. If itis $are# it a$$ows access to man)# and can %e a foca$ point for thero"p faci$itatin co$$a%orative ro"p work and opport"nities to</p><p>deve$op each other,s ideas.t"dents think a%o"t the character and start to write thins the)know a%o"t him/her o"tside the o"t$ine of the %od) s"ch ashis/her mannerisms# appearance# est"res. &amp;he) ma) a$soconsider the forces that other characters exert on him ph)sica$$)#emotiona$$) or menta$$). t"dents then think a%o"t thecharacter,s inner states possi%$) in response to others#motivations# emotions# needs and wants. &gt;ften# the inner statescan on$) %e worked on as the improvisation proresses so it is"sef"$ to start a session with the ro$e on the wa$$# keep it "p onthe wa$$# and add to it over a n"m%er of sessions as st"dents,appreciation and "nderstandin of the character deve$ops and</p><p>deepens.&gt;ne adaptation is to have three +6 sie ro$eonthewa$$temp$ates for st"dents and ive them a few min"tes in an ear$)session# a midwa) session and a $ater session to show theadditions the) made to the ro$e and wh)# ref$ectin theexperience that triered it.</p><p>Ksed for(1 Deve$opin a character - especia$$) if "sed over a fewsessions2 4an show c$ear the press"re one character exerts on another5 Ce$ps st"dents $ink inner states to o"ter est"res and actions6 ;&amp;E&lt; 3repare to demonstrate and expose st"dents to $exica$items to descri%e dress# post"re# e)e/hair co$o"r# andcharacteristics. emem%er to show $an"ae that co$$ocates#;keepshis eyes lowered</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 30/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>Cotseatin</p><p>'orkin definition</p><p>+ character is interviewed in depth %) a ro"ptim"$"s</p><p>Aro"pin &gt;ne character sits in the hotseat whi$e other sit aro"nd him/herread) to interview. &amp;his is enera$$) not done in character %) therest of the ro"p# who are themse$ves.</p><p>3roced"re 4hoose a character which needs deve$opin. 3$ace her/him in thehotseat and ive some preparation to the others to deve$op!"estions a%o"t the character,s ro$e and his/her re$ations to othercharacters inc$"din(</p><p>'h) did )o" do </p><p>'ho,s c$osest to )o" 'ho do )o" dis$ike and wh)Cow did )o" fee$ when Cow does it fee$ when s/he does</p><p>'h) are )o" tired/happ)/nois) a$$ the time</p><p>If I ave )o" P1#000# what wo"$d )o" do with it</p><p>Cave )o" ever done ;somethin %ad/advent"ro"s/kind</p></li><li><p>5/21/2018 Teaching English Through Drama</p><p> 31/45</p><p>EDB Language Arts ElectivesProfessional Development for Teachers</p><p>Learning English through Drama</p><p>&amp;ho"ht &amp;"nne$</p><p>'orkin definition</p><p>+ means of he$pin st"dents to artic"$ate the tho"hts of a character especia$$) whens/he faces a di$emma in the ro$ep$a) or improvisation</p><p>tim"$"s + character,s di$emma or pro%$em</p><p>Aro"pin 'ho$e c$ass ro"p of 20</p><p>3roced"re t"dents are divided into two e!"a$ $ines facin each other and *oinhands to form a %ride. &amp;he character foc"sed on s$ow$) andde$i%erate$) wa$ks down the h"man t"nne$. +s s/he passes# eachst"dent makes a statement a%o"t ;a&lt; what s/he is thinkin ;%&lt; whats/he needs to consider ;c&lt; action and deci...</p></li></ul>