Teaching English Language Learners - UNC Charlotte ?· Teaching English Language Learners Adriana L.…

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  • Teaching English Language Learners

    Adriana L. Medina, PhD May 1st, 2014

    United Way of Central Carolina

  • Acquisition vs. Learning Acquisition Subconscious process of picking up a language

    through exposure

    Learning Conscious process of studying a language

    Krashen (1981)

  • Language Acquisition Many theories Behaviorist you are conditioned Innatist you came with language acquisition

    capability Interactionists nature and nurture

    Constructivists - a social process (Cook-Gumprez, 1986; Wells, 1990)

    Individuals acquire language when they Have a meaningful and real need Interact with others Approximate real language Have language modeled for them (directly and indirectly)

    Individuals acquire language at varying rates and in various stages

    There are many other factors that influence language acquisition

  • Literacy Reading Decoding - The ability to figure out the pronunciation of printed

    words - Pronunciation is checked against oral language

    Comprehending - The ability to figure out the meaning of printed words

    Writing Encoding - Spelling

    Express your ideas - Spell words, formulate sentences and paragraphs

  • How Does Literacy Develop? By participation in a variety of real literacy

    experiences and a considerable amount of direct or explicit instruction listening and speaking (oral language; receptive and

    expressive)

    reading and writing (receptive and expressive)

  • Second Language Acquisition Many theories Behaviourist - Audiolingual approach (coute et rpte)

    Innatist - Similar to first language acquisition - Krashens five hypotheses (next slide)

    Interactionist - Negotiation of meaning (trial & error; give & take) - Ask for repetition, slow down, gestures, drawing

    All of these bear implications for instruction

  • Krashens Five Hypotheses Krashens five hypotheses

    Acquisition-learning hypotheses Monitor hypothesis Natural order hypothesis Input hypothesis

    - Understanding the target language in a natural communication situation with comprehensible input (in the zone of proximal development; Vygotsky)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug&feature=related - Consider modeling, demonstrating, visual aids, coop. learning, peer tutoring, graphic

    organizer, engagement with others/community, reading aloud, themes of interest

    Affective filter hypothesis - Low anxiety learning environments - Student motivation - Self-confidence - Self-esteem

    - Do not force production during silent period - The amount of input (exposure) turned into intake (learning) is determined by the

    learners motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety (Krashen, 1982); can encourage or inhibit acquisition; teachers have the power to influence

    People acquire second languages when they obtain comprehensible input and when their affective filters are low enough to allow the input in to the language acquisition device (Krashen, 1981).

  • Social Language vs Academic Language

    Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS; Cummins, 1980) Language skills needed for social conversation purposes BICS 6 months to 2 or 3 years to develop (think about facial

    expressions, gestures, rate of speech, idiomatic expressions, etc.)

    Discrete Language Skills (Cummins, 2003) Learned as a result of formal education in L1 and some transfer

    (ex. phonemic awareness, decoding) - strengthening the argument for L1 instruction/maintenance

    Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP; Cummins, 1980) Formal language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing)

    utilized in academic learning tasks (low frequency words, Greek, complex syntax)

    CALP 5 to 7 years to develop Contingent upon formal education in L1 (up to 10 years)

  • Academic Language Academic language is the oral and written language used for academic purposes. means by which students develop and express content

    understandings. language of the discipline that students need to learn and

    use to participate and engage in meaningful ways in the content area. (edTPA Elementary Education Assessment Handbook, 2013 , p. 59)

    Academic language is the oral and written language that students need in order to: understand (read, listen, think) communicate (listen, speak, write, connect) perform (think, read, write, listen, speak, solve, create)

    Academic language is necessary to participate in literacyto think, question, talk, and learn.

  • Academic Language Demands Language demands are the specific ways that

    academic language is used by students to participate in learning tasks through reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking to demonstrate their disciplinary understanding. (edTPA Elementary Education Assessment Handbook, 2013, p. 59)

    There are four main academic language demands: 1. language function 2. essential academic vocabulary 3. syntax 4. discourse

    what you do

    tools you use

  • Identifying the Language Function

    Using the Central Focus summarizing the plot of a narrative text identifying main ideas and details

    Using the ELA CCSS RL.4.2: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or

    poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

  • Academic Language Demands Language demands are the specific ways that

    academic language is used by students to participate in learning tasks through reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking to demonstrate their disciplinary understanding. (edTPA Elementary Education Assessment Handbook, 2013, p. 59)

    There are four main academic language demands: 1. language function 2. essential academic vocabulary 3. syntax 4. discourse

    what you do

    tools you use

  • Vocabulary includes words and phrases (and symbols) that are

    used within disciplines including: - words and phrases with subject specific meanings that

    differ from meanings used in everyday life (e.g., table, ruler, force, balance);

    - general academic vocabulary used across disciplines (e.g., compare, analyze, evaluate); and

    - subject-specific words defined for use in the discipline.

  • Syntax Set of conventions for organizing symbols, words and

    phrases together into structures (e.g., sentences, graphs, tables)

    Grammar consists of set rules regarding language and sentence structure, such as no splitting infinitives and no hanging prepositions.

    Syntax, in reference to sentences, is how a sentence is worded and structured and in ways that can create, extend, or change meaning. types of sentence (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory,

    imperative) and word order (passive vs. active voice), length of sentences (short vs. long).

  • Discourse Discourse Structures of written and oral language How members of the discipline talk, write, and

    participate in knowledge construction

    Discipline-specific - Distinctive about features/way of structuring language

    (text structures)

    Writing requires something to say, the words to say it, and the structure with which to write it (McCracken & McCracken, 1986).

  • Example After reading two texts, the students will compare

    and contrast the texts, providing at least 4 details for support. Think: Whats the language task/function and what words

    (written and oral) do we use to do this task?

    Language Function: compare and contrast

    Vocabulary (words we use to accomplish this task): similar, different, alike, same, etc.

    Syntax: Similar to; different than, etc. Discourse: ____ and ____ are similar because

    _____; however, they are different because _____.

  • Example Math example: 12/24 Language Function: Dividing Necessary Vocabulary: dividend, product, divisor Syntax: Division symbols (/ and ), divided by Discourse (how you read/say it): - 24 goes into 12 - 12 divided by 24

  • Reprinted on ColorinColorado.org with permission from Sarah Clyne 2006

    Academic Language Functions Academic Language Function

    Student Uses Language to:

    Examples Thinking Map Graphic Organizers

    Language Structures/Key Signal Words

    Tasks Associated with Academic Language Function

    Questions Commonly Asked

    Seek Information

    Observe and explore; acquire information; inquire

    Use who, what, when, where, and how to gather information

    Circle Map Attribute Diagram Web SQ3R Concept Definition Map Outlines Cornell Note-taking

    To be, action verbs, prepositions Define, count, draw, identify, indicate, label, list, match, name, point, recall, recite, reproduce, repeat, trace, write, state, select, record, attributes, characteristics, main idea

    Who ____?, What happened?, Where did it happen?, When did it happen?, Where did you find that?, How do you do that?

    Inform Identify, report, or describe information

    Recount information presented by teacher or text, retell a story or personal information

    Circle Map Bubble Map

    Web SQ3R Concept Definition Map Outlines Cornell Note-taking

    Adjective use, descriptive language, superlatives/comparatives, _____said, the book says, first, second, next, etc., according to

    Retell, recount, reorder, represent, depict, paraphrase, summarize, give examples, draw, explain, conclude, convert, describe, prepare, transform, translate, restate, rewrite, prepare, give in your own words, generalize, extrapolate

    Retell the story in your own words. Summarize the chapter on _______. What happened?,