Teaching English Language Learners - UNC Charlotte ?· Teaching English Language Learners Adriana L.…

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<ul><li><p>Teaching English Language Learners </p><p>Adriana L. Medina, PhD May 1st, 2014 </p><p>United Way of Central Carolina </p></li><li><p>Acquisition vs. Learning Acquisition Subconscious process of picking up a language </p><p>through exposure </p><p> Learning Conscious process of studying a language </p><p> Krashen (1981) </p></li><li><p>Language Acquisition Many theories Behaviorist you are conditioned Innatist you came with language acquisition </p><p>capability Interactionists nature and nurture </p><p> Constructivists - a social process (Cook-Gumprez, 1986; Wells, 1990) </p><p> Individuals acquire language when they Have a meaningful and real need Interact with others Approximate real language Have language modeled for them (directly and indirectly) </p><p> Individuals acquire language at varying rates and in various stages </p><p> There are many other factors that influence language acquisition </p></li><li><p>Literacy Reading Decoding - The ability to figure out the pronunciation of printed </p><p>words - Pronunciation is checked against oral language </p><p> Comprehending - The ability to figure out the meaning of printed words </p><p>Writing Encoding - Spelling </p><p> Express your ideas - Spell words, formulate sentences and paragraphs </p></li><li><p>How Does Literacy Develop? By participation in a variety of real literacy </p><p>experiences and a considerable amount of direct or explicit instruction listening and speaking (oral language; receptive and </p><p>expressive) </p><p> reading and writing (receptive and expressive) </p></li><li><p>Second Language Acquisition Many theories Behaviourist - Audiolingual approach (coute et rpte) </p><p> Innatist - Similar to first language acquisition - Krashens five hypotheses (next slide) </p><p> Interactionist - Negotiation of meaning (trial &amp; error; give &amp; take) - Ask for repetition, slow down, gestures, drawing </p><p> All of these bear implications for instruction </p></li><li><p>Krashens Five Hypotheses Krashens five hypotheses </p><p> Acquisition-learning hypotheses Monitor hypothesis Natural order hypothesis Input hypothesis </p><p>- Understanding the target language in a natural communication situation with comprehensible input (in the zone of proximal development; Vygotsky)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug&amp;feature=related - Consider modeling, demonstrating, visual aids, coop. learning, peer tutoring, graphic </p><p>organizer, engagement with others/community, reading aloud, themes of interest </p><p> Affective filter hypothesis - Low anxiety learning environments - Student motivation - Self-confidence - Self-esteem </p><p>- Do not force production during silent period - The amount of input (exposure) turned into intake (learning) is determined by the </p><p>learners motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety (Krashen, 1982); can encourage or inhibit acquisition; teachers have the power to influence </p><p> People acquire second languages when they obtain comprehensible input and when their affective filters are low enough to allow the input in to the language acquisition device (Krashen, 1981). </p></li><li><p>Social Language vs Academic Language </p><p> Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS; Cummins, 1980) Language skills needed for social conversation purposes BICS 6 months to 2 or 3 years to develop (think about facial </p><p>expressions, gestures, rate of speech, idiomatic expressions, etc.) </p><p> Discrete Language Skills (Cummins, 2003) Learned as a result of formal education in L1 and some transfer </p><p>(ex. phonemic awareness, decoding) - strengthening the argument for L1 instruction/maintenance </p><p> Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP; Cummins, 1980) Formal language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) </p><p>utilized in academic learning tasks (low frequency words, Greek, complex syntax) </p><p> CALP 5 to 7 years to develop Contingent upon formal education in L1 (up to 10 years) </p></li><li><p>Academic Language Academic language is the oral and written language used for academic purposes. means by which students develop and express content </p><p>understandings. language of the discipline that students need to learn and </p><p>use to participate and engage in meaningful ways in the content area. (edTPA Elementary Education Assessment Handbook, 2013 , p. 59) </p><p> Academic language is the oral and written language that students need in order to: understand (read, listen, think) communicate (listen, speak, write, connect) perform (think, read, write, listen, speak, solve, create) </p><p> Academic language is necessary to participate in literacyto think, question, talk, and learn. </p></li><li><p>Academic Language Demands Language demands are the specific ways that </p><p>academic language is used by students to participate in learning tasks through reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking to demonstrate their disciplinary understanding. (edTPA Elementary Education Assessment Handbook, 2013, p. 59) </p><p> There are four main academic language demands: 1. language function 2. essential academic vocabulary 3. syntax 4. discourse </p><p>what you do </p><p>tools you use </p></li><li><p>Identifying the Language Function </p><p>Using the Central Focus summarizing the plot of a narrative text identifying main ideas and details </p><p> Using the ELA CCSS RL.4.2: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or </p><p>poem from details in the text; summarize the text. </p></li><li><p>Academic Language Demands Language demands are the specific ways that </p><p>academic language is used by students to participate in learning tasks through reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking to demonstrate their disciplinary understanding. (edTPA Elementary Education Assessment Handbook, 2013, p. 59) </p><p> There are four main academic language demands: 1. language function 2. essential academic vocabulary 3. syntax 4. discourse </p><p>what you do </p><p>tools you use </p></li><li><p>Vocabulary includes words and phrases (and symbols) that are </p><p>used within disciplines including: - words and phrases with subject specific meanings that </p><p>differ from meanings used in everyday life (e.g., table, ruler, force, balance); </p><p>- general academic vocabulary used across disciplines (e.g., compare, analyze, evaluate); and </p><p>- subject-specific words defined for use in the discipline. </p></li><li><p>Syntax Set of conventions for organizing symbols, words and </p><p>phrases together into structures (e.g., sentences, graphs, tables) </p><p> Grammar consists of set rules regarding language and sentence structure, such as no splitting infinitives and no hanging prepositions. </p><p> Syntax, in reference to sentences, is how a sentence is worded and structured and in ways that can create, extend, or change meaning. types of sentence (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, </p><p>imperative) and word order (passive vs. active voice), length of sentences (short vs. long). </p></li><li><p>Discourse Discourse Structures of written and oral language How members of the discipline talk, write, and </p><p>participate in knowledge construction </p><p> Discipline-specific - Distinctive about features/way of structuring language </p><p>(text structures) </p><p> Writing requires something to say, the words to say it, and the structure with which to write it (McCracken &amp; McCracken, 1986). </p></li><li><p>Example After reading two texts, the students will compare </p><p>and contrast the texts, providing at least 4 details for support. Think: Whats the language task/function and what words </p><p>(written and oral) do we use to do this task? </p><p> Language Function: compare and contrast </p><p> Vocabulary (words we use to accomplish this task): similar, different, alike, same, etc. </p><p> Syntax: Similar to; different than, etc. Discourse: ____ and ____ are similar because </p><p>_____; however, they are different because _____. </p></li><li><p>Example Math example: 12/24 Language Function: Dividing Necessary Vocabulary: dividend, product, divisor Syntax: Division symbols (/ and ), divided by Discourse (how you read/say it): - 24 goes into 12 - 12 divided by 24 </p></li><li><p>Reprinted on ColorinColorado.org with permission from Sarah Clyne 2006 </p><p>Academic Language Functions Academic Language Function </p><p>Student Uses Language to: </p><p>Examples Thinking Map Graphic Organizers </p><p>Language Structures/Key Signal Words </p><p>Tasks Associated with Academic Language Function </p><p>Questions Commonly Asked </p><p>Seek Information </p><p>Observe and explore; acquire information; inquire </p><p>Use who, what, when, where, and how to gather information </p><p>Circle Map Attribute Diagram Web SQ3R Concept Definition Map Outlines Cornell Note-taking </p><p>To be, action verbs, prepositions Define, count, draw, identify, indicate, label, list, match, name, point, recall, recite, reproduce, repeat, trace, write, state, select, record, attributes, characteristics, main idea </p><p>Who ____?, What happened?, Where did it happen?, When did it happen?, Where did you find that?, How do you do that? </p><p>Inform Identify, report, or describe information </p><p>Recount information presented by teacher or text, retell a story or personal information </p><p>Circle Map Bubble Map </p><p>Web SQ3R Concept Definition Map Outlines Cornell Note-taking </p><p>Adjective use, descriptive language, superlatives/comparatives, _____said, the book says, first, second, next, etc., according to </p><p>Retell, recount, reorder, represent, depict, paraphrase, summarize, give examples, draw, explain, conclude, convert, describe, prepare, transform, translate, restate, rewrite, prepare, give in your own words, generalize, extrapolate </p><p>Retell the story in your own words. Summarize the chapter on _______. What happened?, Report your findings., Describe the main character. Tell about ____. What happened? Show how____. </p><p>Compare Describe similarities and differences in objects or ideas </p><p>Make/explain a graphic organizer to show difference and similarity </p><p>Double bubble Map Bridge Map </p><p>Venn Diagram Semantic Features Analysis T-Chart Fact-Opinion Charts </p><p>However, but, as well as, on the other hand, not only.but also, either.or, while, although, unless, similarly, yet, compared with, similar to, different than, and yet, as opposed to, alternatively, apart from, by contrast, contrary to that, conversely, in spite of this, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, regardless, some.., but others, still, then again, by the same token, correspondingly, likewise, too </p><p>Distinguish, compare, contrast, group, identify, illustrate, point out, recognize, separate, describe, attributes, commonalities, differences, differentiate, </p><p>How are ____ and ____ the same? Different? Compare _____ and _____. Describe ____. Now, describe ____. Do either of these ______? What makes ____the same? What makes ___ different? How do we know the difference between __ and __? </p></li><li><p>Second Language Acquisition Process </p></li><li><p>Teaching Reading to Students Learning </p><p>English </p></li><li><p>Successful Reading Strategies for ELLs </p><p> Setting a purpose for reading </p><p> Activating your prior knowledge about the topic (in either language) </p><p> Focusing on getting the meaning </p><p> Identifying the important parts </p><p> Asking questions while reading </p><p> Getting help when you dont understand </p><p> Using other information to understand </p><p> Taking notes (in either/both languages) </p><p> Creating mental images/pictures about the material read </p><p>Taken from Whats different about teaching reading to students learning English? CAL 2007 </p></li><li><p>Reading Instructional Framework (BDA) </p><p>Do something. </p><p> Before, </p><p> During, </p><p> AND </p><p> After </p><p> Reading </p></li><li><p>Successful Reading Strategies for ELLs </p><p> Setting a purpose for reading </p><p> Activating your prior knowledge about the topic (in either language) </p><p> Focusing on getting the meaning </p><p> Identifying the important parts </p><p> Asking questions while reading </p><p> Getting help when you dont understand </p><p> Using other information to understand </p><p> Taking notes (in either/both languages) </p><p> Creating mental images/pictures about the material read </p><p>Taken from Whats different about teaching reading to students learning English? CAL 2007 </p><p>Before Reading </p><p>During Reading </p></li><li><p>Prereading Activities Motivate Relate the reading to students Activate prior knowledge and build background knowledge Build text-specific knowledge Pre-teach vocabulary and concepts Preview, pre-question, predict Set the purpose for reading Suggest strategies </p><p>TPR Visual Scaffolding Language Focus </p></li><li><p>Techniques for assessing prior knowledge </p><p> Free recall What do you know about __? Word association When you hear the word ___ </p><p>what do you think of? </p><p> Recognition Look at the following words and phrases, which ones do you think may be related to the book/story/text were are about to read? </p><p> Structured questions Who was ___? How did ___ reach his goal? </p><p> Unstructured questions Were going to read about ___. What do you know about it? </p><p> Background Information: Provide information that students need that they do not have about the topic before moving on with the topic </p></li><li><p>During Reading Activities Read </p><p> Generate and answer questions </p><p> Interact with the text </p><p> Confirm/revise predictions </p><p> Stop and discuss </p><p> Think </p><p> Use graphic organizers </p><p> Attack vocabulary </p><p> Comprehend </p><p> Note-taking </p><p>Collect Words Repeated Reading </p><p>Realia Centers/Stations </p></li><li><p>Methods of Reading Oral reading By teacher/tutor </p><p> Listening Oral reading By Students - Buddy - Choral - Readers Theatre </p><p> Silent reading </p><p> Make sure method aligns with proficiency level </p></li><li><p>Teacher Read-Aloud Why? increases motivation to read promotes engagement fosters critical thinking Build bridge to expose students to language </p><p>How? Should be purposeful Pre-read &amp; plan delivery: tone, pacing, intensity, </p><p>mood </p></li><li><p>Coding the Text Why? </p><p> Gives students a way to stay engaged in their reading (awake and not allowing the mind to wander) </p><p> Helps them pay attention to material Helps them remember what they read </p><p> How? Ask students to: (you can use any symbols you prefer) Highlight/Underline confusing parts (Im stuck here because . . . ) Put ? next to places where they have a question or are wondering </p><p>something (I wonder . . . ) </p><p> Write in BK when they realize they are using their background knowledge and making a connection between his/her life and the text (This reminds me of . . .) </p><p> Write an I next to a section where they are drawing a conclusion or inferring meaning (I think . . . ) </p><p> If students cant mark their text . . . use sticky notes and then transfer notes to notebook or use transparency film and pen and then transfer that to their notebook. </p></li><li><p>If there is no comprehension, there is no reading. </p><p>- Dolores Durkin (1980) </p><p>Comprehension </p></li><li><p>Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction </p><p>Explicit teaching is the most successful approach for teaching comprehension strategies. </p></li><li><p>SKILL </p><p> something you do automatically (and the same way every time) without thinking about it example: instantly </p><p>recognizing and saying a word like the </p><p> are associated with lower levels of thinking and learning </p><p>STRATEGY </p><p> a cognitive tool readers use to construct meaning from a text </p><p> a sequence of cognitive steps to accomplish a specific goal example: predicting while </p><p>reading </p><p> are intentional and flexible </p><p>Skill vs. Strategy (Duffy, 2003; Elish-Piper, et al., 2006; Medina &amp; Pilonieta, 2006) </p><p>A mark of comprehension maturity is the automatic, unconscious use of strategies. (Cornett, 2010, p. 36) </p></li><li><p>Predicting </p><p>Declarative Knowledge </p><p>(What) Making a good guess about what will happen in a book. </p><p>P...</p></li></ul>

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