Teaching by Fostering Learning Strategies

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Teaching by Fostering Learning Strategies. EDU 221. Learning Strategies. Change of Schedule (no quiz #3; final will be over chapters 11-14-videotapes; Dec. 7 th Classroom Management Strategies & working with parents) HYLA #2 findings Chapter 11 Group Presentation Chapter 11 PP - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mnemonic Strategies6Learning StrategiesChange of Schedule (no quiz #3; final will be over chapters 11-14-videotapes; Dec. 7th Classroom Management Strategies & working with parents)HYLA #2 findingsChapter 11 Group PresentationChapter 11 PPFor Tuesday: Read Chapter 122Passive to Active teach students how to learn not just what to learnlearning strategies help students: recall specific facts organize material into coherent structure integrate material with prior knowledge

***All are traits of active learning.***4Again the goal is to transform the student from mental passivity to active cognitive engagement- thus learning strategies are designed to

Depending upon the strategies being used, learning strategies can help.BenefitsLearning strategies help students become skilled learners. Highly skilled students can look at new material and perform the following actions. Be able to select relevant materialKnow how to organize the material into a coherent structureIntegrate the new material with previous knowledge5What Are Mnemonic Strategies?Techniques that help students remember material through memorization

Promote transfer 2 waysBy memorizing the basic facts and then using the information without much effort

When a student has learned information a mnemonic can help make the information seem more meaningful.7

Willingham, D. (2008). What will Improve a Students Memory? 8Letter ExamplesAcronym Example:ROY G BIVColors of the rainbowAcrostic Example:My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine PicklesTo remember the order of the planets in the solar system

9 Why Mnemonics WorkDual Coding- strategies involve imagery as well as verbal representation, meaning more ways to find it in memory.Organization- provide organization into which new information fits, tends to hold it together rather then separate in memoryAssociation- involves forming associations between information which allows for better recall of the information.10Structure Strategies11Goal: Prompt active learning by encouraging learners to mentally select relevant pieces of information and relate them to one another within a structure.12Dual-coding Theory-Paivio, 1991Stored in Memory in Two Forms:Linguistic: words or statementsNon-linguistic: mental pictures of physical sensations

Most information is delivered linguistically

Structure Strategies designed to help students see relationships between information with the help of visual representations13According to the dual-coding theory of information storage (Paivio, 1991), information is processed and stored in memory in two forms: a linguistic form (words or statements) and a nonlinguistic, visual form (mental pictures or physical sensations). The way knowledge is coded in the brain has significant implications for teaching and particularly for the way we help students acquire and retain knowledge. As Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock (2001) point out, the primary way we present new knowledge to students is linguistic. We either talk to them about the new content or have them read about it (p. 73). The fact that education gives weight to the verbal processing of knowledge means that students are left to generate their own visual representations. Yet, it is well established that showing children how to represent information using the imagery form not only stimulates but also increases activity in the brain (Marzano, 1998). As students try to convey what they know and understand in nonlinear, visual ways, they are forced to draw together what they have learned; see how ideas, information, and concepts are connected; develop higher-order thinking skills (e.g., analytical thinking); and organize their knowledge in a way that makes sense to others. Visual representations also help students remember and recall information more easily.

Graphic OrganizersConcept Maps: Depicts information hierarchically

Venn Diagrams: Allow comparisons (similarities and differences)

Help organize the information being presented by visually representing meaningful relationships among concepts.

14From those, perhaps the most commonly used visual learning tool is graphic organizers, which include diagrams depicting hierarchical information (e.g., concept maps), time-sequence patterns (e.g., chain of events, time lines), cause-effect relationships (e.g., fishbone diagrams), comparisons (e.g., Venn diagrams), free associations and links among ideas (e.g., webs or mind maps), and how a series of events or stages are related to one another in a repeating process (e.g., life cycle diagrams). Graphic Organizers cont.Fishbone diagrams: examine cause and effect relationships

Webs or Mind Maps: free associations and links among ideas

15From those, perhaps the most commonly used visual learning tool is graphic organizers, which include diagrams depicting hierarchical information (e.g., concept maps), time-sequence patterns (e.g., chain of events, time lines), cause-effect relationships (e.g., fishbone diagrams), comparisons (e.g., Venn diagrams), free associations and links among ideas (e.g., webs or mind maps), and how a series of events or stages are related to one another in a repeating process (e.g., life cycle diagrams).

More Graphic OrganizersLife cycle diagrams: how a series of events or stages are related to one another in a repeating process

Chain of Events/Time Lines: time-sequence patterns

16From those, perhaps the most commonly used visual learning tool is graphic organizers, which include diagrams depicting hierarchical information (e.g., concept maps), time-sequence patterns (e.g., chain of events, time lines), cause-effect relationships (e.g., fishbone diagrams), comparisons (e.g., Venn diagrams), free associations and links among ideas (e.g., webs or mind maps), and how a series of events or stages are related to one another in a repeating process (e.g., life cycle diagrams).

Generative Strategies17What are generative strategies?Learning strategies that are used to help integrate the information that was presented to the learner.

Promote Mathemagenic Activity18Mathemagenic activity: any activity where the learner generates knowledge, integrating incoming material with existing knowledgeGenerative StrategiesNote takingSummarizingRepeating information out loudAnswering questions

All require students to integrate the given information to information the previously learned.19Promote deep learning as referred to in the Willingham article, rather than shallow learning.Slotte and Lonka (1999)It is more beneficial to take summary notes rather than verbatim notes.Summary notes require more in depth thinkingOrganizing materialIntegrating materialVerbatim notes do not require the student to put information into their own words, which leads to a lower grasp of concepts.

20Handout on Note taking sheet.Generative StrategiesNote takingSummarizingRepeating information out loudAnswering questions

All require students to integrate the given information to information the previously learned.21Promote deep learning as referred to in the Willingham article, rather than shallow learning.Questioning MethodAimed at getting the student to create questions relating to the information in order to build onto their knowledge base.If a student is taught how to construct questions about certain aspects of a topic they are more likely to integrate previous knowledge to the new information.Questioning can lead to deeper understanding and lead to transfer of the information.22Willingham article discussed research in which students were taught to ask Why at the end of each sentence or section. Improved retention of the material a well as understanding.