TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES ... KEYS FOR LIFE 301 Overview of teaching and learning strategies

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  • Overview of teaching and learning strategies 301

    Tuning in and finding out

    Brainstorm 302

    Card cluster 302

    Circle talk 302

    Graffiti walk 302

    Jigsaw 303

    One minute challenge 303

    Placemat 303

    Question partners 303

    Rip and review 304

    Sorting out

    Head talk 304

    Mind map 304

    T chart 305

    Y chart 305

    Developing values

    Choose a corner 306

    Human graph 306

    Risk continuum 306

    Values continuum 307

    Values voting 307

    Making decisions

    Decision-making model 307

    Hidden thoughts role-play 308

    Hypothetical 308

    PNI 308

    Role-play 309

    Send a problem 309

    Snap decisions 309

    Speaking out

    Think-pair-share 310

    Toss a die 310


    3-2-1 reflect 310

    Strategy sheets

    Strategy sheet 1 Placemat 311

    Strategy sheet 2 Choose a corner 311

    Strategy sheet 3 Risk signs 312

    Strategy sheet 4 Values continuum 312

    Strategy sheet 5 Decision making model 313

    Strategy sheet 6 PNI 314


  • KEYS FOR LIFE 301 www.sdera.wa.edu.au

    Overview of teaching and learning strategies

    The teaching and learning strategies referred to in bold type throughout the five units, are described on pages 302 to 314. They can be used to deliver specific pre-driver education content and are designed:

    • to promote critical and reflective thinking, research, collaborative learning and literacy

    • to promote students’ learning and help teachers to deliver essential content

    • to accommodate differences in learning styles

    • as a suggestion, not as a complete list of strategies.

    Teachers should become familiar with the strategies, embed them in their learning and teaching practices, understand how they can be adapted, and recognise the type of learning they facilitate. Teachers are advised to use their professional judgement to review the strategies and adapt and select according to their students’ knowledge, learning styles, needs and interests. Selection should also be based on helping students maximise their achievement of an identified outcome, and to make progress in their level of understanding. It is important to model and teach a strategy and explain its purpose before students can understand when and how to apply it.

    The strategies on pages 302 to 314 have been organised into six sections according to the basic elements of an inquiry process which is fundamental for maintaining personal health, safety and well- being. The strategies that have been selected for this program represent well recognised and effective teaching practices for early adolescence, and include those reflected in the Australian Curriculum General Capabilities, Health and Physical Education learning area, Learning and Teaching Principles of the WA Curriculum Framework, and learning theories such as Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences and the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy.

    Tuning in and finding out strategies

    These strategies provide the opportunity for students to identify gaps in their existing knowledge and understanding, and work collaboratively to gather information through self-directed investigation. Students will be able to use the information gathered to generate and communicate ideas and record responses.

    Sorting out strategies

    These strategies provide the opportunity for students to sort, analyse, prioritise, compare and contrast information to further develop and consolidate their knowledge, skills and attitudes towards safer road use. Summarising key information and clarifying relationships or associations between information and ideas will assist students to draw conclusions and apply their understanding.

    Developing values strategies

    These strategies assist students to develop an awareness of their attitudes towards outcomes and ideals associated with safer road use. They provide a process whereby students can begin to learn the skill of deciding what they value, and as a consequence make choices and decisions about their actions. Values education involves students gathering knowledge and committing to personal goals, developing self- acceptance and respect for others, and appreciating their civic and social responsibilities.

    Making decisions strategies

    These strategies provide the opportunity for students to examine self-talk and how it impacts on decision- making; explore alternatives; record and analyse information; apply decision-making models; select a course of action and reflect on the consequence of their actions. Being able to make informed decisions by considering the positive and negative consequences of actions and selecting the most appropriate option, is an important skill for maintaining personal health and safety.

    Speaking out strategies

    These strategies provide the opportunity for students refine the skills of active listening, assertive communication and negotiation. By analysing situations in which two or more people are communicating, students will be able to determine ways to communicate effectively individual needs, preferences or beliefs without causing conflict. Understanding basic negotiating skills will contribute to students to becoming safer road users.

    Reflection strategies

    These strategies provide the opportunity for students to reflect individually on their learning in relation to understandings, skills, attitudes and values. Some strategies included in other sections of this resource can be adapted and used as a reflection strategy (e.g. Think-pair-share, Before and after, or Brainstorm).

  • 302 KEYS FOR LIFE www.sdera.wa.edu.au

    Tuning in and finding out


    This strategy will help students to recall and communicate existing knowledge and organise ideas; consider others’ views and ideas; and develop creative thinking processes and problem solving skills.

    1. Select a topic or pose a question for the brainstorm and write it on the board.

    2. Students consider the topic or question and respond. Ideas can be written on the board or on post-it notes so that students can later cluster the responses after the brainstorm.

    3. The rules for brainstorms are: • share whatever comes to mind - the more ideas

    the better - build on others’ ideas. • all responses are recorded - every idea counts – no

    put downs or criticisms • write ideas as said – no paraphrasing

    4. Students reflect and discuss the ideas, clarifying responses where necessary.

    5. Determine how the information can be further used.

    Card cluster

    This strategy will help students to reflect individually and share ideas with others; and generate ideas to classify, group, label and generalise upon.

    1. Give each student two or three Post-it notes® or slips of paper.

    2. Pose a problem or question related to a safety or road user issue. For example: What strategies can you use to help keep yourself safe while travelling as a passenger?

    3. Students individually write one idea on each Post-it note® or slip of paper.

    4. Students place their responses on the board then through discussion with other students, cluster them by identifying similarities. A heading can be given to each cluster of ideas.

    Circle talk

    This strategy will help students to share ideas and opinions and develop respect for others’ opinions.

    1. Place students in two concentric circles (one circle within the other). This structure facilitates dialogue between students.

    2. Have students sit or stand facing each other to encourage active listening between partners.

    3. Pose a scenario, question or issue for students to consider and discuss with their partner.

    4. Allow thinking time of approximately 15 to 30 seconds.

    5. Nominate the inside circle to start. Students in that circle share their response with their partner who listens and ask questions. Allow 30 seconds to 1 minute for sharing time.

    6. When students in the inside circle have finished sharing, the outside circle shares their thoughts with their partner.

    7. Have the outside circle rotate one or two places to the left or right. The discussion process is then repeated using either the same or new question.

    8. To debrief, discuss the ideas produced during the circle talk. List any questions that students identified to generate further learning.

    9. Variations: If the class is large in number run two circle talks. The outside circles can also be swapped to increase variation. To avoid pairing students who will not talk or may argue, deliberately move the circles so that these students do not face each other and are not singled out. If there are uneven numbers of students in the group, place two students together in the outside circle to act as one person. This variation also works well with special needs students as they can be paired with a more capable or supportive student.

    Graffiti walk

    This strategy will help students to generate ideas and cover several issues or aspects efficiently; and work collaboratively to learn from and share with others.

    1. Display the graffiti sheets around the room.

    2. After Step 4 of the graffiti strategy previously described, groups leave their graffiti sheet behind and walk to the next sheet to add and comment on prev