Overview of teaching and learning strategies 301
Tuning in and finding out
Card cluster 302
Circle talk 302
Graffiti walk 302
One minute challenge 303
Question partners 303
Rip and review 304
Head talk 304
Mind map 304
T chart 305
Y chart 305
Choose a corner 306
Human graph 306
Risk continuum 306
Values continuum 307
Values voting 307
Decision-making model 307
Hidden thoughts role-play 308
Send a problem 309
Snap decisions 309
Toss a die 310
3-2-1 reflect 310
Strategy sheet 1 Placemat 311
Strategy sheet 2 Choose a corner 311
Strategy sheet 3 Risk signs 312
Strategy sheet 4 Values continuum 312
Strategy sheet 5 Decision making model 313
Strategy sheet 6 PNI 314
TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
KEYS FOR LIFE 301
Overview of teaching and learning strategies
The teaching and learning strategies referred to in bold type throughout the five units, are
described on pages 302 to 314. They can be used to deliver specific pre-driver education content
and are designed:
• to promote critical and reflective thinking, research, collaborative learning and literacy
• to promote students’ learning and help teachers to deliver essential content
• to accommodate differences in learning styles
• as a suggestion, not as a complete list of strategies.
Teachers should become familiar with the strategies,
embed them in their learning and teaching practices,
understand how they can be adapted, and recognise
the type of learning they facilitate. Teachers are
advised to use their professional judgement to review
the strategies and adapt and select according to
their students’ knowledge, learning styles, needs and
interests. Selection should also be based on helping
students maximise their achievement of an identified
outcome, and to make progress in their level of
understanding. It is important to model and teach a
strategy and explain its purpose before students can
understand when and how to apply it.
The strategies on pages 302 to 314 have been
organised into six sections according to the basic
elements of an inquiry process which is fundamental
for maintaining personal health, safety and well-
being. The strategies that have been selected for
this program represent well recognised and effective
teaching practices for early adolescence, and include
those reflected in the Australian Curriculum General
Capabilities, Health and Physical Education learning
area, Learning and Teaching Principles of the WA
Curriculum Framework, and learning theories such
as Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences and the revised
Tuning in and
These strategies provide the opportunity for students to identify gaps in their existing knowledge and
understanding, and work collaboratively to gather information through self-directed investigation. Students
will be able to use the information gathered to generate and communicate ideas and record responses.
These strategies provide the opportunity for students to sort, analyse, prioritise, compare and contrast
information to further develop and consolidate their knowledge, skills and attitudes towards safer road use.
Summarising key information and clarifying relationships or associations between information and ideas will
assist students to draw conclusions and apply their understanding.
These strategies assist students to develop an awareness of their attitudes towards outcomes and ideals
associated with safer road use. They provide a process whereby students can begin to learn the skill of
deciding what they value, and as a consequence make choices and decisions about their actions. Values
education involves students gathering knowledge and committing to personal goals, developing self-
acceptance and respect for others, and appreciating their civic and social responsibilities.
These strategies provide the opportunity for students to examine self-talk and how it impacts on decision-
making; explore alternatives; record and analyse information; apply decision-making models; select a
course of action and reflect on the consequence of their actions. Being able to make informed decisions by
considering the positive and negative consequences of actions and selecting the most appropriate option, is
an important skill for maintaining personal health and safety.
These strategies provide the opportunity for students refine the skills of active listening, assertive
communication and negotiation. By analysing situations in which two or more people are communicating,
students will be able to determine ways to communicate effectively individual needs, preferences or beliefs
without causing conflict. Understanding basic negotiating skills will contribute to students to becoming safer
These strategies provide the opportunity for students to reflect individually on their learning in relation to
understandings, skills, attitudes and values. Some strategies included in other sections of this resource can
be adapted and used as a reflection strategy (e.g. Think-pair-share, Before and after, or Brainstorm).
302 KEYS FOR LIFE
Tuning in and finding out
This strategy will help students to recall and
communicate existing knowledge and organise ideas;
consider others’ views and ideas; and develop creative
thinking processes and problem solving skills.
1. Select a topic or pose a question for the brainstorm
and write it on the board.
2. Students consider the topic or question and respond.
Ideas can be written on the board or on post-it notes
so that students can later cluster the responses after
3. The rules for brainstorms are:
• share whatever comes to mind - the more ideas
the better - build on others’ ideas.
• all responses are recorded - every idea counts – no
put downs or criticisms
• write ideas as said – no paraphrasing
4. Students reflect and discuss the ideas, clarifying
responses where necessary.
5. Determine how the information can be further used.
This strategy will help students to reflect individually
and share ideas with others; and generate ideas to
classify, group, label and generalise upon.
1. Give each student two or three Post-it notes® or slips
2. Pose a problem or question related to a safety or
road user issue. For example: What strategies can
you use to help keep yourself safe while travelling as
3. Students individually write one idea on each Post-it
note® or slip of paper.
4. Students place their responses on the board then
through discussion with other students, cluster them
by identifying similarities. A heading can be given to
each cluster of ideas.
This strategy will help students to share ideas and
opinions and develop respect for others’ opinions.
1. Place students in two concentric circles (one circle
within the other). This structure facilitates dialogue
2. Have students sit or stand facing each other to
encourage active listening between partners.
3. Pose a scenario, question or issue for students to
consider and discuss with their partner.
4. Allow thinking time of approximately 15 to 30
5. Nominate the inside circle to start. Students in that
circle share their response with their partner who
listens and ask questions. Allow 30 seconds to 1
minute for sharing time.
6. When students in the inside circle have finished
sharing, the outside circle shares their thoughts
with their partner.
7. Have the outside circle rotate one or two places
to the left or right. The discussion process is then
repeated using either the same or new question.
8. To debrief, discuss the ideas produced during
the circle talk. List any questions that students
identified to generate further learning.
9. Variations: If the class is large in number run two
circle talks. The outside circles can also be swapped
to increase variation. To avoid pairing students
who will not talk or may argue, deliberately move
the circles so that these students do not face each
other and are not singled out. If there are uneven
numbers of students in the group, place two
students together in the outside circle to act as one
person. This variation also works well with special
needs students as they can be paired with a more
capable or supportive student.
This strategy will help students to generate ideas and
cover several issues or aspects efficiently; and work
collaboratively to learn from and share with others.
1. Display the graffiti sheets around the room.
2. After Step 4 of the graffiti strategy previously
described, groups leave their graffiti sheet behind
and walk to the next sheet to add and comment on